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A New Hampshire Magazine 







t»JL4 — 


The Granite Monthly. 


July — December, i8gj. 

Adams, Ida G., At the End ...... 

Aid rich, Hon. Edgar, Our Northern Boundary 

A Lost Town: A Sketch of Bethlehem. George H. Moses 

An Educational Creed 

An Old Homestead, William S. Harris . . 

A Poem, Edward A. Jenks 

A Story Between Bites, Frank W. Rollins 

At the End, Ida G. Adans ...... 

Bailey, Sarah M., Hon. Cornelius Cooledge 

Barton, H. A., Croydon ....... 

Benedict, Milo, My War With the Swallows 

Our Attempt at Mansfield . . . . . 

The Friendship of Women . 

Bethlehem, A Skltch of, A Lost Town, George H. Moses 
Blaisdell, H. G., Chamber Music . 

Busiel, Charles Albert, Henrv Robinson 

Carr, Laura Garland, Contoocook River ..... 
Chaapel, Jay, The Blue Juniata: A New Hampshire Woman's Song 

Chamber Music, H. G. Blaisdell 

Chandler, Ensign Lloyd H., U. S. N., Sign Posts of the Sea: Their 

ment and use 

The Great French Failure: The Isthmus of Panama and its 

Waterway ......... 

Chesley, Charles Henry, To New Hampshire .... 

Contoocook River, Laura Garland Carr 

Cooledge, Hon. Cornelius. Sarah M. Bailey .... 

Corning, Charles R., General Eleazek Wheelock Ripley 
Courtesy, George Bancroft Griffith ...... 

Croydon, II . A. Barton 

Dale, Katharine, My Aunt's Story 
Davis. Hon. Noah, Keaksarge 



I 99 



















I ' 



42, 101, 200, 275, 321, 378 

52, 1 

52. 129, 211, 2S1 , 331 . 404 


Eastman, Hon. Samuel C, The Family at Gilje 
Echoes From Bethlehem ...... 

Eddy, Rev. Mary Baker, Woman's Rights . • . 

Educational Department, Fred Cowing . 
Examinations for Teacher's Certificates, Frank W 

Grandmother : A Precious Memory, Myra B. Lord . 
Griffith, George Bancroft, Courtesy . 

Happiness ....... 

Webster's New Hampshire Home 

Half a Century of the Electric Telegraph, Col. J. W. Robinson 
Happiness, George Bancroft Griffith ...... 

Harris, William S., An Old Homestead 

Spelling .......... 

Henniker, A Sketch of, A Pine Crowned Hill 

Herbartianism, Dr. L. R. Klemm . . . . . . , 

Historical Sketch of Henniker Academy and High School, F. L. Pugsl 
Hollis, Virginia C, Nature's Rose Call .... 

How Can You Eyer Find Me? Edward A. Jenks 

Hoyt, Charles H., Harlan C. Pearson .... 

Hunt, B. B., Then and Now ...... 

Hutt, Frank Walcolt, Resting in Hope .... 

44 Isis of Our Northland :" A Picture of Lake Sunapee, Harlan C. Pearson 

Jenks, Edward A., A Poem ........ 

Plow Can You Eyer Find Me? 

Noman's Land ....... 

The Gardens of Noddy (A Mother Song) .... 

Kearsarge, Hon. Noah Davis ....... 

Kelley, J. W., The Elementary Balance in the Common Schools 

Kenneth, Aged Two, Myra B. Lord 

Kingston, A Sketch of, The Road-Encircled Plain, George H. Moses 
Klemm, Dr. L. R., Herbartianism ...... 

Laconta, A Sketch oe, The City on the Lakes, George H. Moses 
Littleton, A Sketch of, On the Ammonoosuc, George H. Moses 
Lord, C. C, Peter and Peleg ....... 

Lord, Prof. John K.. The Relation of the Schools to Citizenship 
Lord, Myra B., Grandmother: A Precious Memory 

Kenneth, Aged Two ........ 

Molineaux, Marie A., The Story of Red Mountain (A Translation) 
Moses, George H., A Lost Town: A Sketch of Bethlehem 

On the Ammonoosuc: A Sketch of Littleton . 

The City on the Lake: A Sketch of Laconia . 

The Grange Fair by Pen and Camera 

The Pine Crowned Hill: A Sketch of Henniker 

The Road Encircled Plain: A Sketch of Kingston 

11, 281, 331, 404 
• S 2 


My Aunt's Story, {Catherine Dale 

My War With the Swallows. Milo Benedict 

Nature's Ro'se Call, Virginia C. Ho 
New Hampshire Necrology 
Abbott, John G. 

Allen, William W. 

Batchelder, Judge Chaklk 

Bennett, James . 

Berry, William H. 

Brassin, Dr. Mary L. 

Brown, Samuel F. 

Burnap, Hon. James . . 

Chase, Charles G. 

Chase, Willard D., M. D 

Clark, Col. Thomas . 

Colbath, George Albert 

Conner, Jewett . 

Cutter, Leonard Richardsc 

Davis, Joseph C. 

Dow, Edward 

Eames, Mrs. Jane Anthony 

Emerson, Luther 

Frye, Miner G. . 

Gage, Charles P. 

Gage, Isaac K. . 

Gault, John C. . 

George, Gilman C. 

Gooking, Samuel Henry 

Greeley, Merrill 

Hodgdon, William H. 

Hubbard, Luther Prescott 

Huckins, Robert L. 

Hutchins, Carlton B. 

Hutchins, Hon. Henry C. 

Jewett, Col. Elisha P. 

Knight, Francis 

Lane, Andrew L. 

Lauder, James N. 

Moody, Winfield S. . 

Morgan, Miss A. C. 

MouLTON, Hon. John C. 

Peters, Nathan . 

Prescott, Jeremiah . 

Reynolds, Rev. Grindall, D. D 

Richardson, Nathan H. 

Rogers, Daniel H. 

Sanborn, Josiah B. 

Sanborn, Dr. Thomas B. 

Thaxter, Mrs. Celia . 

;6, i 

41, 2 



New Hampshire Necrology.: 

Thompson, Mary P. 

Waldron, Rev. William H. 

Wallace, Hon. Edward 

Walworth, Caleb Clark . 

Young, Martin- E. 
Noman's Land, Edward A. Jenks 

On the A-MMOXOOSUC: A Sketch of Littleton, George H. Moses 
Ocr Attempt at Mansfield, Milo Benedict .... 
Our Northern Boundary, Hon. Edgar Aldrich .... 

Passaconway, W. S. Spencer ....... 

Pastoral Notes, Adelaide Cilley Waldron 

Pearson, Clarence Henry, The Growler ..... 
The Story of Naomi .... 
Pearson, Harlan C., Hoyt, Charles H. 

Isis of Our Northland: A Picture of Lake Sunapee 

Samson, M. C. . 

The Mills of God ........ 

Peter and Peleg, C. C. Lord 

Portrait of General Eleazer Wheelock Ripley, Ex-Governor B. F. Prescott 
Prescott, Ex-Governor B. F., Portrait of General Eleazer Wheelock Ripley 
Pugsley, F. L., Historical Sketch of Henniker Academy and High School 

Ouackenbos, John P., Sonnet to Sunapee ..... 

Resting in Hope, Frank Walcott Hutt 

Robinson, Hon. Henry, Charles Albert Busif.l 

Robinson, Col. J. W., Half a Century of the Electric Telegraph 
Rogers, Walter M., To My Brother on the Fiftieth Anniversary of Hi 
Wedding ........... 

Rollins, Frank W., A Story Between Bites .... 

Ripley, General Eleazer Wheelock, Charles R. Corning 

Samson, M. C, Harlan C. Pearson 

Sanborn, Edwin W., The Annexation of Ndronga 

School Grounds and Buildings ...... 

Sign Posts of the Sea: Their Establishment and Use, Ensign Llovd 

Chandler. U. S. N 

Sonnet to Sunapee. John D. Ouackenbos .."... 
Spencer, W. D., PASSACONWAY ....... 

Spelling, W. S. Harris 

Swaine, C. Jennie, The Singer and the Song .... 
Symposium Upon Rural Schools ...... 

The Annexation of Ndronga, Edwin W. Sanborn 

The Blue Juniata: A New Hampshire Woman's Song, Jay Chaapel 
The City on the Lakes: A Sketch of La com a, George H. Moses 
The Elementary Balance in the Common Schools, J. W. Kelley 
The Family at Gilje, Hon. Samuel C. Eastman . . 42. 101, 2 



The Friendship of Women, Milo Benedict 

The Gardens or Noddy (A Mother Song). Edward A. Jenks 
The Grange Fair by Pen and Camera, George H. Moses . 

The Great French Failure: The ISTHMUS of Panama and Its Unfin 

Waterway. Ensign Lloyd H. Chandler. U. S. X. 
The Growler, Clarence Henry Pearson ...... 

The Mills of God, Harlan C. Pearson ...... 

Then and Now, B. B. Hunt ........ 

The Pine-Crowned Hill: A Sketch of Henntker, George II . Moses 
The Relation of the Schools to Citizenship, Prof. John K. Lord 
The Road-Encircled Plain: A Sketch of Kingston. George H. Moses 
The Singer and the Song, C. Jennie Swaine ..... 

The Story of Naomi, Clarence H. Pearson ...... 

The Story of Red Mountain (A Translation), Marie A. Molineaux 

To My Brother on the Fiftieth Anniversary of His Wedding, VVal 

Rogers ........... 

To New Hampshire, Charles Henry Chesley ...... 

Waldron, Adelaide Cilley, Pastoral Notes ...... 

Wepster's New Hampshire Home. George Bancroft Griffith 
Whitney, Frank W., Examinations for Teacher's Certificate 
Woman's Rights, Rev. Mary Baker Eddy 

er M, 







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Zhc Granite flDontbl\>, 

JULY, 1894. 


S^lIovVc G ;; NHKAI ' KUCAZAK *™'° CK ««*V- Ex-Govkrnor B.F. Pa^orr! 
SAMSON, M. C. Harlan C. Pearson. 

A LOST TOWN: A SKETCH OF BETHLEHEM {Illustrated). ' George H. Moses ' 

TO NEW HAMPSHIRE. Charles Henry Chesley. 


CROYDON {Illustrated). H. A. Barton. . ' 

WOMAN'S RIGHTS. Mary Baker Eddy 

TH s™c 5L2S? ( rraW ^^' W f* ' V *"™ **■« ^ «- "/-/",«/). Ho: 


Examinations for Teachers' Certificates. 

School Grounds and Buildings. 

Entered at the post-office at Concord, N. H., as second-class matter. 
Illustrated and Printed by Republican Pres.. Association. 










Send 15 cents for Cenuine 


Also receive handsome illustrated catalogue free. Address. 

J. H. KINNEY, 2<u Dean St., Brooklyn-, X. Y. 


I HAVE offered your husband a valuable policy in the State 
Mutual Life of Worcester. If he accepts it he makes a sure pro- 
v.s.on fur his old age, and an absolute provision for you in the 
event of his death. Is it not a duty you owe your children that 
you should urge him to take this policy ? It means that you will 
he able to keep your little family together and educate them well 
if your husband should be taken away. This is not charity on 
our part, but simply a matte: of business, the details of which I 
shall be pleased to explain. 

NICHOLAS FROST, General Agenl for New Hampshire, 


: • : : CONCORD 

General Elkazar Wheelock Ripley. 

The Granite Monthly 

Vol. xvii. 

JULY, 1S94. 




By Charles R. Corning. 

Eleazar Wheelock Ripley was born in 
Hanover, New Hampshire, on the 15th 
of April, 17S2. His boyhood was 
passed there, and there he received 
such preparatory education as enabled 
him to enter Dartmouth college, from 
which he was graduated in the class of 
1800. It was peculiarly fitting that he 
should be an alumnus of that college, 
for the distinguished Eleazar Wheelock 
was his maternal grandfather, and the 
Rev. Sylvanus Ripley, who long occu- 
pied the chair of professor of divinity, 
was his father. The young man chose 
law as his profession, and entering 
diligently upon its study was duly ad- 
mitted to the bar of Kennebec county, 
Maine. At that time Maine was a part 
of Massachusetts, but exercised a strong 
influence over the affairs of the com- 
monwealth. Ripley soon gained a large 
practice, and with it came the wide 
acquaintance of men which a success- 
ful career at the bar is bound to gain. 
With talents of a diverse order, he be- 
came recognized as a political leader 
and speaker of commanding abilities, so 
that in 1S10 he was elected a member 
of the great and general court. 

His achievements at the bar led his 
constituents to place high confidence in 
his abilities, and that confidence was 

well founded. In the business of the 
legislature he took a keen interest, and 
as a debater he occupied a position 
second to no other member. The 
house had for its presiding officer 
Joseph Story, whose subsequent career 
was fitly presaged by his conduct as 
speaker, yet upon his retirement in Jan- 
uary, 1S12, to accept the appointment 
as associate justice of the supreme 
court of the United States, Ripley was 
promptly chosen as his successor. This 
was an honor of which any man might 
be proud, but in this case it was almost 
unprecedented. Merit and ability de- 
manded it, for the political heat of that 
day soon scorched small men, but in 
young Ripley the dominant party made 
no mistake. The partisanship of the 
Federalists and the Republicans was of 
an intense type, and the situation re- 
quired a leader of high intelligence and 
undoubted courage. The new speaker 
was the man for the time, and legisla- 
tion was shaped according to party 
policy. The bill for the redisricting of 
the senatorial districts met with fierce 
opposition, yet Ripley pounded it 
through with his gavel in spite of the 
execrations of its excited opponents, 
fudge Story has left it on record that 
this house was a stormv one, and that 


the only way to despatch business was 
to so despatch it as to throw opponents 
off their guard. Ripley was an apt 
pupil in things pertaining to the prac- 
tical workings of contemporary politics ; 
he made himself- a leader of his party, 
and his party rewarded him with an 
election as state senator from the coun- 
ties of Oxford and Cumberland. A 
great change was now at hand, which 
was to remove the brilliant young lawyer 
from the scenes of his forensic triumphs, 
and introduce him on the wider theatre 
of war. 

The grievous conduct of Great Britain 
had now brought about the declaration 
of war, and Ripley espoused the cause 
of his country with an enthusiasm such 
as might be looked for in one of such 
distinguished ancestry. He bade a 
long farewell to the honors of civil life, 
and entered upon a new and untried 
profession, not as a seeker for glory 
and personal preferment, but as one 
that loved his country and sought to do 
his full duty in its service. His first 
military duties were performed along 
the eastern coast, where he did efficient 
work in strengthening the garrisons 
and in disciplining his troops, showing 
throughout a zeal and understanding 
worthy of a professional soldier. 

In the autumn of 18,12 Colonel Rip- 
ley was ordered to join the Northern 
army, commanded by General Bloom- 
field, then in quarters at Plattsburg. 

In March of the following year the 
rank of colonel was conferred on Rip- 
ley, Winfield Scott, and Gaines, names 
destined later to achieve some of the 
great and greatest glories in the annals 
of the republic. The war, up to this 
time, had lingered and languished, and 
almost famished, and national disgrace 
would have invested the land had it not 
been for the brilliant victories on the 

sea. The plan of campaign was. of 
course, the invasion of Canada, and no 
military problem ever looked easier of 

Naturally, the River St. Lawrence 
was the true object of attack, as it was 
the only connecting communication be- 
tween Upper and Tower Canada. The 
British saw their danger, and realized 
their indefensible position. They could 
not maintain themselves in Upper Can- 
ada unless the river coursed undisturbed 
to Montreal and Quebec. To close the 
river at any point would be the hopeless 
division of the British army, and the 
cutting off of all supplies. 

To illustrate the difficulties met with 
by the British in their attempts to trans- 
port munitions of war up the country. 
a letter from Sir George Prevost may 
be introduced. He tells us that the 
cost of hauling six thirty-two pound 
guns for the fleet a distance of 400 
miles through the woods in winter was 
^"2.000, and that the hauling of forty 
twenty-four-pounders under the same 
conditions cost ^_}..Soo. It is plain that 
the obstacles placed before the enemy 
were almost insuperable, many fold 
more so than those that confronted our 
army. And yet decisive engagements 
were wanting to stimulate the public 
spirit. At length the winter was gone, 
and the campaign of iS 13 began. On 
April 27. 1,600 men, under command of 
General Dearborn, assaulted the town 
of York (Toronto), capturing it and lay- 
ing it waste. Here Colonel Ripley 
fought his first battle, conducting him- 
self with bravery and coolness, and re- 
ceiving a painful wound. The excesses 
of the Americans were so outrageous 
that the general ordered Colonel Ripley 
to assume command of the place and 
to protect private property. His health 
was seriously impaired, and his wound 


caused him exceeding annoyance, but 
so strong was his spirit that neither the 
entreaties of wife nor friends could 
swerve him from the hard path of duty. 

Suffering, yet full of hope and cour- 
age, he continued at the head of his 
regiment until health, as if ashamed to 
have forsaken a soldier so brave, grad- 
ually returned. That heroes and hero- 
ism are born amid defeat and disaster 
was conspicuously shown at the Battle 
of Chrystler's Farm a few months later. 
This ignoble and imbecile action took 
place on November n, 1S13, and it 
dealt a blow to the American soldiery 
as hard and as cruel as that of Hull's 
surrender. General Boyd, with three 
brigades of regulars, attempted to crush 
the British, under General Muncaster. 
The numerical difference between the 
opposing forces was startling, for the 
redcoats numbered only eight hundred 
men. The fight was in the open field, 
thus adding severer humiliation to the 

The American plan was to capture 
Montreal, but this engagement put an 
end to further steps in that direction, 
and wisely, too ; for if three brigades of 
regulars, numbering more than two thou- 
sand men, could be routed by eight hun- 
dred British and Canadians, what chance 
could there be to open the gates of 
Montreal, even with an army thrice as 
large ? 

It was in this battle that Colonel Kip- 
ey, with his Twenty-first regiment, 
greatly distinguished himself, and con- 
tributed a degree of consolation amid the 
gloom. The contest lasted three hours, 
the troops fighting without orders, 
blindly, confusedly, and wildly, yet Rip- 
ley kept his men in hand, giving his 
orders with that calm intelligence that 
always characterized him. The fence on 
which he had taken his stand was 

knocked from under him by a cannon 
ball, but he received no injury. His 
conduct on that fatal day was the earn- 
est of professional reward, for on the 
15th of April, 1S14, he was made a 
brigadier-general in the regular armv. 

The time had certainly come when a 
reorganization of the army was impera- 
tive, and under the iron will of John 
Armstrong, secretary of war — who was 
to the War of 1S12 what Stanton was to 
the Rebellion— the change was effected. 

To those that delight in the sage say- 
ing, " Old men for council, young men 
for war," it may be instructive, as it 
certainly is curious, to note the ages of 
some of the illustrious captains brought 
forth during the war. Youth and dar- 
ing ruled the sea, years and conserva- 
tism droned on the land. The average 
age of Bainbridge, Hull, Decatur, and 
Rodgers was thirty-seven years, while 
the average age of Nekinson, Wade 
Hampton, William Hull, and Dearborn 
was fifty-eight years. It is needless to 
compare the achievements of these two 
quartettes of national defenders. Scorn 
shook her finger at the army, and laughed 
at the commanders wearing the stars. 

But the change was at hand, and two 
new major-generals and six brigadier- 
generals were gazetteered to the anxious 
country. George Izard and Jacob Brown 
won the higher rank, while Winfield 
Scott, Alexander McComb, J. A. Smith. 
Daniel Bissell, Edmund P. Gaines, and 
Kleazar W. Ripley gained the single- 

Of these soldiers, Ripley was, with 
the exception of Scott, the youngest. 
He had just attained his thirty-second 
birthday, and was now about to be en- 
trusted with the full confidence of the 
administration and the affection of his 
comrades in arms. He and General 
Scott were sent to Niagara to assist 


General Brown, who, by the by, was not 
a technical soldier, having come from 
civil life, but he had zeal and vigor, and 
loved righting. At that post the young 
brigadiers organized the troops, Ripley 
devoting all his energies to perfecting 
his men in drill and manual of anus. 

He was a great believer in the power 
of discipline, and subsequent events 
were soon to prove the soundness of his 
theory. It was precisely this detail of 
organization and thoroughness that made 
Brown's little army famous, and attached 
to it an interest and glory rarely equalled 
in the annals of military history. We 
must bear in mind the circumstances 
attending this body of men. In one 
month a large part were recruits, in the 
next all were disciplined soldiers, and 
in an incredibly short time afterwards, 
with the steadiness of veterans, they 
fought and won the most brilliant battle 
of the war. Peace soon followed, and 
with peace the army dissolved, but the 
glorious achievements of that single 
campaign assured them of lasting fame, 
and in every country other than Amer- 
ica, of jealous preservation and perpet- 
ual identity. Two small brigades of 
regulars, a few batteries of artillery, 
and a corps of volunteers composed the 
entire army. Scott commanded the first 
brigade, of 1,500 men, while Ripley 
commanded the second brigade, num- 
bering less than twelve hundred fit for 
duty. Ripley's old regiment had for its 
colonel that superb hero, James Miller. 
The total fighting strength is given at 
about thirty-five hundred non-commis- 
sioned officers and rank and file, and 
159 officers. The moment for action 
was near, and the fading glories of 
American arms were to blaze forth in 
inextinguishable colors. 

At the Battle of Chippewa General 
Ripley took no part, but at Lundy's 

Lane it was ordained that he should 
make his name imperishable. 

This famous engagement began at sun- 
set on a hot July day. and lasted far into 
the night, both sides fighting in the dark, 
directing their volleys solely by the op- 
posing Hashes. Scott's brigade opened 
the battle, his men advancing against 
odds, but he maintained his position 
though desperately pressed for more 
than two hours, when Ripley's brigade 
came running to his succor. Ripley 
was leading his men and escaped in- 
jury, though it is an interesting fact that 
nearly every officer in the American 
army was, on that night, either killed or 
wounded. Of the six generals present, 
he alone came out unharmed, although 
bullets pierced his hat, riddled his coat. 
and wounded his horse. The arrival of 
Ripley's brigade saved the American 
army from defeat, if not annihilation. 
for Scott's men, after two hours of in- 
cessant assaulting, were unable to carry 
the enemy's centre, where the battery 
was stationed. As long as the British 
cannon maintained its position, victory 
was impossible. The guns must be 
taken or defeat would be certain, and 
to Ripley was assigned the undertaking. 
And here happened that supreme act 
of gallantry that immortalized one of 
the noblest sons of New Hampshire 
and furnished to mankind an ever vivid 
lesson of sublime bravery. The mur- 
derous battery must be silenced, and 
Ripley's men must do it. General 
Brown rode up to Col. James Miller, 
and, pointing to the belching dame on 
the hill-top, exclaimed, ''Colonel, can 
you take that battery?" " I'll try, sir." 
replied the hero, and the charge began. 

Ripley himself led the Twenty-third 
on the right, to attack the enemy's left 
fiank, while Miller, with' his glorious 
Twenty-rirst, dashed through the smoke 


and darkness straight at the furnace of 
death. While the Twenty-third was en- 
gaged on the right, the Twenty-first ad- 
vanced in front, and, covered by the 
thickness of the night, came to within 
a few rods of the battery without being 
discovered, then with a sudden rush 
carried the guns, bayoneting the artil- 
lery men where they stood. 

This startling feat of arms was the 
more remarkable in the light that the 
subsequent official reports threw over it. 
Within a distance of rive minutes' walk 
lay 2,600 British soldiers, yet so bold 
was Miller's onslaught that General 
Urummond was paralyzed, and before 
he recovered his mind Ripley came up, 
and the battery was captured. Three 
times the enemy formed and advanced 
to retake their lost position, and three 
times they retreated. "We having much 
the advantage of the ground, the enemy 
generally tiring over our heads," said 
Captain McDonald, of Ripley's staff; 
"but the continual blaze of light was 
such as to enable us distinctly to see 
their buttons." During this midnight 
slaughter General Ripley sat on his 
horse, in the centre by the captured 
cannon, only a few feet in the rear of 
his line, with officers and men falling 
by his side, yet a kind fate jealously 
shielded him. But the cost of this un- 
seen battle of the gloom had been great, 
and General Brown withdrew the vic- 
torious but exhausted troops. Ripley 
and his devoted men, hungry and pant- 
ing, reached camp soon after midnight. 
only to be ordered back to the battle- 
field "to meet and beat the enemy if he 
again appeared." To this extraordinary 
order Ripley said not a word, but it did 
seem strange to him, as it did to others. 
that General Brown should undertake 
to do with half an army what he had 
been unable to do the night before 

during the flush of victory. The British 
cannon, captured after so terrible a 
struggle, had through mistake been left 
on the held, and General Ripley was 
sent out to complete the sadly neglected 
work. Setting forth at daybreak, with 
such available men as he could collect, 
Ripley marched to the scene of con- 
flict, but a careful reconnoisance con- 
vinced him that an engagement would be 
fought with peril, therefore he withdrew 
his troops to the American camp. 

If General Drummond had only ven- 
tured a battle success would almost 
surely have attended him, but his ex- 
periences of American valor made him 
curiously cautious, and he suffered the 
opportunity of overwhelming Ripley and 
his worn-out brigade to pass quietly by. 
The American army had now reached a 
condition bordering on collapse, and the 
immediate future was anything but 
secure. General Brown had crossed 
the river, and was nursing his wound in 
Buffalo ; General Scott was in the hands 
of the surgeons, and the command de- 
volved upon Ripley. A liberal amount 
of caution was one of Ripley's charac- 
teristics, so he prudently marched his 
army from the neighborhood of Lundy's 
Lane, and took up his position at Fort 
Erie, where he threw up defences and 
prepared to meet the advancing enemy. 
But burning bridges and other obstacles 
impeded Drummond's coming, so that 
when he came in sight of the fort he 
recognized the strength of the place and 
the difficulties in the way of its capture. 

It was at this time that a serious mis- 
understanding arose between Generals 
Brown and Ripley, and in one form or 
another continued through many years. 
An impartial reading of the history of 
this campaign makes Broun act un- 
justly, if not harshly, toward Ripley, 
" who," as Henrv Adams savs, " although 


his record was singular in showing only 
patient, excellent, and uniformly suc- 
cessful service, leaned toward caution, 
while Brown and Scott thought chiefly 
of fighting." Brown, in his anger, 
wrote to the secretary of war that Rip- 
ley was wanting either in courage or 
capacity. This unfounded charge he 
subsequently withdrew, but his confi- 
dence in his subordinate was gone, and 
General Gaines was summoned from 
Sackett's Harbor to take command, 
whereupon Ripley returned to his 
brigade. The British had now arrived 
before Fort Erie, and set about invest- 
ing it. 

For nearly two months there were as- 
saults, sorties, and bombardment, but no 
decisive advantage was gained by either 
side. A shell having wounded General 
Gaines, Ripley once more took command, 
holding it up to the hour when, on the 
17th of September, while leading a 
charge, he received a musket ball in the 
neck, and was carried back into the works 
in a dying condition. The wound caused 
endless and excruciating sufferings, and 
to the day of his death he was not free 
from pain. In February, 18 15, he had 
been able to proceed only as far as 
Albany, so serious was the nature of his 

Notwithstanding- the drawing to a 

© © 

close of the war, Ripley, burning with 
humiliation at the treatment he had 
received at the hands of Brown, de- 
manded a court of inquiry, a proceeding 
strenuously opposed by those high in 
authority. A court, however, was at 
last convened, consisting of Generals 
Dearborn and Bissell and Major Por- 
ter, but its sittings were cut short by an 
order from the president, and it was 
forthwith dissolved. 

It is not within the scope of this 
sketch to probe the reasons that caused 

this singular action; it only needs to be 
said that General Ripley suffered no 
diminution of esteem, either in the offi- 
cial or in the public mind. On the an- 
niversary of the day preceding the Bat- 
tle of Lundy's Lane, a major-general's 
commission by brevet was conferred 
upon him, and later, the state of 
Georgia gave him a vote of thanks. 
New York not only thanked him, but 
presented a sword ; while Congress gave 
both its thanks and a gold medal, on 
which was inscribed, "Niagara," "Chip- 
pewa," and " Erie.'' 

In accordance with an act of con- 
gress the reorganization of the army 
was carried out in April, 1815. The 
country was divided into two military 
districts, north and south, and into nine 
departments, five in the first, and four 
in the second district. Brown took the 
northern district, with Ripley and Mc- 
Comb as brigadiers, while Jackson took 
the southern district, with Scott and 
Gaines. The entire army consisted of ten 
thousand men, and was made up of eight 
regiments of infantry, one of rirlemen, 
one of light artillerv, together with a 
corps of engineers. General Ripley 
was enthusiastic in the love and devo- 
tion for his calling, and his superior 
intellect and military renown won for 
him an enviable place in the affections 
of his countrymen, but ill health, aggra- 
vated by his savage wound, compelled 
him to relinquish all hope of further 
service in the army, and on February 1, 
1820, he reluctantly and sorrowfully 
resigned his commission. 

From this time until his death, nine- 
teen years later, Ripley gave himself to 
his first love, and diligently practised 
law in a state widely separated from the 
scenes of hib early professional vic- 
tories. Strangely enough, he chose 
Louisiana as his residence, taking up 


his abode in New Orleans, where he 
soon gained a wide and distinguished 
clientage. . . . His remarkable ver- 
satility was not dulled by his military 
service or by his change in surround- 
ings, for he was soon elected a state 
senator, representing the same views 
and maintaining the same political prin- 
ciples he had done years before in Mas- 

He was a sturdy and consistent Dem- 
ocrat, being one of the strictest disciples 
of the Jacksonian school. That he 
served his party well and fulfilled the 
conditions of political trust was shown 
by his election to Congress in 1S34. 
And in 1836, when the roll was called 
in the house, Ripley found himself in 
illustrious company, for among the 
members were Franklin Pierce, John 
Quincy Adams, Caleb Gushing, Samuel 
Hoar, Abbott Lawrence, John A. Wise, 
Cave Johnson, and John Bell, while pre- 
siding over its deliberations as speaker 
was James K. Polk. 

In the senate were Webster, Clay, 
Calhoun, Benton, Prentiss, Wright, Bu- 
chanan, Crittenden, Hubbard, Ewing, 
and King. 

This was an exciting congress, for 
nullification, supported by many of 
those occupying high official station, had 
given grave unrest to the public mind, 
and had threatened to disturb the 
foundations of the republic. Political 
affairs had not so adjusted themselves 
as to relieve the people from the dan- 
gers that threatened them. The doc- 
trines of Calhoun were not crushed, and 
they soon came to the front in another 
form. The debates of that period do 
not show that General Ripley took the 
part that one has reason to look for 
when the breadth of his experience in 
legal, military, and political affairs is 
taken into account. 

He spoke rarely and briefiy. His 
silence at so momentous an epoch can 
only be explained by the condition of 
his health, for a mind so vigorous, and 
an ambition so aggressive, could only be 
restrained by causes too inexorable to 
be conquered by the will. 

His party allegiance was never ques- 
tioned, and he continued, throughout, a 
strict adherent to the doctrines taught 
by Jefferson and to the practical poli- 
tics espoused by Jackson. 

Thus he bore himself during his short 
career in the house of representatives. 

It is not necessary to seek for an 
explanation concerning the political 
course of General Ripley, but his thor- 
ough identification with extreme south- 
ern views is certainly interesting. 

In ancestry, education, and mode of 
thought he and the citizens of his sec- 
tion might seem to be mental antipodes, 
yet he served them and their cause 
with a zeal and fidelity that would have 
been commendable in one to the manor 
born. Ripley had seen so much of 
practical and every day life that he had 
little patience and less confidence in 
those who sought to change the accus- 
tomed order of things by sentiment and 
theories. Besides, he was essentially a 
man of action, though prone to exercise 
a well considered caution in the steps 
he took. He was a man of catholicity 
of mind and a firm believer in the 
future greatness of his country. He 
voted for adequate public appropriations, 
and spoke more than once on the neces- 
sity of dealing liberally with the growing 
needs of the West. In him the army 
had a friend, and he stood ready to 
flight for its interests. Soldiers are 
generally poor speakers, but Ripley 
was a brilliant exception, for he was 
rluent of speech and copious in illustra- 
tion, and he brought to his brief work 



in congress, the logic and forceful elo- 
quence that had characterized his early 
days at the bar and in the Massachu- 
setts legislature. 

Then, as now, investigations, mere 
dragnet proceedings entered upon in 
the hope of bringing to the surface some- 
thing not really looked fur, were in full 
favor, so Wise, of Virginia, introduced 
a resolution calling for information 
concerning the workings of the execu- 
tive departments. Whereupon a brisk 
debate sprung up. Congressman Rip- 
ley had this to say on the subject : "As 
a member from Louisiana, I raise my 
voice against the original resolution if no 
other man does, for it is entirely with- 
out precedent in the history of this 
government. It goes directly to im- 
peach the integrity of the president 
(Jackson), whose correctness of conduct 
and purity has never yet been ques- 
tioned, and it proposes an exercise of 
powers extending far beyond any ever 
exercised by this house. The resolution 
is not, but it should be, specific." This 
excerpt sufficiently illustrates the mov- 
ing spirit of General Ripley's political, 
personal leanings. 

He had become intensely sectional, 
holding the same views and making the 
same arguments that Davis, Toombs. 
and Benjamin proclaimed twenty years 
later. This course does certainly seem 
strange to a man of Ripley's antece- 
dents. Sprung from the purest of Puri- 
tan stock, educated in one of the sternest 
and most famous of New England col- 
leges, surrounded by influences hostile 
to slaver}-, devoting the golden years of 
his life to the defense of liberty, yet, as 
a legislator in the halls of congress, we 
find him one of the most inexorable and 
ardent pro slavery men of his time. It 
would be useless to seek the causes that 
led to this result, but from what we 

know of his integrity and moral cour- 
age, it must be assumed that he acted 
according to his conscience and under- 
standing. To statesmen of this school, 
the right of petition touching the sub- 
ject of slavery was unconstitutional, and 
Ripley was in the fore ranks of those 
that held that monstrous doctrine. 
It was during his congressional term 
that John Quincy Adams began that 
magnificent combat with the dragon 
that will prolong his memory, and add 
undying lustre to his distinguished 
name. Here were two men born and 
bred under the same severe conditions 
of society, both had achieved signal dis- 
tinction in civic and public life, yet 
they stood as far apart on this great 
question as their ancestors stood from 
the kings whom they fought for the self- 
same right of personal liberty. Early 
in 1836 began the irrepressible conflict, 
and into the lists leaped a third Puritan, 
young in years, but, intellectually, the 
superior of both Adams and Ripley, 
Caleb Cushing. Petitions, praying for 
the abolition of the slave trade in the 
District of Columbia, had been pre- 
sented to Congress before this time, but 
they had aroused no suspicion and 
were soon forgotten, but the public 
mind had become agitated with slavery 
aggression, and the South was now 
sensitive to the quick. To Adams had 
fallen the real mission of his life, and 
he kindled the unquenchable flame. 
flinging faggot upon faggot, until the 
whole continent was ablaze. Prom the 
debates of that congress two brief 
speeches may be selected in order to 
show the attitude of Cushing and Rip- 
ley on the portentous question of the 
right of petition, and to illustrate the 
divergent views of two highly en- 
dowed men, sprung from the same 
stock, yet differing so widely about the 


abstract proposition that all men are 
created equal. And here it may be 
pertinent to suggest that a casual per- 
usal of the subsequent career of Cush- 
ing may not be unprofitable, inasmuch as 
his constant and astonishing changes in 
opinion furnish an object-lesson of puz- 
zling interest. On the 25th of January, 
1836, Gushing presented an anti-slavery 
petition, and boldly proceeded to make 
a speech relative thereto. He was a 
speaker of rare powers, and the reluc- 
tant house gave its attention. 

"Mr. Speaker: This is a petition for the 
abolition of slavery and of the slave trade in 
the District of Columbia. It is respectful in 
its terms, being free from the offensive ex- 
pressions and reflections contained in some 
of the petitions on the same subject hereto- 
fore presented. It is signed by inhabitants 
of Haverhill, in the state of Massachusetts, 
and among the subscribers are the names of 
citizens of that state whom I know person- 
ally, whom I vouch to be highly respectable, 
and who, whether mistaken or not in their 
views, are assuredly actuated by conscientious 
motives of civil and religious principles. 
They are constituents of mine ; they have 
transmitted it to me, and by desiring me, as 
their representative, to present it, and under 
the circumstances, much as I have depre- 
cated such a commission and reluctant as I 
am to be instrumental in the introduction of 
any matter of excitement upon this floor, I 
cannot permit myself to hesitate in the dis- 
charge of this painful duty, believing, as I 
do, that it is the constitutional right of every 
American, be he high or low, be he fanatic 
or be he philosopher, to come here with his 
grievance, and to be heard upon it by this 

This must be accepted as the un- 
doubted honest conviction of the brill- 
iant member from Massachusetts, and 
it was met by Ripley, later in the year, 
when similar petitions had been intro- 
duced, by these sentiments : 

"This is a grave and important question. 
There is no subject of greater interest in the 
quarter of the country from which I come. 
I have been sent here to oppose every effort 
of a certain class of citizens in reference to 
slavery in the District of Columbia and else- 
where. In disposing of the question before 
the house, care should be taken rather to 
allay the public feeling than to add to exist- 
ing excitement. This question is a solemn 
one, and has been from the time of Magna 
Charta to the present moment. 

Our citizens have a right to petition for a 
change of their constitution, and indeed for 
a change in their form of government. 
Every decorous memorial should be received, 
but when received, it is in the power of the 
house to dispose of it as it may seem proper. 
The motion to reject the petition was an 
incipient question, and should take prece- 

He again adverted to the excitement 
created throughout the South by these 
incendiary petitions, and dwelt upon the 
importance of promptly and thoroughly 
putting the subject to rest. Continuing, 
he said, — 

"If the gentlemen from the North are sin- 
cere in their friendship for their brethren of 
the South and are desirous of breaking down 
the double wall of partition between these 
two sections of the country, they could give 
an earnest on the present occasion by 
voting promptly to reject the petition, and 
when it shall go forth that we have rejected 
it by a vast majority, it will have an effect 
even upon the fanatics themselves, who do 
not understand the position and the feelings 
of the South on this subject, while it will, at 
the same time, allay the existing excitement 
in that section of the country.** 

This speech was delivered on the 
18th of December. 1S36. and a careful 
search of the congressional records of 
that period brings to light no further 
utterances from the Louisiana congress- 
man. Enough has been quoted to 
identify General Ripley with the people 



among whom he lived; he had cast his 
lot with them and had become one of 
them. He delivered a short speech on 
the subject of fortifying the western 
frontier, in which his comprehensive 
knowledge of army needs is demon- 
strated, and concurred in by the house. 
During his service in congress he was 
a member of the judiciary committee, 
and there he found as one of his associ- 
ates, his fellow-compatriot, Franklin 
Pierce. His health, which had long 
been uncertain, had now become com- 
pletely shattered, and the end was 
drawing near. Yet this brave and up- 
right man was tortured to the last by 
the slow if not unjust adjudication of 
his military accounts — matters that 

might have been settled years before 
stood like pestilential ghosts in his path 
and would not down. 

His only son was dead, brutally slain. 
and the days grated and ground as they 
glided on. 

The old wound brought from the 
glacis of Fort Erie vexed him sorely; 
relief there was none, yet worldly hon- 
ors eagerly awaited him. It was too 
late. On the second day of March, 
1S39, on his plantation in West Feli- 
ciana parish, Louisiana, he died, and 
there he was buried, with military hon- 

He was married to Love, daughter of 
the Rev. Thomas Allen, of Pittsheld, 
Mass., on the 13th of July, 1S11. 

By Ex-Governor D. F. Prescott. 

The portrait of Major-General Eleazar 
Wheelock Ripley, which is presented in 
connection with the foregoing article, 
prepared with so great care and ability, 
was taken from an original oil painting 
of him, now in the gallery in Dartmouth 
college. The writer has been invited 
by the publishers of this magazine to 
give a short history connected with this 
portrait, and how it came to be the 
property of the college. The facts in 
reference to the finding and securing of 
many portraits now in the same gallery, 
and also in the collections in Phillips 
Academy, in Exeter, and in our state 
house, if fully written and published, 
would afford much interest and amuse- 
ment to those interested in such matters, 
if not to others. Somewhere near 1S77 
the writer was actively at work in secur- 
ing the likeness of different prominent 

persons, principally for the three now 
large collections above named. The 
effort was commenced to ascertain, if 
possible, whether there was a likeness 
of him in existence, and if one was 
found who would give it to Dartmouth 
college. Correspondence with people in 
various sections of the country was 
entered upon, and for a while without 
obtaining any information. 

Finally a post-master in Louisiana, 
where General Ripley once lived, or in 
the locality, was addressed to give any 
and all information he was able in refer- 
ence to the subject. The name of that 
gentleman is not now before me, though 
I have no doubt his reply is among the 
thousands of letters in my possession in 
connection with this work. He gave 
tile name of Mrs. A. W. Roberts, of 
Bayou Sara, a person connected with 


r i 

the Ripley family, and one, who in all 
probability could give me such informa- 
tion as I desired. By letter, I thanked 
him for his politeness, as he had given 
me the first ray of light I had seen. I 
at once addressed a letter to Mrs. 
Roberts, making inquiries, explaining 
fully all matters and stating the object 
of the letter. In a short time I received 
a reply, in which Mrs. Roberts said that 
she had an excellent oil painting of 
General Ripley in military costume, 
that her mother was his second wife, 
and after his death she married again, 
and by that marriage she was born, and 
since her mother's death the portrait of 
General Ripley had been sacredly cared 
for by her. I had no means of know- 
ing, or did not know the ability of the 
owner to give it, or a copy, to the 

A correspondence, however, was en- 
tered upon, and the result was that she 
decided to give the original to the 
"Trustees and Alumni of Dartmouth 
College." The portrait having been 
rescued from a fire, was injured slightly. 
The frame in which it was placed was of 
poor quality, and she desired to present 
it in a new frame with the canvas re- 
stored. She was a widow with four 
small children, very limited in means. 
There was no artist or frame-maker 
nearer than New Orleans, which was one 
hundred and fifty miles away. For 
awhile the matter rested, for the reason 
that one of Mrs. Roberts's letters had 
been mislaid by the writer. Early in 
the winter of 1SS1, probably in the 
month of February, in company with 
Col. J. E. Pecker, of the Boston Journal^ 
I went on a trip south, and before re- 
turning went to Xew Orleans, where we 
remained for three weeks. While on 
the trip, and soon after we started, Mrs. 
Roberts addressed me another letter 

from Xew Orleans, stating that she had 
left Bayou Sara, and was then living at 
Xo. 639 Carondelet street. That letter, 
as soon as received, was forwarded to 
me at the hotel where I was to stop. 
On our arrival the letter, with others, 
was handed to me. 

This was in the morning, and as soon 
as I made arrangements I started on a 
street car to rind Mrs. Roberts, whose 
address was in her letter. I reached the 
terminus of the railway, and was directed 
what course to take to find her resi- 
dence. After travelling some distance 
I found the number, and knocked at the 
door. The house was small, and by no 
means attractive. A lady of dignihed 
bearing and agreeable manners pre- 
sented herself at the door, and about 
her were four little children. I asked 
if she was Mrs. A. YV. Roberts. She 
replied that she was. I told her we had 
had correspondence, and she politely 
inquired who I was. I informed her, 
and was cordially received and invited 
to walk within. I did so, and stopped 
more than an hour, while the whole 
matter of General Ripley's portrait and 
his life was briefly gone over. 

On the mantel in this room was the 
portrait after which I had so long and 
anxiously searched. She said, " That is 
General Ripley's portrait, which I have 
often heard my mother say was a wed- 
ding gift to her by the general, and that 
it was a perfect likeness of him." She, 
among other things, said, 4k It ought to 
belongto Dartmouth college, with which 
he was so intimately connected, and I 
want it to be protected and cared for 
there." I assured her of the care and 
protection it would receive. I asked 
her how we could get it to Hanover. 
She replied, M You take it now out of 
the poor and unsuitable frame, carry it 
to a picture store in the city, have it 



properly packed, and forward it where 
you wish it sent, by the Southern ex- 
press. " After bidding her good-day, 
I took the portrait, followed her direc- 
tions, and had it sent to my own ad- 
dress in Concord. Early in March I 
arrived home, and soon found the por- 
trait had arrived safely. I got the 
artist, Ulysses D. Tenney, to cleanse, 
retouch, and restore the injured places, 
but no damage had been done the por- 
trait proper, only light places on the 
back-ground. It was then placed in a 
fine gilt frame and forwarded to the 
Dartmouth gallery, where it has since 
been, and from which the likeness here 
appearing was taken. The above is 
an imperfect, rambling sketch from 

Mrs. Roberts, in presenting it to the 
college, wrote an account of General 
Ripley, and as it is so interesting and 
accurate it has been thought proper to 
print it here, as it has never before 
been published, at least in the form in 
which it here appears. It was because 
of the limited means of Mrs. Roberts, 
and her distance at the time from Xew 
Orleans, that it was not forwarded by 

Bayou Sara. La., July 30, 1880. 

To the Trustees and Alumni of Dartmouth 
College, Hanover, iVezu Hampshire. 

Respected Gentlemen: Through your 
honored state executive and associate, 
ex-Gov. B. F. Prescott, I have the honor of 
transmitting to you, for this old and venerated 
institution of the Granite state, this treasured 
heirloom, which has been in our family for 
fifty years. It is with no little pride, but 
much pleasure, with many pangs of sadness, 
I give this, the portrait of General Eleazar 
Wheelock Ripley, and part with it forever. 
It is associated with my earliest recollection, 
and as I have prized and taken care of it, I 

now commend it to you r keeping, hoping 
that it will meet with the same attention. 
This is the portrait of one of the distin- 
guished men of the United States. New 
Hampshire bears the honor of giving him 
birth, and Dartmouth of educating him : then 
certainly she has the last right to this relic. 
It was presented to my mother, his wife, as 
a bridal gift in 1S50. and by her treasured 
until her death in 1S66. It was always her 
intention to present it either to a portrait 
gallery in Washington city or Xew Orleans, 
so I feel that I am carrying out what would 
be approved by her. 

The dress in which this is taken was made 
in England. In 1S57 this portrait came very 
near being destroyed. It was moved from 
the room in which the fire originated, by a 
colored man, very much scorched. 

I deem it quite an honor to be called upon, 
and to have it in my power to bring to view 
this glorious, brave man's face and recall his 
valorous deeds forty years after his death. 
facts to enlighten the world that have been 
hidden from sight all that time. 

General Ripley was born in Xew Hamp- 
shire in 17S2, graduated from Dartmouth 
college in 1800. He was the son of Rev. 
Sylvanus Ripley, who graduated at this same 
institution in 1771. He married the daugh- 
ter of President Wheelock of Dartmouth, the 
mother of this hero. After graduating Gen- 
eral Ripley commenced the practice of law in 
Maine. The War of 1S12 breaking out. he 
raised a company and offered their services 
as their captain. When only nineteen he 
became colonel from his great ardor and 
achievements. He was promoted to briga- 
adier-general when only 22 years of age. 

The battles of Bridgewater, Chippewa. 
Lundy's Lane, and the sortie of Fort Erie 
were all his victories. At the last named 
battle he received a wound through the neck 
from which never recovered, having to wear 
a seaton as long as he lived. The ball 
passed between the windpipe and the jugular 
vein. He was left for dead on the field. 
When his coat collai was unfastened the ball 
rolled out. It was upon this battle that 
peace was declared between Great Britain and 


l 3 

the United States. The state of New York 
presented him with a gold sword as a merit 
for the services he had rendered her. Con- 
gress awarded a gold medal as a memento 
from the United States. 

After peace was declared he was put in 
Souther's command, where he remained for a 
number of years, when he resigned and 
resumed the practice of law. Then he retired 
to his plantation •• Wheelock," near Clinton. 
East Feliciana, Louisiana, where he resided 
until his death in 1839. He was the senior 
partner of Hon. Charles X. Conrad, who 
died honored and loved two years since. 
Thereafter he was a partner of Gen. S. VV. 
Downes, who was U. S. senator from this 
state, being considered one of the best crim- 
inal lawyers in this section. 

His rirst wife was Miss Love Allen of 
Maine. She died with yellow fever in 1S2S, 
at Bay of St. Louis, Miss., leaving a son and 
daughter. The son, Henry Dearborn Rip- 
ley, belonged to Colonel Farming's compar- 
and was one of those twenty-one young men, 
shot by order of Santa Anna, at Goliad, 
whom he promised to release. 

His second and last wife was Mrs. Aurelia 
Davis, the widow of Dr. Benn Davis, an 
elder brother of Hon. Jefferson Davis, and 
niece of Luther L. Smith, Esq., of West 
Feliciana parish, at whose residence they 
were married, by General Dawson, on July 
28, 1830. She was twenty-seven years of 
age, very beautiful and intelligent. On the 

third anniversary of their marriage a daugh- 
ter was born, who died exactly one year 
from her birth, July 2S, 1S34, making three 
anniversaries on the same day. 

In 1833, General Ripley was elected to 
congress. In iS 37 he was re-elected. 
Becoming a lunatic, his wife brought him 
home early in 1 S 3 7 , with the aid of a faith- 
ful colored man-servant. She nursed him 
until his death, which was two years after- 
ward, thus fulfilling the promise made him, 
that should he ever become deranged she 
would not permit him to be put in an asylum. 
He died March 1, 1839, an ^ at his request 
was buried by the side of his little daughter, 
where they now rest, with simple headstones, 
on Locust Grove plantation, seven miles 
from Bayou Sara, West Feliciana, the resi- 
dence of Mrs. Judge Boyle, where he was 
last married. Fifteen months after his 
death his wife married her cousin, Thomas B. 
Smith, and I am their daughter. It was my 
father that had the stone placed at his grave. 
My mother was his amanuensis, and prepared 
all his speeches for the press, — Xiles" regis- 
ter, after they were delivered — dictated by 
him. His seat was unoccupied for two 
terms of congress. I am the nearest and 
only connection left to transmit to posterity 
the history of this great man. Hoping I 
have not trespassed too long on your time, I 
am, gentlemen, with great respect, 

Mrs. Lucy Ann Smith Roberts. 


By Harlan C. Pearson. 

Langdon Flint was a pure product of 
the great West. Born in the midst of 
a prairie that stretched from sunrise to 
sunset, the foundation of his character 
was as broad and grand as his environ- 
ment. Out of the depths of the past 
his Puritan ancestors sent him un de- 
filed the glorious strength of their con- 
victions. The blizzards that howled 

from the northwest breathed into his 
veins courage, power, endurance. 

Like a hundred American leaders 
since Lincoln, he fought his way alone. 
Day after day, as he sat behind the 
four great horses that dragged the 
plough, the harrow, and the harvester, 
he thought iong and earnestly of the 
books that he had pored over the 



night before by the dim light of a 
kerosene lamp. Presently he voiced 
his thoughts to the horses ; who replied 

to the deep, musical tones only by a 
switch of the tail or a pricked-up ear. 

After many years a tidal wave of polit- 
ical unrest flowed, as if by magic, over 
the great mass of the western people. 
None knew its origin, none could trace 
its course, few dared prophesy its end. 
Upon its crest floated in triumph flot- 
sam and jetsam, human debris; but 
its onward rush was irresistible, over- 

It bathed Langdon Flint in its inspir- 
ing flood. Moved, as was the great 
Greek against the Macedonian invader, 
he spoke to the people of his county. 
The words that the horses had heard 
unmoved stirred to the heart these hon- 
est farmer-folk. They answered back 
his watchwords with a might}- cry of 
triumph. They sent him to congress 
by ten thousand majority. 

In Washington he was very silent for 
a time, puzzled by the intricate prob- 
lems on every side. But as the light 
came he spoke. Soon members came 
to know that the fresh, young voice 
which rang with new life through the 
vitiated chamber was not idly used. 
The honest men of the house, and 
there were many, gathered round him 
when he spoke. The galleries ap- 
plauded his defence of the right and 
the true. 

Meanwhile, in debate and through 
their purchased press, the ringsters 
mocked him ; as they do all outside 
their ranks whom they dare not 
scourge and cannot crush. But pres- 
ently some of the rank and hie grew 
restive under the lash of his words. 
Then the leaders listened, observed. 
and saw that Flint was likely to become 
a power. Some of the senators who 

wore the brand came over from the 
other wing of the Capitol, and after 
careful watching, agreed that he was 

Hence a telegram to a certain great 
personage at New York, — 

"Come to Washington and hear Flint 
to-morrow. Important.* 1 

The great personage came and held 
a miniature levee upon the floor of the 
house. But when Flint arose to speak, 
he dismissed his hirelings with a wave 
of his fat hand, and settled himself for 
attention. The young orator reached 
his highest mark that day. With force, 
eloquence, and wit, he denounced exist- 
ing methods of taxation, and proposed a 
new plan that should equalize burdens, 
destroy legalized robbery, and prevent 
enormous and unjust wealth accumula- 
tion. When he had finished, the great 
personage sat in meditation for some 
minutes, one beringed finger scratching 
his double chin. Then he said to his 
lieutenants, "Leave him to me.'' To 
himself and to his note-book he said. 
" Send Marie.'' 

Marie was, without exaggeration, one 
of the most beautiful women in the 
world. She was ever perfect in gown, 
in temper, and in tact; wise and witty, 
too — in short, adorable. Life was for 
her a game of billiards, — men's hearts 
and hopes the balls ; the power of 
wealth and beauty, the cues ; the cost, 
her soul. 

Flint noticed her first in the private 
gallery, where she sat, listening intently, 
whenever she heard he was to speak. 
After a time he received a note asking 
him to call at her hotel. When he 
came, somewhat on his guard, she did 
not dazzle him at once by the display 
of her charms, as she sometimes did 
her victims. She was very quiet and 


subdued in both dre>s andnianner. and 
turned all the conversation upon his 
one mania, political economy. She 
was trying to study the subject, she 
told him, but it was very hard to under- 
stand : and would he kindly explain to 
her one or two points he had touched 
upon in his speeches ? Of course he 
would, and did, with wearisome detail 
and figures; to all of which Marie duti- 
fully listened with grave and serious at- 
tention. And only once, just as he 
was taking his leave, did she turn her 
glorious eyes full upon his. The young- 
westerner had never known the intoxi- 
cation of love. For the first time a 
burning glance from beauty's eyes kin- 
dled his blood, and sent it hotly rioting 
through his veins. He forgot politics. 
the place, himself: — the white-haired 
negro at the open door recalled him to 
his senses. 

Facilis~ descensus amoris as well as 
Averni, and Flint soon found the brakes 
of his will unable to cope with its steep 
grade. With Marie he walked, talked, 
and drove; with her and her "aunt" 
he occupied a box at the theatre, and, 
dining with them at Chamberlin's, 
learned to listen with pleasure to the 
popping of champagne corks. His 
congressional duties were neglected ; 
his expenses far outran his income ; 
thought, conscience, the future, were 
buried in the Mood of his madness. 
Meanwhile the velvet pa v. s that so 
daintily caressed him gradually un- 
sheathed their claws. 

One afternoon Marie dismissed her 
carriage, and they walked home together 
from the matinee. Passing a jeweller's 
window, the glow of a magnificent ruby 
caught her eye. -'Oh, what a beauty ! " 
she exclaimed, calling Flint's attention 

to the jewel. " How I wish it were 
mine!" They turned away and talked 
of other things, but Flint could not dis- 
miss the glitter of the gem from his 
mind. He could see just how its 
molten fire would gleam against the 
velvet whiteness of her throat. He 
knew that he could not buy it fur her — 
he, worse than penniless. But its fas- 
cination drew him irresistibly back to 
the jeweller's, and the ruby blazed up 
at him with mocking beauty when the 
dapper clerk read its price-mark, eight 
hundred dollars. Flint pushed away 
the velvet casket with a sigh, turned his 
back upon it resolutely, and that night 
attacked his long accumulating corres- 
pondence with old-time vigor. 

The next day a messenger brought to 
his room a brooch in which the gem he 
had admired was daintily set, and a 
note signed by the great personage. 
which said, " Your friendship is worth 
more to me than many of these baubles." 

Six months before Flint would have 
returned the bribe with scornful indig- 
nation. Now he hesitated ; and was 
lost. The innate, rugged honest}-, that 
all his life had strengthened and 
upbuilt, fought a deadly fight with the 
feelings that are the strongest in strong 
men. The picture of a beautiful woman 
in languorous pose, with white teeth 
gleaming between red lips, turned the 

That afternoon Flint lunched with 
Marie, and fastened the jewel, so dearly 
bought, about her neck. That night 
with flushed face and heavy eyes he 
stumbled into his seat in the house, and 
voted u aye" on a ringer's bill. 

Marie, watching from the gallery, 
sent a note to a great personage. — 
•• Flint finished. Who next ? " 

The Wmte Mountains from Bethlehem. 
From n Photograph by B. II'. Kilburn. 


By George H. Most 

LOST — From the records of the Province of 
New Hampshire o.nd from the minds of 
men, the Township of Lloyd Hills. 

The township which might well thus 
be advertised had only a paper existence. 
It undoubtedly was granted, for Hol- 
land's map of Xew Hampshire gives a 
place to it ; and the charter of the town 
of Whitefield, which was granted in 
1774, makes mention of this lost town- 
ship as a boundary of the new town ; 
but beyond these there is nothing. The 
charter records of the state are silent, 
and all is conjecture. 

The government of John Wentworth, 
the last royal governor of New Hamp- 
shire, to which the township of Lloyd 
Hills owed whatever of existence it had, 
was overthrown by the outbreak of the 
Revolution, so soon after the grant was 
made that it is probable that the grantees 
made no effort to settle upon their prop- 
erty, and doubtless many of them tied 
the country with their vice-regal patron, 
for it is not likely that this lost charter 
was filled out without the usual number 
of favorite's names in the list of grantees. 

But, be this as it may, the territory of 
Lloyd Hills became the property of the 
state of Xew Hampshire, and after the 
close of the war, in 17S6, the Went- 

worth title was ignored and a sale of the 
land was authorized. It was thirteen 
years after this that a township was 
chartered to take the place of the one 
that was lost, and on the 27 th of Decem- 
ber, 1799, the general court of Xew 
Hampshire incorporated the town of 
Bethlehem, which originally occupied 
almost exactly the territory embraced in 
the lost town of Lloyd Hills. 

At this time the inhabitants, accord- 
ing to their own petition for town priv- 
ileges, numbered more than forty, and the 
community had been christened with th - 
name it now bears. 

Before this, however, the place had 
figured in the record of legislative pro- 
ceedings by the sale of the land in 1 7S6, as 
has been indicated. This sale was made 
for the purpose of securing funds Lo build 
a road from Gunthwaite (now Lisbon) to 
the White Mountain notch, and was 
carried on under the direction of Col- 
onels McMillan, Bucknam, and McDuf- 
fee, the commissioners to build the road. 
They caused four sales to take place, the 
last of these occurring in 1796, so close 
to the date of the act depriving the com- 
missioners of their powers, that the titles 
then acquired were for a long time held 
in question, and many a legal battle was 



fought in consequence. The last assault wherever the coveted spruce spread their 

on these titles was made some ten years branches, the sound of the axe and the 

ago by the New Hampshire Land buzz-saw proclaim the doctrine that " to 

company, who claimed ownership under the victors belong the spoils." 

a much later sale by state authority, and Governor John Taylor Gilman signed 

the question was fought to a finish in the the act of the legislature two days too 

United States courts. The counsel in late to make the town of Bethlehem a 

this case were among the most notable Christmas present to his constituents, in 

brought together in the later days of the year of our Lord one thousand seven 

New Hamp- 
shire, — Har- 
ry Bingham, 
Oilman Mar- 
ston, George 
A. Bingham, 
Irving IV. 
Drew, Ed- 
gar Aldrich, 
A. S. Batch- 
ellor, and D. 
C. Re m i ch 
appear i rig 
on one side, 
and on the 
other being 
Austin F. 
Pike, Dan- 
iel Barnard, 
William S. 
Ladd, Chas. 
H. Burns, 
William M. 
Chase, and 
F rank S . 
The land 

r -.-, 


. ■■■■ 



t - 

• ■ . 



'.■ . 1 

■ 45* 

. . - - .-- r ■ ••- 5 j 

\ ■ 

■ ■ 

hundred and 
ninety- nine, 
and on the 
fourth d a y 
of the next 
March t h e 
first t o w n 
meeting was 
held at the 
h o u s e of 
Mr. Amos 
W li e e l e r , 
a n d w a s 
marked by 
a singular 
u n a n i mity, 
c h o o s i n g 
Moses East- 
man moder- 
ator, town 
clerk, a n d 
first select- 
man. H i s 
col leagu es 
on the board 
were Capt. 
Lot Wood- 

_xl : ^ ■ '—-. . .___ Li.._« ! =_ . -. .»> -■ s f dinKM 

The Swasey R^ad 

in question was a portion of the terri- bury and Amos Wheeler, and to the 

tory lying east of Lloyd Hills, and is former of these, December 8, 1800, his 

now a part of Bethlehem, Captain John associates granted the first tavem-keep- 

Pierce having secured the annexation er's license. This document now hangs 

of a portion of it in 1S48 and the in the office of the Maplewood, a pala- 

Hon. John G. Sinclair the remainder in tial summer hotel in Bethlehem., and in 

1873. The United States courts upheld quaint language informs the reader, — 
the title under the so-called Bucknam Bethlehem* Dec. 8///, 1800. 

sales, and all along the Zealand valley, Whereas there being no tavern in said 

at the foot of the Twins and Garfield, and Town of lie tide hem and as it is highly neces- 





r I f J IIS 

. 1 XwS. IpLS'J . - ii 

i a 


ui! *isaiiiii3Tri; ;..«imb, 


From a Photograf 

sary tJiat there should be one opened for tJie 
accommodation of travelers, therefore we\ the 
subscribers do approbate Capt. Lot Woodbury 
and give him full liberty and license to keep 
tavern and accommodate travellers with 
liquors and other necessaries as the law 

Moses Eastman ") Selectmen 

Amos 11 heeler ) Bethlehem. 

i r3» | | 

i ■ ->' 

Hon. John G. Sinclair. 

air House. 

h by B. If. Kilburn. 

The high necessity which made Cap- 
tain Woodbury a Boniface, grew out of 
the increasing importance of the new- 
town as a station on the pathway of 
commerce between Portland, Me., and 
the northern portion of New Hampshire. 
The White Mountain notch was the neck 
of the bottte through which this stream 
of trade and travel poured, but through 
Bethlehem went the great volume of it, 
and it was no uncommon thing for a 
hundred or more of pungs, sleighs, and 
other conveyances to pass daily through 
the village, loaded with farm produce, 
bound for Portland, where the eggs and 
butter and cheese would be bartered for 
calico, "liquors and other necessaries," 
to use the language of Captain Wood- 
bury's license. 

This house of Captain Woodbury 
Stood at the west end of what is now 
Bethlehem Street, near where the Alpine- 
House now stands, and it was a famous 
tavern for man)- a day. The proprietor 
— 'Squire Woodbury as they called him 
— was the leading man of the place, and 
the town meetings were held at his 
house fur many years. Hotel-keeping 




The Mapl 

must have become ingrained in his stock, 
for one of the most popular of the pres- 
ent hotels of the place was till quite 
recently managed by a grandson of the 
town's first landlord, and the children 
of the latter are now "mine hosts.'' 

The days of Capt. Lot Woodbury's 
prime were prosperous days for Bethle- 
hem. Traffic swelled ; the state of Maine 
with fostering care appropriated money 
to build roads in Xew Hampshire over 
which trade went to Portland; a stage- 
line was established, with Bethlehem on 
its route ; more taverns set themselves 
up beside 'Squire Woodbury's ; a chair 
factory was established by Capt. John 
Pierce — and to his credit be it said that 
he made it pay; a church, two churches 
were built, the Ammonoosuc was 
bridged, other internal improvements 
were projected, and Bethlehem prided 

itself as having a boom. It was before 
these palmy days were ended that the 
signs of the clays to come appeared. 
The everlasting hills among which this 
village had been set out, began to 
assert themselves, — their beauty, their 
novelty, their wonders, their charm, 
were discovered, and from among the 
line of travellers passing daily through 
Bethlehem an occasional straggler fell 
from the ranks for a few days' sojourn 
in the midst of so much enchant- 
ment. These few before long had 
become many: and simultaneous with 
the town's decline in a commercial sense 
came a new importance : Bethlehem was 
a watering-place. 

The transition from the old Bethlehem 
to the new was by no means as violent 
or as marked as the words would indi- 
cate, though it was not long before the 



& • 

famous stage tavern ; it 
is certain that hoarders 
were received at Joseph 
Plummer's cottage, where 
they, genus and species. 
were curiosities ; it is cer- 
tain that John G. Sinclair 
built a house for the ac- 
commodation of the new- 
visitors; and it is certain 
that at the Turner farm 
some of the first of the 
summer inhabitants found 
place. Beyond these as- 
sertions, I am not bold 
enough to go. But all this 
was merely preliminary, 
and it was not until 1S63 
that the attention of the 
tide of summer travel had overflowed people of Bethlehem was directed toward 
the taverns and found admission in some the possibilities of their village, and any 
of the farm-houses of the neighborhood, systematic attempts were made toward 
Before long, too, a hotel was built solely its development. 

for the purpose of entertaining summer In that year the family of the Hon. 

visitors, and that in turn was followed Henry Howard of Providence (afterward 
by nearly two score others ; so that now governor of Rhode Island) was in the 
almost the only source of revenue to the mountains and a serious runaway acci- 
town, and certainly the only one for dent compelled the party to take quar- 
Bethlehem Street, is the summer traffic, ters for some time at the Sinclair House, 
"The summer boarder," sententiously which was then, writes Governor How- 
remarked a landlord, "is our best and 
biggest crop." The person who first 
"took boarders" in Bethlehem is as 
numerous as the oldest Mason or the 
first volunteer. Like the seven cities 

'• strove for Homer dead 
Through which the living Homer begged 
his bread,'" 

ard, " a small but well kept stage tavern 


•■- "' --. ■■ / 

the claimants of this honor are persist- 
ent. Far be it from me to decide so 
momentous a discussion. Doubtless 
they are all right. It is certain that 
Thomas Jefferson Spooner — as good a 
Democrat as his name implies enter- 
tained more than one tourist at his 

Pagoda Ccttagf 




. . - - . ^ r: - • ■ - 

% • ■ • 


if- -* r 



Maplewood Row. 

with a few rooms for boarders." The 
convalescence of the family was so 
remarkable, considering the nature of 
the injuries, that Governor Howard 
formed the opinion that there was an 
uncommon potency for health in the 
Bethlehem atmosphere. Revolving the 
subject in his mind during convalescence, 
and greatly impressed by the attractive- 
ness of the situation, he came to the 
conclusion that here there were great 
possibilities which had been neglected. 
Learning that the large farm known as 
the Carlton farm, lying on the north side 
of the street and extending half a mile 
northward, was for sale, he acquired it 
by purchase ; and shortly after also pur- 
chased the Brooks or Strawberry Hill 
farm, lying opposite. It was his belief 
that sooner or later the unrivalled oppor- 
tunities of the village as a summer 
boarding-place would be appreciated. 

His own appreciation was shown by 
his selling building-lots on credit, and 
by pecuniary assistance to those who 
were disposed to try their hand at hotel 

fn 187 i there came another to Beth- 
lehem whose name has since become 

indissolubly connected with the place. 
This one was Isaac S. Cruft, a merchant 
of Boston, whose business sagacity 
endorsed Governor Howard's ideas and 
led him to similar activity by the 
acquirement of a large tract of land in 
the east part of the village. On this 
property, known as Maplewood farm, 

Hon. Her-y Ho.vard. 

there was then a comfortable farm-house, 
which was remodelled <~i'^<\ opened as a 
hotel. The new resort sprang at once 



i ' ... fa 

The Altamonte. 





into favor; and after years 
of repeated enlargement, re- 
building, and refitting, the 

entire estate, now known as 
the Maple wood, is one of 
the most famous and beauti- 
ful of all the summer resorts 
of the north. During Mr. 
Cruft's life he spent much 
of his time in developing 
and advancing the interests 
of the community, though 
for more than fifteen years 
the management of the estate 
rested in the hands of his 
nephew, General George T. 
Gruft, who took up his resi- 
dence in Bethlehem and gained prominence in the affairs of the state as well. 

The people of Bethlehem 
were slow to appreciate their 
advantages, and the summer 
visitors were not held very 
high in the esteem of the 
villagers. As showing the 
attitude of some of the na- 
tives toward the tourists, it 
is related that some years 
ago a party of Harvard dons, 
among whom were Profess- 
ors Felton, Agassiz, and 
Gray, made a tour of the 
White mountains, and en- 
gaged a carriage for a drive 
along one of the charming 
roads of Bethlehem. They 
had not gone far before 
one of them jumped out to 
chip off a specimen of rock, 
another to chase a butter- 
fly, a third to gather a 
plant or fern, and so on. 
until at last nil had de- 
scended from the carriage 
with the exception of the 
driver and Professor Fel- 
ton, who cared more for 

. >/" i 

■» - • f 



. -: -rU*..^+. k>. , — - 


- - 

Srl^ ».^ • 

Majr.t V/asrirg^on H'.jsc 



Greek roots than for the 
rarest herbs or other coun- 
try messes. J elm's curios- 
ity was somewhat aroused 
at what appeared to him 
the mad antics of his pas- 
sengers, and inquiring of 


r ;< 1 

M 13 
•J (1 

the only on. left in his T^j ^ 

carriage who the people -tJ"-4?JJ ^j - J ^ i D" " -- ' , 

were, received for reply. ? '-.' , '■ ^^fr^J^'y . j ^i^3»sw ^ 

They are naturalists from 
Boston," A few days later, 
while the driver had the 
care of another party of 
tourists, lie was asked 
if he had driven any- 
body in particular late- 
ly. "Not that I know 
of," he answered. " But 
I drove a rum set of 
fellows t' other day — 
they were naturals from 
Boston, at least so their 
keeper said ! " 

When the manifest 
destiny of the town be- 
came self-apparent, the 
people of Bethlehem 


i...* - — ~>-~- House. 
From a Photograph by B. //'. K lib urn. 



I ! I 

The Bellevue. 
frow a Photograph by B. W. Kilbum. 

were willing enough to 
"accelerate matters, and 
a village precinct was 
formed, through which 
means the community 
became- supplied with 
the necessary sanitary 
and other adjuncts of 
an alluring place of res- 
idence. The unusual 
healthfulness of Bethle- 
hem has already been 
alluded to as a factor in 
directing attention to the 
place ; but when it was 
discovered that here suf- 
ferers were tree from 
that irritating and dis- 

Thc Uplands ° 

L \ 

fa »T, v-vt-v ^_»Xu.u- 

\n\ V I 




trussing malady, hay fever, a unique 
charm was added, and the adoption 
of Bethlehem as the headquarters of 

the American Hay Fever association, 
gave the place a world-wide reputation. 
Perhaps, however, the most effective 
of all the agencies by which this place 
has been brought to the public atten- 
tion, is The While Mountain Echo, a 
weekly periodical with a publication 
season of twelve weeks. M. Markin- 
field Addey, the editor of 7'he Echo, 
was first brought to Bethlehem in his 

ment and betterment of the entire 
region. 1'hc Echo was projected on a 
high plane, and has continued its work 
under conditions, set by the editor him- 
self, demanding nothing less than the 
best and producing nothing less. 

As a distinctively mountain resort 
Bethlehem is anomalous, for there are no 
mountains in Bethlehem, broadly speak- 
ing, yet the mountain views from here 
are the finest, the most varied, and 
the most extended. From almost any 
point on Bethlehem Street, and with 






&3££? i: 


Cruft Block. 

search for rest and health. That was 
twenty years ago. Two years later he- 
was there again. Since then he has 
made his summer home there. In 1S7S 
he established The Echo, and notwith- 
standing that he had lost his sight since 
his first visit to the mountains, he has 
been able to make a success of the paper 
from the very first. As a factor in 
creating the new Bethlehem, The White 
Mountain Echo must take high place. 
Nor has its value been less to the en- 
tire mountain region, for Mr. Addey 
has labored incessantly for the develop- 

greatest ease from any of the numer- 
ous observatories which crown the vil- 
lage slopes, the Franconia range, the 
Presidential range, the Dalton and 
Stratford groups of hills, and the Green 
mountains are distinctly visible, so 
high an authority as the Appalachian 
club declaring that Bethlehem's vista of 
the Presidential range is the only true 
one, that only here are the peaks re- 
vealed in their correct proportions, with 
due regard to their geographical divi- 
sions, their height, size, and shape. 
Certain it is that Mount Washington 

ssffs^ - 


r €llO 


Vol. IX— No. 10] 


it «biti aoonaiAs aa. tut Arrtaiiti 
i-«s RNUH orruu « rat pars or 
- olc> iickh; 

I-aita ihe name 
hi-b it re~.>-J 
~ ;b About ia< 
fro" of the re-eteelloa of Ihfl i'r«lj*r-. afei 


[Ten Cents. 

tLa,eeUcaU , lv Bod t 
1 defy lb- ralOCil < t 

fully. To, S >u-b 

•ere Tifti'r-J by 

(few Bampablre blUa 

rat-d hi* tnv-ia la ■ > icfc eoniM "A Sub- 
altern '• For!' u*b.- by t. T QjkB, iMutraul 
*5ch Regiment. Ble (toll occurred joet halt a 
d-ctb year.. aner -b WHIry ee tas^- ,jbe. and at 

wi*h ("uri^LA, It to rerserkably lo'-rv-c.3,r la 
read bis derer-irvioo of ibem *-. * period abeo 
th-y eere annually >-ji:<-l by tery tea .njnt- 

LieateoanlCjie »^f M»cb-d th»tn from B)*- 
too. breedllng by tu.t > :* Concord, S. H.. 
K-nslitB and Ostre Hart. .- to Coatny. fr-m 
whJCb point ae »L"l draw upon hie boot '.Jt hie 
fcBpiiaalDBB, We -ray Mar*. boaeTer. by way o! 
P»i*atbrtLi. thai m »t::jjk of Genoa Harbor 
lb* iu*b'-f informs m ton: it waa ihea ui coo- 

brt«-*o Lawe Winalp«>*'j»«e and "ibe tide 
»mtir> anj Connecticut R.»-r by s.|u*m Lake, 
two mile* to tb- BORbwaat, Rak-rA Kner »-.J a 
ehaun of poodA," aa eoter; r»- arb: -b. from :b- 
d'Srultlea of cooMraetroo, hci o>t yet. and :* 
B- -er likely to '-.a.-.- z.; Iiabed. 

It na peat the oildd.e ol Ol.l«rt 10 1*32 

r.-ul.J to era«i tb-» d— oed « ovre eacur- , i - 

ip ft b-~n Booaually -fry U.U ibeb-a-.s- ze *,: Ju jr. 

narrta pee*. •. i o,i.'«e uo l-oarth, it the n.uth- wb-o tb- cloud* eullaetu>( eh.»at 'S- av^jot«uj» 

era enj jt tb« «Tb.'» Jl •. i. •-.-.. . :b« lori«et o( f~-ur*l (ofh !b-ir *«t'ra u 'b ;-j.o t- 3 -•; 

Iwbl'b. Jf -out ^ft-bio^-o. rt 6.iU 1—t »b.'v- cAt^ o( 'bo b-wTeaa ftr-pe o^sc^l. tbo wid-J 

'b- i<r» ^( of Iha Ma. tot on o«j?b tide ol U* b!»» to mo.' l-rnS: bumoai-v a- 1 - 

(visa Ibey n»e only fr;n. 1,800 t.- 1000, at ac «!ib uoat»:-J riol»no« (or »<"<-t»1 '.Aya. yo 

angto of aS ut i^ J , ( •fTzio^ a valley lo^* (ban to<»ni^bto( tt- >^b >f tbc DOOta c^ •-a:-a'. 

ball a it J* In *i.ltb brta:-*o their c^*^*, ao-1 locreaaed to a fearful extect. tha I.^b'.ajujr 

■i >«o wb. b Ihe r-jartna- S»» t»«e» iUi c-or—. C«b-vl ao Tiridly. a«.>o.panle-3 by «o-a a«!u. 

Tb« «L Me ertecr of their frr«ct ia rurr«..w-d a' t -l t vltorl Ol a-md anil m^nfv? o< Ucjalrr, tba: 

K»TTT-i ry lae ;;»---iJ a.» at'.rx "1 July, 1"*. 'he r~>~»"'r> I0la^:o-J toa! lie day of ;uf^- 

atiii tbe ■.* >t, cb *ke-J ap aritb tree*, uptoro x-ol era* at fc/ia-l. At break o< lay tj the f"U) 

by tbe r--^j». retcoaiU of brlJi{r«.tui;.l!i«r< aj i ih- tofly a>' SBtauaa w«ra wa-! wl-j the cn- 

f or t.-t ef ine b .1- mbeo MeM«al| diAftlrur. 


• Bl b • . >_-.,o I rtn~l > 

Irani. A 8->e» 

•■■-,«•.•.. .1 - -• ar>ler tbo 

le» f tbe b u-» « t. ^i--t . >.,• 
3-1 froto the-ofy >;- t *b*-r- a: | - 
■are beao f . 1 o*cf ber | n f ih* \alle? 
tA-.r.- 'cir.-J r . -a- lef a ••( -i raJ fert, ao I 

•L-. il el 
i r--.f. tbe-.n; 




Rlcd, frtru C ■■: 

t.w Sor b C 

i ao« • 

fir© Li<-ui>fiaot Cokel wo aarrain - 

Tt-i j-jfftr w*a do* >/ '<iat up-'a tie Mae, 'be j 
4aj» 't->rt--(i,[k«c, 4vr. J in* "-a:\-r *> tor-cvlj 1 
ell. tftfti u r»| nr*l DOtoiaJI 4toclt >.' re* j - .: >a 

to tbxe-? id itv* Bornlag ■-'i Mteousiw •* k« q 
aorthf-v-r. Is lour hoar* w? *ut.**-! ut EUn- 
twet, r»xt#p-o oiilea Fr^oj Coowmy. wN-o I - . - - I 
oof »»b m> »k**-b b.V;k wLi!« brp&kf«M w** ! 
pr»-(«uiL»{. for ih-* furfv.'*'. -f *-*-fx, Titi^- in .;■■ . 

Boy*-'.! in » eonwr bj tJ;- Lr^tit kstcbeo tn 
vctii tb« civ^b w*s occfl mora vm<ij co *(*ri. 

B- wet* BOW b-tr,n.'-*l 10 by lolly trt'nv-.uiit 
b-^w<**o wbicb lb»" road » -JL-1, pr-v-r*.f.rf * 
•>'••. 4]oug ib- ri»rnr tAiak ol lb- if*'-^, a •itroruj 
» -10**... lorrapt, ahicb, a^w1tBOun410ai ibe 
B)a<iauitaa«i»madfl ut-.t. .. ma ktoobj *&- 
baUaLfret.'*, ooi> iil/weO koflfewol •[-*« lor a 
►tn^-i* '•fnic ,.» j- -* in a* * ■ | U-e** btti*ati. 
m- ncty bamat on Uw obv hint *«jJ th-^ ia- 
Oriooaa »mtv » : "(■•' I •'*' «' dapth i»-i>-a t. 
00 ti« oibrr. LVaaoroua br « l *«*-r - inoa, 

w u »- f-ib-i BjArl-a^f gr*al .--rr-Jiral Ingota- 
tj-t.i. •>trt. •h'-y ir« » * -u ft rt^Ulfc n.»i>. 

II. A i--n. tj -■ LOd - - ia *b- 

ca-aBo« aiib «=->■• *•-;• Bpoa 

-■ ■ 

S***0 .J. ->-->•' ; 
00- oi tbr E >UOUlOa -yen- lrtj- a" 
oe-urreDi- . Ttr CBtck pn- I r^*l it flr»r 
»o»»d nrja4fl| aJow la lu ngtl 
^ti*;ab(»ft3!r->' a u li*oanC aad I-'. 
haaitiiwif, do«a BHtb raUooWfd fury as*l ilo- 
rnooe, foUov<*>J by n»fr» ol BoaClSj! oarth «l 1 
•tofkax. whi^t c>[-f>«&J "-r ir»- 1 utc, .•arrna i ; 
J*:T»a£.t»L'>t) f*T 4W.vJ »..J-. T^- : I bcal 

tt»- ' 

i ' >j 


TlJ-fCW Of Ua- »iD4, IT-l a 

^>" : 

I rary b«f »r* couial be -laJ»c- 
A ebanev atone rotli£i< J- 
I ulg. and a pannd_-a atar 
i my Ur< dura*- tb- ttz:- 

j. tr ■ . ;-r 

' d'-aeeodina: and lntemcur n- alfva cauee-1 - 
I to burry th^u*rb siy work aaj pur»u- c 
pr-jarrea* out of the loaatf eafley Tb« jroa 

j reel and 

1 cra-luaUy to tt- «»p. abj-b la '«-nty 

/ ; y B I tbeir b^rt-. by a 

»1 TJ \ •■: I to daaTw- their. 

\ :/ r- ^ t\ asm 

f/ • % S. 4 - B\l 

;ihaa.iVjA_».» ^ 

•avl both oaaalrn Ibrout 
as ar.'eoed by biv'iCA- •■ r.rr- 
-> y-ars »ln~. Prmueai lotsai -j.- ■»- road 
A«-d o»»r the rurnmit >l tb- r^l » a: »« f re- 
■nooa a pilch tha: the •A.-mer> »cr- nklifaj 
carry th«-ir oriduce oc In «av t,, Pcrlaad 
that part of 

-are f r ,-* ac 1 iba bndle 
p the i 

in*-. Tb. kaee rtoeajl . 
T fi-' rd'a lata, bail a 
• bieb I , L. <"raaf r i a. 
abere I t- ual B)y Iaotv-. »»i f -ur aUaa 
\ th«->A*a~0 an alovat inr- - l-a -' •-*• 

a*-oe. aiy e<eo.o«a e—r» aa teej hy 'be Ira- 
• ".da 10 lajaaa ■<* M x_. t -i . '-.<■■»> av>na> 

'and parnd^— a. ai'b a h.. b -t- » I 

ahou'-l ml ableb b- »t-nt lo peiraad 4 ai'b a 

5UO Of f- u' t— t 'err- -f . | -a * -a 

a! f.-.m LarA.. 

•nalitArra ni» lltarj > il ;- ty (BM. a-g h 
aa.1 b*ei, nearly carr.-: aa •. fc y tr,- ■ .-u Hi 
y*arA piaiio a ia l y.atilo ilaaavf load if Ibe valua 

Of fJ.UaJ to lb* |.r. ,r,-">r. tO'tb-r i jl . 
dr.e brought la to Ih* N.'-b .( ir.. Kb •- 
■oaWalaa abao Ialtttlrd rroa thee— h.,-.b 
ae-,.-. ■,Ai.,l» i ,-A-^ .-1 - --.... 
too »i^bt a. . ■ fart.-- a : at doara aj be 
r-avi --J* t » a-lalre iba aaloiJy rrand a£ 1 >ut>> 
Lina ar-A-la :l- a1«1 Ih- N Met pn»-oia. 

Iba day. wbl. h bad be-o ao el ody ac J e-^ 1 
«i tb" early part. b»-effl- Bore !a» ral.1- aad 

tba euo otortad Ha Lanaaratlaa] ta»a -r,r -,«o 
tb» el. rada, r-euea; .?n ibe ibLan of (be aj-aaji 

aa-l If — .a r-^lft alib vahrb 1b» «a -r H 

W uod«d. by Octree, the batt .ac»<» ar^«e. 

ihe g: i»:.-t diacrdar. pr.-veii:a ab. t u.i^hi (-• Ir.- it.- m.-tii. t.-.y .i- !-.. uii. i< — r-«- 

■IniOM ir.v-'iv-l aa Iba wrr. t of natore A iratlbe ail-lY of tbe in lOa »ai;-y. bat 

m-lai ra.A-. ,i .1 i .•.-t-^ius «..ry la e»ali*et.'d aoana.taya alirj.el bab r.'».r»i acba d~l »> 
a . l II v . na. ataicb anil fur >-*.-* lo eoaaa ' tar •' -< ira aa v raordipa\ry • - .* aa to ■ 

h>- -b- ca.*— • ( in l a a ad a aaaJCiai; a ptbanaia»ai ia/ laffDiraratobaaMada. A c a— I "n-i i: 

a- by -c- a*bo. tbutiarb out aa ->-■« ii ••^■. a*. av< i.'-"-i '0- n ' a, atbra tba lamLai -,-- 

in (aelrnrn--. 1 ..*-.- ii'iioili aJ tha urae ;t •-^■'irr-.l. ta.1- •-( lb- -a*. re i*a 1 lb- t> - ■-- 

ll Iai aa ( • - a^-t 1^1 lo a te^ly rA—-ei.t-l - ' - 

A far-.»r ••( IB* l_aioe of W. 1-.. Bl 3 hi. .• • h Baa, Bt • I- n.A.j-l .3- 

•lie, J.e ebiMrer. at-! two lel-.r... , — ui A-| b- a-- -Oa/aa, l-l o t e-oialo U ■ . 

a boaaa a»b a aatalt tara. at tba appar aad II raauty. abua* budiaa, altar a aeaa '--- 

Of '±9 Aafley. Th-j aero much -ab-*1i«J (or daya. «.-a 'be -I--ii|oo '.( ■» -f. .dl-3 a— a 

tb-.r b-aiii-j'a* alU U •;• aa IrateCan, ebt, J -• rated bartod aadar au l a diW-a 

o»«rtaA-o 'r n |M, •- .»b: Abetter ai oVaa r- - ■ W-l 7«r\j> at be J^r BM iaji-.* • 

iheir tea.-— t o-ii:hr- ra be.Ajc a' tba tara f-aam*ot. Th-y bad a>: e-::-<'_y reAL-AA.* M 

ibal ex. a-^. Iblaklf ofare*roaa aiUl I /r-at <yf an a»a^n-be. baAl ruah-Al oat cf -ta t aaa\ 

eurrad ro oaaba ibaat aaapfeloaa of iba eatery Bfl ■■■* "* •■ ' d — a- *• v-- i * i * a -• Tba 

tbatr BOBBaVaa, aatfl ite daaeaal of a aeaafl aea atin " . fan a "bit T* i ■ talefiatai 

lao-ba. or al.Je of eartn. aaar 'be tAOuaa. In the loa* «"b i V* *aa I0^-* *--il> aa ab/ .^ d-- ' 

• oath o( J j-.e. leas a- 'ernced them Ij (he itj of l.JuU faei aouil f»» v e t [•<- ». 

area ot-sad win 

:.l- a Ai.At:iaaT , 
Ibe {. - 


• . . « - s ef bb 

. - • ^ iia ba'lif 

aa i a i n| iba <a ■ totouba aa 1 ■ a.a raxki r* 

-• ,*e Tt-A irarb ■! bal. boae< ar. 
>r-'~l A a-me a»r»i-*. nar.a4 laabaj BIOJ to 
I Ooae to a., m aVaaaa, 

| .a , .-, (,, ittaaaaad. leat« Uaaa 


r .j,( -.^, I aad afreet aea a eaal 

».ft, a> ao'-tn-. I r— ... • -.1, ■ 

■ < j n . • 



■ ~-~ ^ ;; ; '■ - |p .... " 

. .-*£' ^Ih; t /^iC« . ; .. ■ .. . . . . . ...•-.._■_. j 

Maplewood Cottage. 

is never more inspiring or alluring, nor noosuc spreads out its undulating length 
is its lordly position more clearly de- before the eye of Bethlehem, and on 
fined, or its head more proudly uplifted every hand enchanting drives lead one 

among its fellows, than when viewed 
from the piazza of the Mount Washing- 
ton House in Bethlehem, nineteen miles 

Besides this the valley of the Ammo- 

- , *+&<' f 2* . P 

L.^rr i Hmntii ass ass sm 

y 152= 



is Cottage. 

into vistas of beaut}' to be seen though 
not described. 

It is among all this grandeur and love- 
liness that the school-master often finds 
himself abroad, for the American Insti- 
tute of Instruction more frequently 
holds its annual session in Beth- 
lehem than anywhere else. This 
season it is here again, meeting 
alternately morning and evening 
in the Casino at Maplewood and 
at Cruft hall at the Street, be- 
side this many prominent educa- 
tors are accustomed to visit Beth- 
lehem for a more prolonged stay, 
the president of Amherst college 
having been a summer resident 
here for several seasons, and the 
faculty of almost every American 
college contributing its quota to 
the roll of habitues. 




Professional and business 
men, artists and poets, diplo- 
mats and statesmen, have 
here sought and found rest 
and health, and one mem- 
ber of one of these classes, 
an ornament to the most 
respected tribunal in the 
world, in one of his fre- 
quent visits, found here a 
wife with whose wooing goes 
a pretty story of an inter- 
rupted youthful romance 
which this marriage finally 

But Bethlehem the town 
is as interesting as Bethle- 
hem the summer resort and as worthy 
of note, for though of late years the 
community has assiduously cultivated 
its "best and biggest crop," its early 
years were marked by certain notable 
productions in the line of New Hamp- 
shire's specialty — men. 

Among the earliest settlers in Bethle- 
hem was James Turner, who came here 
from Maine in 17SS, stopping long 



** ***** 


Mount Agassiz. 

enough on the way, at Hanover, to woo 
a wife whom he afterward returned to 
marry. This sturdy pioneer became one 
of the foremost citizens of the new com- 
munity and begat a line of descendants 
who carried his name far beyond the 
limits of Bethlehem. The Turner fam- 
ily, on the whole, is the most noted in 
Bethlehem genealogies. The son of 
James Turner was Timothy P. Turner, 

IIS • v 

4 ~~*> *w l- 3 ^' 


born in 1795, and his suns form an inter- 
esting and notable group in the story of 
railroad affairs in Xcw England. 

There were five of these Turner boys, 


Timothy P. Turner. 

James N., Charles S., Timothy N., Will- 
iam H., and Hiram N. Of these the 
oldest has always remained on the 


Timothy N. Turner. 

old homestead which has been in the 
possession of the family since his grand- 
father came here from Maine, and which 
is not onlv a famous farm but is also a 

Charles S. Turner. 

Will'arn H. Turner 

popular summer resort, as well as being 
one of the oldest. 

Charles left home at twenty one and 
entered the railroad business at Norwich 



Conn. After service as a station agent thirty years. He is now one of the old- 
he was made general agent of a railroad est conductors in the service in New 
line and steamboat company, with offices England and makes his regular nightly 
in Worcester, Mass. In this position he trips between Worcester and New Lon- 
don. The 
third, William 

remained fif- 
teen years I 
and then be- 
came superin- < 

tendent of the 
Worcester & 1 

Nashua rail- 
road. Here 
he remained 
sixteen years | 
and was then 
made presi- 
dent of the 

Nashua, & Rochester road and retired 
from active business after four years in 
this capacity. 

H., is dead: 
but before his 
death he was 
ent of the 
Portland & 
railroad, su- 
\ of the Poston 
< & New York 

Turner House 

A ' 

Air Line rail- 
road, general 
agent fur the Norwich steamboat line in 
New York, and superintendent of the 
New York end of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford railroad. To this 
last position he was appointed by Pres- 
ident Charles P. Clark of the consolida- 
ted road, and in it he died. His grave 


James N. Turner. 

The three younger Turners followed 
their older brother's example and all 
entered the railroad business as appren- 
tices in his office. One of them, Tim- 
othy N., soon became a conductor on the 
Norwich line, taking charge of the steam- 
boat train which he ran for more than 

. — 1 »_ ,~.+ 

H.rarr. N Tv 





Rev. Dr. Edv.ard Cooke. 

in Worcester is marked by a costly 
monument of New Hampshire granite, 
the expense of which was defrayed by 
the employes of the Consolidated, — from 
president down to water-boys finding a 
place on the subscription list. 

Hiram X., the youngest of the Turn- 
ers, began with the Worcester & Nashua 
as general passenger and freight agent 
and while in this office he got out the 
first maps of the White Mountains show- 
ing the different routes for seeking the 
various summer resorts there. He also 
issued a map of Bethlehem Street, and 
these two maps are still standard among 
White Mountain tourists. From his first 
work Hiram Turner was called to the 
management of the Montreal & Boston 
Air Line, and thence to be general traffic 
manager of the Boston & Lowell passing 
with that road into the employ of the 
Boston & Maine. From here he was 
called to St. Johnsbury, Vt., where he is 
a director and the general manager of 
the Fairbanks scale factories. His rail- 
ro ^d connection now consists of mem- 

bership in the Concord & Montreal 

The Turner boys, as the people of 
Bethlehem affectionately term this nota- 
ble group of brothers, are put forward 
as something unique in New England. 

Another name intimately connected 
with Bethlehem is that of Sinclair, repre- 
sented by the Hon. John G. Sinclair and 
his son, Colonel Charles A. Sine lair. The 
elder of these men was not born in Beth- 
lehem, but came here to engage in trade. 
Before leaving here he engaged in the 
hotel business (giving the Sinclair House 
its name) and in the lumber business, 
and in manufacturing, and in farming, 
and in politics, conducting while in the 
pursuit of the last named branch of his 
activity a famous series of joint debates 
on the stump with Gov. Walter Harri- 
man, against whom he was an unsuccess- 
ful candidate. 

Colonel Charles A. Sinclair was born 
here and from here he went to college. 
He has slight business interests here and 
occasionally comes here for a holiday, 
not having lost his interest in his birth- 



Colon*.! Charles A Z 



pkice despite his many diverting inter- 
ests as president of a railroad, director 
in many railroads, banks, and other cor- 
porations, and member of the New 
Hampshire legislature in both branches. 
The village of Bethlehem has recently 
come into possession of a valuable sci- 
entific museum once the property of the 
late Dr. Cutting, state geologist of Ver- 
mont, and a stone building is to be 

ing the earlier years of the town's his- 
tory. His son, Stillman, was the father 
of the accomplished editor of the state 
papers, and was an outspoken Freesoiler, 
who quoted Thomas Jefferson and fig- 
ured as the local Charles A. Dana of 
his time. He was a much respected 
man, and after his death the homestead 
became the property of Mr. J. ]. Gless- 
ner of Chicago, who has built upon 



Congregational Church. 

erected to shelter the collection. Both it one of the finest, as it is the most 

these benefactions are shrewdly suspec- conspicuous, of summer cottages in the 

ted to be from Colonel Sinclair to his neighborhood. It is not unappropri- 

native town. ately named "The Rocks." 

Another name, now gone from the Another, a descendant of one of the 

town, but still recalled here, is borne by earlier settlers here, went into the min- 

the Hon. Albert S. P.atchellor of Little- istry and there achieved his fame, be- 

ton, who, as a lawyer, a writer, and a coming principal of Wilbraham acad- 

historian, has come into the front rank emy, and president of Lawrence uni- 

of those who are contributing to make versity, Wisconsin, and of Claflin uni- 

New Hampshire what it is. His grand- versity. South Carolina. This divine, 

father was a pioneer here and was killed the Rev. Dr. Edward Cooke, has grated 

by falling from the roof of a barn dur- many a position in the Methodist 



Episcopal church, and in educational 
and religious circles was for many years 
the peer of any of his associates. 

Among women, too, Bethlehem has a 

representative to be proud of, and not 
only Bethlehem ,* but all the land, — at any 
rate every veteran soldier in it, for it is 
to her that the disabled veteran owes 
those magnificent houses of refuge, the 
national soldiers' homes, Delphin R. 
Baker to whose efforts the establish- 
ment of these homes is almost 
altogether due. Henry Wilson, who 
was vice-president at the time the law 
was passed, says that to Miss Baker 

she had travelled in many Western 
states giving lectures, and conse- 
quently making her acquaintance exten- 

Whether the next generations of Beth- 
lehem-born men and women will be the 
equals of their forefathers is a question ; 
but it is certain that those to come will 
find far greater advantages at home than 
did those whom I have named. There 
is an excellent system of public schools 
in the town — thanks to the energy and 
enthusiasm of General George T. Cruft 
— with a high school ; through the 
exertions of some of the summer visit- 

&^&M&£^j&-%& ------- 

was due the honor of originating the 
bill, getting it before congress, and 
lobbying it through successfully. Miss 
Baker was born in Bethlehem in 182S, 
and passed her early youth here. 
" Her parents," writes a biographer, 
"seems to have been of strong intellect, 
and to have possessed qualities which 
endowed the daughter with unusual 
ability. Without belonging to any 
party or clique, Miss Baker had devoted 
herself for several years before the 
breaking out of the Civil War, to the 
advancement of women, desiring to see 
her sex in the enjoyment of the fullest 
mental development, and to this end 

ors who have supplemented the labor 
of a few of the townspeople, a library 
has been gathered. There are three 
churches ; two of them, Methodist and 
Congregational, with settled pastors, and 
the third, the Church of the Nativity, 
with summer sendees only. A railroad 
now connects the village with the outside 
world ; a system of water-works, and a 
limited line of sewerage, supply sanitary 
needs ; an occasional new cottage and 
the constant additions and alterations 
to the hotels keep trade and rumor busy 

during the seasons when the summer 
boarder is not abroad in the land. 

And all the year round there is the 



Bethlehem climate ! That climate which, The town of Lloyd Hills was lost by 

according to a distinguished writer in The the friends of Governor John Went- 

Ciimatologist^ is nearer to the standard worth ; but in its place has been found 

of perfection than any other with which the town of Bethlehem which can never 

he is familiar; that climate in which be erased from the map nor lost from the 

hay fever cannot exist, and where pul- mind ; and which will be held as dearly 

monary difficulties cannot flourish. in memory as its prominence deserves. 


By CJiarUs Hairy Chesley. 

I love thee, New Hampshire, thou land of my birth, 
I love thy green valleys, thy song-birds' glad mirth. 
No music so sweet as the voice of thy rills ; 
No home is so clear as thy granite-bound hills. 

In thy woodlands, New Hampshire, thou hold'st a charm, 
Though not of the orange, the spice, or the palm : 
P'or thy pink-tinted bud, and thy vine-covered bower, 
Are more beautiful, far, than Ind's fairest flower. 

In thy mountains, New Hampshire, that tower toward the sky 
Doth the symbol of freedom and purity lie ; 
And thy granite-clad hills that have weathered the blast, 
Stand for honesty, courage, and strength to the last. 

Thy sons, O New Hampshire! have stood on the plain. 
Where death-dealing missiles were falling like rain : 
And as firm as thy mountains, and strong as thine oak, 
Have fought gainst oppression, and slavery's yoke. 

And their names shall be placed 'rnong the brave and the free, 
Who were willing to die for their country and thee. 
And around thy fair daughters forever shall cling 
A grace and a sweetness, like rlowers of spring. 

And thy name, Granite state, forever shall be 

A sign that thy people from bondage are free : 

Till thy hills shall be levelled, and time shall he o'er. 

And thy sons and thy daughters tread Heaven's bright shore. 

Some lands may be fairer, some skies be more clear, 
But to me, O New Hampshire! none is so dear; 
And though others may leave thee, and fairer lands roam, 
I still will he loyal, because thou art home. 


By Jay Chaapcl. 

In iS5o-'55 nearly every young per- 
son and lover of music knew the then 
popular song, "Blue Juniata." Its 
pathos and touching simplicity caught 
the masses with a glowing fervor. It 
was sung in hundreds of thousands of 
homes, and by moonlight and starlight 
on all the boats of pleasure and com- 
merce on all the lakes and rivers. Chil- 
dren were named, and romantic young 
and old men called their lovers for the 
wild Indian girl, "Alfarata." 

As the song grew in favor and en- 
thusiasm the name of the Indian girl 
was changed to suit the fancy of the 
individual, to " Alfaretta," and some- 
times to "Alfretta." Rev. Edward E. 
Hale, the prominent Unitarian minister 
and advanced and independent thinker, 
in "The Wonderful Adventures of a 
Pullman," said it was a " pretty speci- 
men of that school of song that may be 
called the American." 

Juniata is an Iroquois word, and was 
written, in the early settlement of the 
country, " Chonita." The Juniata river 
is formed by three lesser ones that rise 
in the Alleghany mountains in Pennsyl- 
vania. Uniting near Huntingdon, they 
form the main stream which ilow^ one 
hundred and fifty miles through a pic- 
turesque region, scooping out in its wild 
course, with rare beauty and majesty, 
the valley of the same name, where the 
Iroquois Indians lived and flourished 
before the whites drove them so un- 
justly from their homes. It finally loses 
itself in the embrace of the Susque- 
hanna, about a mile above Duncannon, 
Pa. I was born and reared to manhood 

in the land of William Penn, and have 

traversed with horse and carriage, by 
canal boat and rail, in delightful en- 
chantment, the whole length of that 
beautiful and famous valley. 

When compared with the Susque- 
hanna, the Juniata is narrow, but much 
deeper, and the waters a sky blue, often 
in spring, even, when other streams are 
muddy. In floating down the Susque- 
hanna, as I have often done in early 
manhood on immense rafts of pine 
lumber, I have noticed the great volume 
of blue water rushing into the lake-like 
river, changing its muddy current into 
more attractive colors for a long dis- 

The Pennsylvania railway follows the 
Juniata nearly its entire length amid 
some of the most romantic scenery in 

At first, only an 'Indian path con- 
nected this region with the far west, 
which in 1840 was Ohio; then came by 
regularly progressive steps the pack- 
horse road, the wagon road, the turn- 
pike, the canal, connecting the Susque- 
hanna and Alleghany rivers by means 
of a railway over the mountain, run by 
a stationary engine and cables; then 
came the great Pennsylvania railway, 
which the old dry-as dust conservatives 
said could not ascend the mountain with 
steam engines. 

What i.-> to come next to banish steam 
palace cars, as they have the canal boat, 
I will not stop here to discuss. Much 
discussion and dismal prophesying was 
made as to the best route for the canal. 
After many delays it finally was built, 

' rf^CF 


and the first boat made its trial trip 
successfully November 5, 1S29. It 
started in attractive style for those 
times, drawn by two white horses, gayly 

caparisoned, driven tandem, with the 
star spangled banner Hying in the 
breeze from its head. The driver, with 
whip and spurs, rode the hind horse, 
making five to eight miles an hour with 
twenty to forty passengers on board. 

Marian Means Dix, one of nine chil- 
dren of Timothy Dix, Jr., and Abagail 
Wilkins Dix, was born in Boscawen, 
N. H., April 17, 1S02, near the beautiful 
Merrimack which II. D. Thoreau de- 
scribed so charmingly and instructively 
in his book, i; A Week on the Concord 
and Merrimack." She was a sister to 
Gov. John A. Dix, whose thrilling and 
peremptory dispatch while secretary of 
the treasury in 1S61 still remains vivid in 
the minds of many who participated in 
the war for and against African slavery, 
— " If any one attempts to haul down the 
American flag, shoot him on the spot." 
She married John VV. Sullivan, a mer- 
chant in Boston, Dec. 15, 1825. Some- 
time in the forties Mr. Sullivan was 
induced to seek a home in Ohio, and in 
a few weeks thereafter Mrs. Sullivan, 
their children, and a few friends from 
Massachusetts followed him to his new- 
home, passing up the Juniata valley by 
stage and canal. That now slow mode 
of conveyance gave that gifted woman 
a rare opportunity of seeing and study- 
ing the varied and attractive scenic 
beauties constantly before her. Her 
children were as delighted as the mother 
as they sat in the little home-like parlor 
especially set apart for women and chil- 
dren on those canal boats. They gazed 
with wonder and strange comments on 
the interesting scenes of farm life, — 
green fields and wooded ravines, and 
more than all upon the rapid tread of 

the horses' feet on the tow-path. The 

sparkling, singing cascades dashing 
down the dented hills, and the towering 
mountains, made a deep and lasting 
impression on the mother, whose soul 
was attuned in the most melodious and 
inspired key. She had early in life 
given much attention to music and lit- 
erature, and became a teacher of the 
piano and guitar, a composer of ballads 
and Bible songs, besides writing for the 
Nisw England Magazine and other peri- 
odicals of that time. It was under this 
state of mental culture and circum- 
stances that she first saw the blue Juni- 
ata, and there found in that charmed 
region, so rich in Indian lore, the mate- 
rial and inspiration for her song, which 
I give you here. 


"Wild roved an Indian girl, 

Bright Alfarata, 
Where sweep the waters 

Of the blue Juniata. 
Swift as an antelope 

Thro' the forest going, 
Loose were her jetty locks 

In wavy tresses flowing. 

"Gay was the mountain song 
Of bright Alfarata, 
Where sweep the waters 
Of the blue Juniata. 
" ' Strong and true my arrows are. 
In my painted quiver. 
Swift goes my light canoe, 
Adown the rapid river. 

»« ' Bold is my warrior u r ood, 

The love of Alfarata, 
Proud waves his snowy plume 

Along the Juniata. 
Soft and low he >;>eaks to me, 

And then, his war-cry sounding, 
Rings his voice in thunder loud, 

From height to height resounding. 1 

' . . • 


i •'■ ■- - - v _ k ,. ....... 

The D'X. Homestead at Bo:cawen 



44 So sang the Indian girl, 

Bright Alfarata, 
Where sweep the waters 

Of the blue Juniata. 
Fleeting years have borne away 

The voice of Alfarata, 
Still sweeps the river on, 

Blue Juniata." 1 

She always wrote her songs without 
effort, the words and music seeming 
u to come to her'' at the same time. 

After some years spent in Ohio, her 
husband's health failed, necessitating 
his seeking a more favorable climate. 
While he was absent for two or three 
years, she taught music and literature, 
earning sufficient to support herself 
and three children, and educating them 
in the best schools in the neighbor- 

In those days music and culture were 
in swaddling clothes In the West, and 
her home was a charmed retreat for 
the musical and cultivated classes, as 
well as for musical and literary enter- 
tainments of all kinds. She had a 
beautiful face and form, gracious, genial, 
frank manners and speech, and so made 
friends easily, singing her songs with a 
clear, distinct voice and deep feeling. 

delighting and instructing her hearers 
at the same time. 

After some years spent in Ohio doing 
valuable service in that new country in 
the world of music, literature, and social 
amenities, she returned to Boston and 
published a number of songs, — " Marion 
Day," "The Field of Monterey,'' and 
others. The latter was written at the 
time of the battle of Monterey in Mexi- 
co, in 1S46. All of her songs were pop- 
ular and had a large sale, but none ever 
touched the public heart with such pop- 
ular favor as "The Blue Juniata/' She 
died in Brookline, Mass., in July, 1S60. 

The rock-bound hills and mountains 
of pine and spruce, the winding, singing, 
dashing rivers, the placid, limpid lakes, 
and the fragrant, invigorating breezes 
of New Hampshire seem especially 
adapted to develop poets, artists, edu- 
cators, and statesmen. Boscawen has 
had her full share of these illustrious 
minds. Gov. John A. Dix, William Pitt 
Fessenden, Charles Carleton Coffin, the 
great war correspondent and author, 
Prof. Moses G. Farmer, the famous 
electrician and inventor, and many 
others of equal note, were all born in 
this town. 


By Myra B. Lord. 

On my daily walk there is one house at white hair will be lying low, the busy, 

which 1 seldom fail to glance, for at a tireless hands will be folded at last on 

sunny front window, in a quaint high- the quiet breast, and all that will be left 

backed chair, a dear old lady is always in that pleasant home of the dear grand- 
sitting, so busy with book or work that 
never once does she look from the window 

at the passers-by. Some day, ah me ! the 
high-backed chair will be empty, the 
peaceful face with its crown of snow- 

mother will be what is left to me of 
mine— a precious memory. 

My grandmother died when I was 
but eight years old. yet of all my childish 

recollections no figure stands out more 



prominently than hers. Small in stature, 
with sunn) brown hair that kept its sheen 
to the last; blue eyes always beaming 
with tenderness on those she loved, yet 
blazing with righteous indignation when 
a wrong had been' done or justice viola- 
ted ; the slender figure clothed in a short 
black stuff gown, protected by a blue- 
checked apron as she stepped briskly 
about her household tasks, or by a white 
homespun linen one as she sat at her 
sewing or knitting; the low shoes, 
clasped with silver buckles over the 
white open-work stockings knit by her 
own skilful fingers ; — they all come 
back to me now as if it were but yes- 

Early left a widow on the homestead 
farm, she had faced the world bravely 
and with indomitable energy. But her 
children were now men and women 
grown, and settled in homes of their 
own — all, save one, Seth, the baby and 
grandmother's darling, who, after mak- 
ing two successful voyages, had sailed 
away in a ship to China, and never 
come back. Twenty years had gone 
by since the curly-haired lad had said 
good-bye to grandmother, yet she never 
spoke of him as being dead. That he 
would come back some day, she never 
seemed to doubt ; and so strong was her 
faith, and so vivid were her word-pictures 
of my sailor-uncle, that my belief in his 
coming grew to be as strong as hers, and 
many a castle in Spain was reared, in 
view of the time when Uncle Seth 
should come sailing home in triumph, 
bringing us all manner of curious and 
beautiful tilings from the wonderful 
lands across the sea. But he never did 
come back, and grandmother still lived 
on in the old home. 

It was a typical New England farm- 
house. The long, low, white- walled 
house stood end to the road, the yard 

between, enclosed by a neat picket-fence, 
set off with sweet old-fashioned rlowers. 
There were rows of high, stiff holly- 
hocks, whose gay blossoms always grew 
provokingly beyond my childish grasp, 
and great clumps of tiger-lilies and 
faintly odorous " old-maid's " pinks ; but 
dearest of all were the modest ladies' 
delights that sprang up everywhere, 
their queer, bright faces, ever upturned 
to the sun, lending themselves readily to 
the vagaries of my fancy. 

The front door of the house opened 
into a lar^e screen vard or lane, the 
common thoroughfare for both house 
and barn, and over the door grew a 
famous white rose-bush — ''grandmoth- 
er's pride," we always called it, for she 
had planted it with her own hands when 
she had first come to the farm, and it 
had repaid her care by throwing out a 
mass of thrifty shoots that every June 
were a mass of fragrant blossoms. 

On either side, as you entered the 
front door, was a large square room. 
The best parlor was only opened on 
state occasions, and lacked the cheery 
homeliness that pervaded the living- 
room, which, with its open tire, the 
home-made rag-carpet and braided rugs, 
its straight-backed chairs, and long 
chintz-covered sofa, was the very em- 
bodiment of comfort. The small, square 
light-stand that stood between the west 
windows, covered with a neat white 
spread, held grandmother's work-basket, 
and " Book of Psalms," and an ancient 
eight-day clock, that filled the south- 
east corner from floor to ceiling, marked 
the hours in stately time. Opening out 
from the living-room were a bedroom 
and the tidy kitchen, and overhead were 
the chambers, and an unfinished loft 
used as a store-room. 

Beyond the house was the shed. \\ ith all 
the neat clutter that the manifold needs 



of the farmei makes, and then— -centre 
of childhood's delights ! — the great barn, 
where long rows of cattle were ranged 
on either side, and overhead the fragrant 
haymows, abounding in memories of 
hair-breadth escapes from broken necks, 
and too often, alas ! with broken eggs. 
Once, indeed, a treasure-trove of five 
striped kittens sent me, with my prize, 
in inglorious haste to the barn floor, but 
to the detriment of the kittens, fortu- 
nately, rather than myself. The double 
doors at either end always stood wide 
open in summer, and, seated in the swing 
that hung from the high beam, many a 
mythical journey was made as I ventured 
far out beyond the doors and up towards 
the fleecy clouds that floated in the blue 
sky above. 

To the left of the house was the or- 
chard, and nowhere else could be found 
such spicy fruit, — lady-apples, striped 
sweets, gilliflowers and all. Just below 
the orchard, and under the shade of a 
group of maples, was the family burying- 
ground, where lay my grandfather and 
two baby girls who had opened their 
blue eyes on this weary world one spring- 
time only to close them ere the June 
roses drifted snowy petals over their 
tiny graves beneath the maples. 

It was in the early days of the war 
that my name was added to the gene- 
alogical record in the big family Bible, 
and as father had soon after entered the 
army, mother and I were left to grand- 
mother's fostering care ; so that my ear- 
liest remembrances are chiefly associa- 
ted with grandmother and the dear old 
farm home. Then, by-and-by, the war 
was over, and we went back to the vil- 
lage to live ; and busy with my school- 
life, visits to the farm were earned by 
the faithful performance of tasks, and 
prized accordingly. But there were two 
not thus earned which stand out clearly 

in my mind, though widely differing in 


In those days, as now, the coining to 
town of a circus was a great event, and 
everybody turned out to see the proces- 
sion. The favorite point of vantage was 
the long, broad flight of steps in front 
of the Congregational meeting-house, 
and here, one bright morning in July, 
behold me, — -a very small girl of seven, 
decked out in clean white pinafore and 
sunbonnet — waiting, under the care of 
an older cousin, to -'see the elephant.'* 
But this particular elephant was an un- 
usually long time unpacking his trunk, 
and it occurred to me, tired with waiting, 
to investigate for myself the cause of 
the delay. My cousin, absorbed in her 
own affairs, failed to notice my disap- 
pearance, as, slipping quietly from the 
steps into the crowded street, I was lost 
the next minute in the throng. Down 
the wide Market street, across the bridge, 
and then — surely my good angel was 
leading me all the while — out of four 
di\ ersdmr roads the wayward feet uncon- 
sciously turned into the road that led to 
the farm. 

Many times have I ridden over the 
road since, but "never without a thrill of 
pity for the small sinner who that day 
found the way of the transgressor hard 
enough. A long two miles of hot sand, 
and under a blazing July sun, it must 
have been considerably after noon that 
the little feet, that felt as though shod 
with fire, were toiling patiently up the 
long hill. 

Oh, the intense longing that possessed 
me for a drink of water! I wanted my 
home, I wanted my mother, yet to go on 
seemed the only way out of the difficul- 
ties. The tears were failing fast now, 
bitter tears of repentance : but the par- 
don was clo^e at hand. Wearily drag- 
ging itself along, and wiping away the 

4 o 


tears that streaked their paths down 
dusty cheeks on to a pinafore no longer 
clean and white, with sunbonnet pushed 
back from a mop of tangled curly hair, 
it was a forlorn -enough little figure that 
greeted grandmother's eyes as, attracted 
by the sound of a crying child, she 
stood in the doorway, peering down the 
road. " Dear heart, where is the child 
going!" she cried, and in another mo- 
ment was flying down the lane. I had 
stopped at the sound of a voice, — and 
now grandmother's arms had enfolded 
me, and all my troubles were forgotten. 
Oh, how tenderly she bathed and 
dressed the bruised feet ; how cool was 
the water she brought from the well to 
the parched lips ; and then, safe on the 
chintz-covered sofa, after a big bowl of 
bread and milk had been disposed of, I 
fell asleep with grandmother's hands 
clasped in mine. It was late afternoon 
when I awoke, and the team was waiting 
to carry me home. Grandmother went 
along, too — probably to plead the cause 
of the small sinner, for mother seemed 
to think the week's enforced quiet that 
my sore feet occasioned, was punish- 
ment enough. 

It was nearly a year later when one 
day the word came that grandmother 
was very ill, and for some days after 
father and mother were at the farm help- 
ing to care for her. Then, one morning 
early, father came for me, saying that 
grandmother had asked to see me. It 
was late in June, yet in the early morn- 
ing the fields lay fresh and fair in the 
sunlight, and it seemed strange that 
father paid no heed to my chatter, but 
sat silent and stern all the way. At last 
we turned into the wide green yard, and 
leaving me at the front door, father 
drove on to the barn. 

Somehow a chill fell on my heart as I 
stepped into the entry, and half-fearing, 

— I knew not what — opened the living- 
room door. The changes in the familiar 
room seemed to presage the greater 
change, for all at once came the over 
whelming thought, Grandmother is go- 
ing to die, — and the rising tears blinded 
my eyes for a minute. Close up by the 
east windows stood the four-posted bed, 
its curtains drawn back to catch the 
morning breeze. Beside it was the little 
light-stand, but the familiar work-basket 
was gone, and in its place were glasses 
and spoons, a bunch of grandmother's 
roses, and a little china dish of red and 
white peppermints. 

Several of the neighboring women 
were seated about the room ; and on 
the bed, half sitting, half lying among 
the pillows, was grandmother, — white 
and still as never before. How the 
kindly blue eyes brightened as I came 
up to her side, and how they spoke 
the welcome her lips vainly tried to 
frame ! Her " Book of Psalms " lay 
beside her, as if just dropped from the 
trembling hands ; and answering the 
wistful expression that crept into her 
eyes, I stepped to the foot of the bed, 
and with folded hands and in low rev- 
erent tones began the psalm that has 
strengthened so many fainting souls 
when the weary feet trembled on the 
brink of the dark river. "The Lord is 
my shepherd, I shall not want." How- 
quiet grew the restless hands as t he- 
familiar words fell on the dying ears ! 
She had taught me the psalm herself, 
when, a tiny girl of three, I had sat at 
her knee and watched the shining nee- 
dles as they Sashed in and out the knit- 

"Yea, though I walk through the val- 
ley of the shadow of death "—grand- 
mother's feet were treading the toilsome 
way, but the promise held sure — "thy 
rod and thy staff, they comfort me." The 



blue eyes were closing now, and as the enter the room where her body lay; but 
psalm ended there was no sound to be I remember how the rose-leaves dropped 
heard in the room save the measured on the casket in sad farewell, as, ten- 
tick of the clock. clerly borne by loving hands, she was 
I never saw dear grandmother again, carried out from the wide front door, 
for, with a child's unreasoning fear of across the green fields, down to the quiet 
death, nothing could persuade me to graveyard beneath the maples. 

. ... -_ ..- , 

By //. A. Barton. 

My native town, I love thee — 
Thy hills and fields revere ; 

The God that rules above thee 
Has shed his blessings here. 

Thy rills and mountains teemin: 
With nature's rich display — 

Thy grand old forests dreaming 
Have pictures bright and gay 

I fain with thee would tarry, 
Because thou art so true ; 

Thou seem'st to me a fairy. 
Bedecked with heaven's blue. 


By Mary Baker Eticfy. 

Grave on her monumental pile, 

She won from vice, by virtue's smile, 
Her dazzling crown, her sceptred throne, 
Affection's wreath, a happy home. 

The right to worship deep and pure, 
To bless the orphan, teed the poor; 
Last at the cross to mourn her Lord, 
First at the tomb to hear his word. 

To fold an angel's wings below, 
And hover o'er the couch of woe, 
To nurse the Lethlehem babe so sweet. 
The right to sit at Jesus' feet. 

To form the bud for bursting bloom, 
The hoary head with joy to crown ; 
In short, the right to work and pray, 
"To point to heaven and lead the way. 



By "Jonas Lie. 

[Translated from the Norwegian by Hon. Samuel C. Eastman.] 


Bustle had complete sway in the At the head of the long kitchen table 

kitchen at Gilje with the Christmas ma was sitting, with a darning needle 

preparations. and linen thread, sewing collared beef, 

There was a cold draft from the while some of the old women of the ten- 
porch, an odor in the air of mace, ants and Tliea, white as angels, were 
ginger, and cloves — a roar of chopping- scraping meat for the tine forced meat. 
knives, and, dull rumbling and beating There, on the kitchen bench, sat 
so that the floor shook, from the wooden Thinka, who had recently returned 
mortar, where Great-Ola himself was home, with bloody, murderous arms, 
stationed, with a white apron and a stuffing sausages over a large trough. 
napkin around his head. It went with great skill through the fil- 

ler, and she fastened up the ends with 
wooden skewers, and struggled with one 
dark, disagreeable, gigantic leach after 
the other, while their brothers or sisters 
were boiling in the mighty kettle, 
around which the flames ciackled and 
Moated off in the open tire-place. 

The captain had come into the 
kitchen, and stood, with a kind of pleas- 
ure, surveying the field of battle. 
There were many kinds of agreeable 
prospects here for the thoughts to dwell 
upon, and tastes of the finished prod- 
ucts were continually being sent up to 
the office for him to give his opinion on. 

w I '11 show you how you should chop, 
girls," he said, sportively, and took the 
knives from Torbjoerg. 

The two chopping-knives in his hands 
went up and down in the chopping-tray 
so furiously that they could hardly be 
distinguished, and awakened unmistak- 
able admiration in the whole kitchen, 
while they pause in bewilderment at the 

It is true it continued for only two or 
three minutes, while Torbjoerg and 
Aslack must stand with linen towels on 
their heads and chop all day. 

But victory is still victory, and when 
the captain afterwards went into the sit- 
ting-room, humming contentedly, it was 
not without a little amused recollection 
of his strategy, — for, " yes, upon my 
soul," he could feel that his arms ached 
afterwards nevertheless. And he rub- 
bed them two or three times before he 
tied a napkin around his neck and 
seated himself at the table in order to 
do justice to the warm blood pudding, 
with raisins and butter on it, which 
Thinka brought in to him. 

"A little mustard, Thinka." 

Thinka's gentle figure glided to the 
corner cupboard after the desired arti- 


"The plate might have been warmer 
g — it real 
hot for the raisins 

for this kind of thing — it really ought 
to be almost burning 
and butter." 

The always handy Thinka was out by 
the chimney in a moment, with a plate. 
She came in again with it in a napkin ; 
it could not be held in any other way. 

"Just pour it all over on to this plate, 
father, and you will see then." 

One of the happy domestic phases 
which Thinka disclosed since her return 
home was a wonderful knack of manag- 
ing her father; there was hardly any 
trace of peevishness any longer. 

Thinka's quiet, agreeable pliancy and 
cool, even equipoise spread comfort in 
the house. The captain knew that he 
only needed to put her on the track of 
some good idea or other in the way of 
something to eat, and something always 
came of it. She was so handy, while, 
when ma yielded, it was always done so 
clumsily and with difficulty, just as if she 
creaked on being moved, so to speak, 
that he became fretful and began to dis- 
pute in spite of it, notwithstanding she 
knew very well he could not bear it. 

A very great deal had been done 
since Monday morning, and to-morrow 
evening it was to be hoped they would 
be ready. Two animals, a heifer and a 
hog, that was no little slaughtering,— 
besides the sheep carcasses. 

"The sheriff — the sheriffs horses are 
in the yard," was suddenly reported in 
the twilight into the bustle of the kitchen. 

The sheriff! It was lightning which 

"Hurry up to the office and get your 
father down to receive him, Joergen," 
said ma, composing herself. " You will 
have to take off the towels and then 
stop pounding. Great-Ola, exasperating 
a^ it is." 

"They smell it when the pudding 



smokes in the kettle, I think,*' exclaimed 
Mar it, in her lively mountain dialect. 
"Is n't it the second year lie has come 
here just at the time of the Christmas 
slaughtering? So they are rid of the 
manfolk lying in the way at home 
among themselves." 

"Your tongue wags, Marit," said ma, 
reprovingly. " The sheriff certainly does 
not find it any too pleasant at home, 
since he lost his wife, poor man." 

But it was dreadfully unfortunate 
that he came just now— excessively un- 
fortunate. She must keep her ground ; 
it would n't do to stay out here now. 

The captain came hastily out into the 

"The sheriff will stay here till to- 
morrow — It can't be helped, ma. I will 
take care of him, if we only get a little 
something to live on." 

" Yes, that is easy to say, Jaeger — 
just as all of us have our hands full." 

" Some minced meat — fried meat 
balls — little blood pudding. That is 
plain enough. I told him that he would 
have slaughter-time fare — and then, 
Thinka," he nodded to her, M a little 
toddy as soon as possible." 

Thinka had already started ; she only 
stopped a moment at her bureau up 

She was naturally so unassuming, and 
was not accustomed to feel embarrassed. 
Therefore, also immediately after, she 
was in with the toddy tray like the wind, 
only with a clean blue apron on ; and, 
after having spoken to the sheriff, in the 
cupboard after rum and arack, and to 
the tobacco table after some lighters, 
which she put down by the tray for the 
gentlemen before she vanished out 
through the kitchen door again. 

"You must wash your hands, Torb- 
joerg, and put things to rights in the 
guest chamber ; and then we must send 

a messenger fur Anne Yaelter to help 
us, little as she is tit for. Joergen. 
hurry!" came from ma, who saw herself 
more and more deprived of her most 
needed forces. 

Great-Ola had put up the sheriff's 
horse, and now stood pounding again at 
the mortar in his white surplice — thump, 
thump, thump, thump. 

" Are you out of your senses out 
here? don't you think?" said the cap- 
tain, bouncing in ; he spoke in a low 
voice, but for that reason the more pas- 
sionately. " Are not you going to 
mangle, too? then the sheriff would 
get a thundering with a vengeance, both 
over his head and under his feet. It 
shakes the floor." 

A look of despair came over ma's 
face ; in the sudden, dark, wild glance 
of her eye there almost shone rebel- 
lion — now he was beginning to drive 
her too far — But it ended in a resigned : 

" You can take the mortar with you 
out on the stone floor of the porch, 

And Thinka had to attend to the 
work of putting things in order and 
carrying in the supper, so that it was 
only necessary for ma to sit there a 
little while, as they were eating, as if 
she was on pins and needles, though, it 
is true, she must act as if there was 
nothing the matter. 

When ma came in, in the beginning, 
there was a little formal talk between 
her and the sheriff about the heavy loss 
he had sutTered. She had not met him 
since he lost his wife, three months ago. 
It was lonesome for him now, he only 
had his sister, Miss Gulcke with him. 
Doth Yiggo and Baldrian, which was a 
short name for Baltazar, were at the 
Latin school, and would not conn.- home 
again till next year, when Yiggo would 
enter the university. 



The sheriff winked a little, and made outburst just before a spread table with 

a mournful gesture as if he wanted to hot plates. 

convey an idea of sadly wiping one It developed into a rather long ses- 

eye-brow, but no more. He had given sion at the table — with ever stronger 








- -• 





^ n^iifc HWiiifim 

Sk ; aeggeda:i'Ds>er.. 

exhibition of grief as good as before compliments as often as there was op- 

every threshold in the district in this portunity during the meal-time to catch 

time, and here he was in the house of a tract; of the hostess in every new dish 

people of too much common sense not that Thinka brought in smoking del- 

to excuse him from the more protracted icately straight from the pan — actually 

4 6 


a slaughtering feast — with a brilliant 
bottle of old ale in addition, for the 
new Christmas brew was too fresh as yet, 
and two or three good drams brought 
in just at the right time. 

The sheriff also understood so well 
what was going on in the house, and 
how the hostess and Thinka were man- 
aging it. 

The grown-up daughter cleaned off 
the table and took care of everything 
so handily and comfortably without any 
bother and fuss — and so considerately. 
They had their pipes and a glass of 
toddy by their side again there on the 
sofa, with a fresh steaming pitcher, be- 
fore they were aware of it. 

The small inquisitive eyes of Sheriff 
Gulcke stood far apart ; they looked 
into two corners at once, while his round, 
bald head shone on the one he talked to. 
He sat looking at the blonde, rather 
slender, young lady, with the delicate, 
light complexion, who busied herself so 
silently and gracefully. 

" You are a fortunate man, you are, 
Captain," he said, speaking into the 

" Have a little taste, Sheriff," said the 
captain consolingly, and they touched 

" Nay, you who have a house full of 
comfort can talk — cushions about you 
in every corner — so you can export to 
the city — liut I, you see," his eyes be- 
came moist — " sit there in my office 
with these records. I was very much 
coddled, you know — oh, well, do n't let 
us talk about it. I must have my pun- 
ishment for one thing and another, I 
suppose, as well as others. 

" Is n't it true, Miss Kathinka," he 
asked, when she came in, M it is a bad 
sheriff who wholly unbidden falls straight 
down upon you in slaughtering time ? 
But you must lend him a little home 

comfort, since it is all over with such 
things at his own home. 

" Bless me, I had almost forgotten it," 
lie exclaimed eagerly, and hastened, with 
his pipe in his mouth, to his document 
case, which hung on a chair near the 
door. " I have the second volume of 
'The Last of the Mohicans' for you 
from Bine Scharfenberg, and was to 
get — nay, what was it ? it is on a mem- 
orandum : — ' A Capricious Woman,' by 
Emilie Carlcm." 

He took it out eagerly and handed it 
over to her, not without a certain gal- 

" Now you must not forget to give it to 
me to-morrow morning, Miss Kathinka," 
he said threateningly, " or else you will 
make me very unhappy clown at Bine 
Scharfenberg. It won't do to offend 
her, you know." 

Even while the sheriff was speaking 
Thinka's eye glided eagerly over the 
first lines — only to make sure about the 
continuation — and in a twinkling she 
was down again from her room with the 
read through book by Carlen and the 
first volume of the Mohicans done up 
in paper and- tied with a bit of thread. 

" You are as prompt as a man of 
business, Miss Thinka," he said jok- 
ingly, as with a sort of slow carefulness 
he put the package into his case ; his 
two small eyes shone upon her full of 

Notwithstanding there had been 
slaughtering and hubbub ever since- 
early in the morning, Thinka must still, 
after she had gone to bed, allow herself 
to peep a little in the entertaining book. 

It was one chapter, and one more, 
and still one more, with ever weakening 
determination to end with the next. 

Still at two o'clock in the morning 
she lay with her candlestick behind her 
on the pillow, and steadily read "The Last 



of the Mohicans," with all the vicissi- 
tudes of the pursuits and dangers of 
the noble Ancas. 

Ma wondered, it is true, that so many 
of the slender tallow candles were 
needed this winter. 

The sheriff must have a little warm 
breakfast before going away in the 

And now he took leave, and thanked 
them for the hours that had been so 
agreeable and cheering, although he 
came so inconveniently — oh, madame, 
he knew he came at an inconvenient 
time. "Although now you have cer- 
tainly got a right hand in household 
matters. Yes, Miss Thinka, I have 
tested you ; one does not have the eye 
of a policeman for nothing. 

" Invisible, and yet always at hand, 
like a quiet spirit in the house — is not 
that the best that can be said of a 
woman ? " he said, complimenting her 
spiritedly, when he had got his scarf 
around his fur coat, and went down to 
the sleigh with a gentle expression, with 
a little grayish stubble of beard, for he 
had not shaved himself to-day. 

" Pleasant man, the sheriff. His 
heart is in the right place," said the 
captain when, enlivened and rubbing 
his hands for the cold, he came in again 
into the sitting-room. 

But father became poorly after 

all the rich food at the slaughtering 

The army doctor advised him to drink 
water and exercise a good deal ; a toddy 
spree now and then would not do him 
any harm. 

And it did not improve the rush of 
blood to his head that Christmas came 
so soon after. 

Father was depressed, but was re- 
luctant to be bled, except the customary 
twice a year, in the spring and autumn. 

After the little party for Buchhotz, 
the judge's chief clerk, on Thursday, he 
was much worse. 

He went about unhappy, and saw loss 
and neglect and erroneous reckonings 
in all quarters. 

There was no help for it, a messen- 
ger must now go after the parish clerk, 

Besides his clerical duties he taught 
the youth, vaccinated, and let blood. 

What he was good for in the first 
named direction shall be left unsaid ; 
but in the last could it safely be said 
that he had very much, nay barrels, of 
the blood of the district on his con- 
science, and not least the full-blooded 
captain, whom he had bled regularly 
now for a series of years. 

The effect was magnificent. After 
the sultry and oppressive stormy and 
unfortunate mood, which filled, so to 
speak, every groove in the house and 
oppressed all the faces in the house, 
even down to Pasop — a brilliant fair 
weather— jokes with Thinka and mild 
plans that the family should go down in 
the summer and see the manceuvres. 

It was at the point of complete good 
humor, that ma resolutely seized the 
opportunity to speak about Joergen's 
going to school — all that Aunt Alette 
had offered of board and lodging, and 
what she thought could be managed 

There was a reckoning and studying, 
with demonstration and counter-demon- 
stration, down to the finest details of a 
man's cost of existence in the city. 

The captain represented the items of 
expenditure and the debit side in the 
form of indignant questions and con- 
jectures for every single one, as if she- 
wanted to ruin him, and ma justified 
stubbornly and persistently the credit 
side, while she went over and went over 

4 s 


again all the items which were to be 

When time after time things whirled 
round and round in the continual repe- 
tition, so that she got confused, there 
were bad hours before she succeeded in 
righting herself in the storm. 

The captain must be accustomed to 
it slowly, until it penetrated so far into 
him that he began to see and think. 
But, like a persistent, untiring cruiser, 
she always had the goal before her eyes 
and drew near to it imperceptibly. 

"This ready money" — It was for ma 
to touch a sore, which nevertheless 
must be opened. The result was that 
the captain allowed himself to be con- 
vinced, and now became himself the 
most zealous for the plan. 

Joergen was examined in all direc- 
tions. He was obliged to sit in the 
office, and the captain subjected him to 
the cramming process. 

"That's as old as the hills." blazed 
out the captain. "If you swing a hen 
round and put her on her back with a 
chalk mark in front of her beak, she 
will lie perfectly still ; dare not move. 
She certainly believes it is a string 
which holds her. I have tried it ever 
so many times — that you may safely 
tell her that, Thinka." 

" But why docs Inger-Johanna write 
that?" asked ma, rather seriously. 

"Oh, oh, — for nothing — only so — " 

Thinka had yesterday received her 
own letter, enclosed in that to her par- 
ents ; it was a letter in regard to ma's 
approaching birthday, which was under 
discussion between the sisters. And 
Inger-Johanna had given her a lecture 
in it, something almost inciting her to 
rebellion, and to stick to her flame there- 
in the west, if there really was any fire 

in it. That about the hen and a chalk 
mark was something at second hand 
from Grip. The women could be made 
to believe everything possible, and 
gladly suffer death when they get such 
a chalk mark before their beaks ! 

That might be true enough, Thinka 
thought. But now, when all were so 
against it, and she saw how it would 
distress her father and mother, then — 
she sighed and had a lump in her 
throat — the chalk mark was really 
thicker than she could manage never- 

Inger-Johanna's letter had made her 
very heavy hearted. She felt so un- 
happy that she could have cried, if any 
one only looked at her ; and as ma did 
that several times during the day. she 
probably went about a little red-eyed. 

At night she read in Arved Gyllen- 
stjerna of Van de Velde, so that the 
bitter tears flowed. 

Her sister's letter also contained 
something on her own account, which 
was not meant for her father and 

" For you see, Thinka, when you have 
gone through balls here as I have, you 
do not any longer skip about blindly 
with all the lights in your eyes. You 
know a little by yourself; one way or 
another there ought to be something in 
the manner of the person. Oh, this 
ball chat ! I say, as Grip does : I am 
tired, tired, tired of it. Aunt isn't any 
longer so eager that I shall be there, 
though many times more eager than I. 

"There I am now looked upnn as 
haughty and critical, and, whatever else 
it is, only because I will not continually 
find something to talk away about! 
Aunt now thinks that I have got a cer- 
tain coldness of my own in my 'too 
lively nature,' a restraining repose, 
which is imposing and piquant, — that is 


what she wants, I suppose! In all could and ought to defend Grip at this 

probability just like the ice in the time, it should be she; but instead of 

beaming hot pudding among the Chi- that, she attacks him whenever she 

nese, which we read about, you remcm- can. 

her, in the Bee. " He has begun to keep a free Sun- 

" Aunt has so many whims this win- day school or lecture for those who 

ter. Now we two must talk nothing but choose to come, in a hall out on Main 

French together ! But, that she should street. It is something, you know, 

write to Captain Roennow that I was which creates a sensation. And aunt 

so perfect in it, I did not like at all ; I shrugs her shoulders, and looks forward 

have no desire to figure as a school-girl to the time when he will vanish out of 

before him when he returns ; neither is good society, although she has always 

my pronunciation so 'sweet,' as she been the first to interest herself for him 

says! and to find that he came with some- 

"I really do n't understand her any thing new. It is so extremely mean of 

longer. If there was any one who her, I think." 


By C. Jennie Swaine. 

Over the keys her white hand crept 

With a flutter, like that of a frightened bird; 
But her touch was sure of the notes that slept. 

Biding the organist's time to be heard. 
And the notes of the singer grew strong and sweet, 

And she trembled no more at the foot-lights* glare, 
While perfume stole up from the flowers at her feet, 

Flooding with summer the stifling air. 

But who penned the words of the tender song? 

Who wreathed the notes of the beautiful chords? 
And who, amid all of the listening throng, 

To the artist-dreamer a flower awards? 
Ah! the fair prima donna will wear with pride 

Her Circeau magic, in storm, and calm : 
But the poet, who wrote the sonnet, died 

In the beautiful siren's power to charm. 

The poet was strong with an honest pride. 

And sure of each note as he touched the keys ; 
But the sweet young singer turned aside, 

And blushed at the wavering melodies. 
The song was the faded lily of night, 

Whose mellow beauty had ripened for rest, 
And the singer the rose of the morning light — 

But I loved the sweet, sealed lilv best. 


By Frank lt\ Rollins. 

Little Brannigan sat in the stern of 
the boat, patiently watching his line, 
while I sat amidship baiting my hook, 
from which the cunners incessantly 

stole the seductive clam. The fish 
were biting well, but we were not catch- 
ing many. The dory wobbled about on 
the waves, tugging at its anchor, the 
sun shone hotly down, while here and 
there, out upon the horizon's verge, a 
white sail glimmered for an instant and 
then disappeared. Neither of us had 
spoken for some time. 



" Could n't tell me a story, could you ? " 

"I don't know, Brannigan. My head 
is so full of that machine I 'm making — 

"What machine, Pops ? " 

" Oh, I guess it would n't interest you." 

" Yes, it would. Do tell me about 
it, won't you ? " 

" Well, it 's pretty intricate, but I '11 
try and explain it to you. We '11 just 
fasten our lines to the side of the boat, 
and see who has the largest fish when I 
get through." 

We made our lines fast, and, taking a 
paper and pencil out of my pocket, in 
order to illustrate my scheme. I sketched 
rapidly and facilely a diagram of my 
machine, while Prannigan's eyes fol- 
lowed me in fascinated silence. 

"What is it, Pops? — a cow?" asked 

" Now, does that look like a cow?" 
I answered, somewhat nettled that he 
should mistake my free-hand drawing in 
this manner. " No, this is a machine, 
an invention, a discovery. Put, you 

will see — in order that you may clearly 
understand the whole thing and its 
working, we will letter the different parts 
of the machine. Let us call this tank or 
receiver, A; this set of knives, P; this 
rod, C; this cylinder, D; this shaft, E; 
this crank, F; this pinion wheel, G; 
this cog, H ; this cross lever, I ; this 
cam, J ; this ratchet, K; this shut-off, 
L; and this spout, Z." 

"There's some more letters, Pops." 

" What do you mean ? " 

"Why, you left out M, N, O, P, Q, R. 
S, T, U, V, W, X, and V." 

"I 'm saving those for my next ma- 


"Now, to show you how it works: 
You see I stand here and press the 
lever I, and this acts upon the cog H, 
which sets the machine in motion. This 
cog grasps the pinion wheel G, and the 
knives B begin to revolve. This forces 
the rod C to raise the cam J, and as 
the cam J comes in contact with the 
crank F, the ratchet K holds it until 
the substance has completed the revo- 
lution through the knives P. You then 
press the shut-ofl X, and the substance 
falls into the tank or receiver A, thence 
it passes through the cylinder D and out 
through the spout Z." 

"The engineer what runs that ma- 
chine will have to have a memby, won't 
he, Pops ? " 

" Yes, but just think of the mind 
which conceived it ! " and I took off my 
hat to cool my brain." 

" Put, p.ipa, what dors the machine 
make ? " 


" You may well ask, my boy, for this for there is a little spigot, which you 

is one of the great discoveries of an age turn, and from which the music escapes 

abounding in the marvellous. It dwarfs in quantities to suit. It does not spoil 

the steam engine into a child's toy ; it like tomatoes, after being opened, and 

throws the telephone into the dim re- grows mellower with time. 
gions of forgetful fi ess ; it jams the stor- M Each can will be distinctly labelled 

age battery and the electric light back to show what it contains. For instance, 

four centuries, and leaves them hope- one can might contain Gilbert's ' Pina- 

lessly stranded on the shores of time ; fore,'' another Gounod's ' Redemption,' 

it " and so on. Pleasing effects may be 

11 But what does it do ?" obtained by chastening the work of some 

"Do n't interrupt me, that was one of rugged and virile composer like Wagner 

my best periods. Time doesn't count by a mixture with some more tuneful 

when you are out fishing; but then you composer like I)e Koven. P'or instance, 

are young, Brannigan, and, as yet, do just put the score of ' Gotterdamerung ' 

not know to what heights your father's into the matrices at the same time 

incisive brain has soared. This machine, with De Koven's 'Robin Hood,' let 

my boy, would have driven Wagner wild ; them go through together, be reduced 

it would have rilled the soul of Mozart to one pulp, and, ye gods ! what an 

with ecstatic bliss ; King David would effect ! 

have given his crown to see this day. It "Then again think of Handel's 
brings joy to the humblest and most 'Judas Maccabeus' in conjunction with 
remote, as well as to the rich and the ' Wang ' or ' Evangeline ! ' The possi- 
dweller under the drippings of the opera, bilities are limitless. Another side of 
It does away with the lugubrious piano, the matter is that the music costs next 
with the shrieking cornet, and the mourn- to nothing, and Lieutenant Peary in his 
ful trombone. But, in a word, it is a ice-bound fastnesses at the base of the 
machine for making canned music. 'We North Pole, with the grizzly and the 
have canned tomatoes, canned salmon, musk-ox filling the air with their discord- 
why not canned music,' I said to myself, ant cries, while the pole creaks and 
and I have attained it. The deed is sways in the aurora borealian blasts, 
done." may wrap the drapery of his thoughts 
" But, Pops, how does it make it?" about him, and listen to the ' Stabat 
" It is very simple in principle, though Mater ' or ' Erminie ' as his mood leads 
difficult in execution. This diagram him. Or Stanley, in Darkest Africa, can 
represents my machine, which of course open a can as he sits at eventide under 
you fully comprehend after my explana- the efflorescent shade of the begum tree, 
tion. Now, you simply take the score and soothe the festive boa constrictor 
of any composition which you wish to into dreams of sucking pigs by Bach's 

can, introduce it between the rolls, pull 
the lever, and away she goes. After 
passing through the machine it finally 
arrives in the tank or receiver, where, 
after cooling, it is drawn off through the 
cylinder into the cans. You will notice 

' Ich hatte viol Bekummerniss.' " 

" When are you going to start your 

machine, Pops ?'' 

" Not till after the people get rested 

from the World's fair. But, my boy, the 

sun is getting low, and we 'II just see 

that you do not have to use a can opener, who has the biggest fish." 


Conducted by Fred Cowing, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 


By Frank IV. Whitney. 

The statutes of New Hampshire no 
longer require the candidate for a teach- 
er's position to present a certificate of 
qualification. Custom and the laws of 
our state, for nearly a century, have 
made the township school committees 
the examiners of our teachers. In hun- 
dreds of our schools the instructors 
know only the barest rudiments, and, in 
many cases, even these imperfectly : it 
cannot be otherwise when the higher 
salaries of the large towns and cities 
bring the average pay of male teachers 
up to only $48.83 and that of female 
teachers to only $27 per month. Men 
who can be hired for less than a dollar 
a day and women for fifty cents have 
no business to know enough to teach 

These existing conditions suggest for 
discussion the questions : Ought teachers 
to be subjected to examinations? Under 
our system, or lack of system, is the 
average teacher given an examination 
that shows fitness for work and the 
ability to run a school ? Are school 
committees the proper parties to per- 
form so important a work? 

Jt is safe to say that we have hard- 
working and faithful teachers, that they 
are ambitious to raise our calling to the 
level of a profession. We often claim 
that it is one of the great professions. 
The question seems to be, Is it ? Will 
any kind of an examination tend to 
make it so ? How is it in the mediral 

profession ? What is the difference 
between a doctor and a quack ? We 
all know that the character and ability 
to do good service vouched for by a 
diploma from a reputable college and a 
medical school of high standing means 
infinitely more than the bogus certificate 
that can be secured for money alone 
and without the expenditure of time and 
effort. Are there any incompetent 
quacks in our profession preying upon 
the people, allowing the insidious dis- 
ease of illiteracy to spread, and wholly 
unable to enlighten the minds of our 
youth ? Does it affect the estimate 
which the community makes of our 
calling ? 

How is it in theology? Must not the 
minister show evidence of a superior 
education, an approved-of theological 
training, and an exemplary character 
ever worthy of imitation ? Is the same 
care taken to secure in the teacher a 
man or woman who can improve the 
moral condition of the community? Is 
it not as much in the power of the 
teacher to do good as it is in the case 
of the preacher? 

How about the standing of the law- 
yer who has never been admitted to the 
bar? Who examines the lawyer ? Law- 
yers of ability, the legal lights of the 
profession. Who examines the minis- 
ters? Ministers. Who cxnmincs the 
doctors? Doctors. Who examines the 
teachers of New Hampshire ? Teachers ? 



No ! Rarely is it a man who knows 
or begins to know as much as the 
teacher ought to know. Usually it 
is some professional man, farmer, mer- 
chant, or mechanic, — all successful in 
their business, but- ignorant of the ways 
and needs of a modern school-room. 
Too often it is some unprincipled, 
scheming politician, working only for 
selfish ends. I never saw one who 
would n't sacrifice the interests of the 
school when he thought he could 
gain politically by so doing. I doubt 
if a man can be at the present time 
a successful politician and a good 
citizen. Have I spoken too harshly? 
Have I called a saint a sinner? If 
my estimate is even approximately cor- 
rect, must it not have a tendency to 
cheapen in the eyes of the people the 
worth of our certificates, and to lower us 
professionally ? 

Who should examine us ? Teachers. 
Men and women who are teaching? 
Not necessarily. They should be men 
and women who have ability in our line 
of work, and who can teach. In Ohio a 
law was passed about four or five years 
ago, providing that in cities of the first- 
class no person shall be appointed an 
examiner who has not had at least five 
years of successful experience as a 
teacher. Would that we could claim such 
protection for our profession. In our 
cities we have such examiners, and in the 
majority of cases their advice is followed. 

We need supervisors who can protect 
the schools from teachers who seek posi- 
tions for which they have not the requi- 
site preparation. We need examiners 
capable of selecting teachers who can 
teach our undeveloped boys and girls to 
read, write, and spell, who can so stimu- 
late their mental and moral nature that 
it will be possible for them to become 
worthy and patriotic citizens. 

Our examiners ought to be men 
responsible only to the executive 
department of the state, or local 
superintendents of recognized abil- 
ity ; they have been found superior 
and more efficient than those elected 
by the people. Their work is less 
liable to be influenced and affected 
by political management. The most 
enlightened communities now select 
for superintendents men who have had 
a successful experience in the school- 
room and who are qualified to be 
instructors of teachers : to them they 
wisely intrust the selection of their 
teachers. The duties of such super- 
intendents make them better judges of 
the relative merits of candidates. Few 
committees know the needs of the 
school ; none so well as they. When 
we consider that, other things being 
equal, the difference in schools is 
essentially the difference in teachers, 
we cannot hesitate in saying that it 
is the most important part of their work. 
Their success depends upon the condi- 
tion of the schools under their charge, 
and they will naturally be uninlluenced 
by friendship, personal beauty, religious 
prejudice, and politics ; their one aim 
will be to put into the schools teachers 
of real ability and good experience. 

Ought we to have a rigid, exacting 
standard for the whole state — such a 
system as is so successfully tried in 
Germany, in which "all public schools 
are under the state's supervision," in 
which all the teachers are government 
officers and must, at all times, submit 
themselves to the state's examination 
and inspection ? Such a system, unless 
considerably modified, would not be 
advisable under a government like uiirs, 
or possible wh<:re the salaries vary to 
the extent that they do in our cities 
and small towns. 




A study of the last New Hampshire 

school report will show that in those 
parts of the state where there is the 
best supervision, and consequently the 
greatest care exerted in the selection of 
good teachers, the youth get the benefit 
of from four to six times as many weeks 
of schooling as the boys and girls in 
those localities where there is the least 
expenditure of thought and money for 
the advancement of educational inter- 
ests. It is not in keeping with the 
spirit of our institutions that our youth 
should be more favored in one county 
than in another. This matter ought to 
be agitated ; every one who has a parti- 
cle of interest in our school system 
ought to bring his influence to bear 
upon our state officials and make them 
feel that New Hampshire is not doing 
enough for education until she has 
made it possible for every child to 
attend as good schools as any in the 
state and for the same number of weeks 
in every year. 

The question may be asked : Can we 
secure skilled and experienced teachers 
for schools that are small, poor, and 
poorly paid — especially when the 
teachers, by the experience and cun- 
ning acquired at the expense of the 
pupils they have taught, can secure bet- 
ter paid positions and a chance to do 
professional work in city schools? The 
answer is and ought to be — no ! What 
then can be done? We must do what 
is being done in some other states, 
notably in Massachusetts. We must 
close our small ungraded suburban and 
country schools and convey the pupils 
at the expense of the several towns to 
the centre schools. This centralization 
makes easily possible the payment of 
higher wages, and a grade of work that 
will compare favorably with any in the 
large towns and cities —centralize, com- 

bine, and properly grade the schools in 

our state, and more than one thousand 
less teachers can do it better. This 
plan has been proved to be more eco- 
nomical and is found to be very satis- 
factory both to pupils and to parents. 
Teachers are not unlike other people ; 
some like the life of a city, others pre- 
fer a country home. It is for the inter- 
est of a community to bring about these 
changes, and not force our teachers of 
ability to seek better paid positions in 
the city or other employment. 

More than thirty states have both a 
state and county superintendent ; we 
have but one, the state superintendent. 
A judicious centralizing of schools would 
enable a little group of neighboring 
towns to combine and have, at a small 
expense to each, an able superintendent. 
A Massachusetts town has just hired a 
New Hampshire teacher for her superin- 
tendent. This change of position should 
show our people what we must do to be 
as progressive. The state, county, and 
local superintendents would furnish an 
almost ideal board of examiners for 
determining the qualifications of teach- 

Even if it be not wise or politic for the 
state to say what shall be the test for 
determining the qualifications of candi- 
dates aspiring to teach in our schools, 
she ought to have a law that will make 
it impossible for any man or woman who 
is unqualified to teach to cross the 
threshold of any school-house as a 

In the German schools it is said that 
each teacher understands perfectly every 
subject that he teaches, and that he 
knows why he teaches each fact. He 
must prove it to the state before the gov- 
ernment allows him to enter the school- 
room as a teacher. With our many col- 
leges, scientific and training schools, 



teachers' institutes, and excellent school 
publications, the examiners ought not to 
grant a certificate until they are sure 
that the candidate has a knowledge of 
the history and principles of education, 
that he has a thorough knowledge of the 
studies he desires to teach, and what is 
equally important, the ability to impart 
his knowledge. 

The teacher who can control, interest, 
and influence his pupils, will secure for 
his school a better attendance, a higher 
average rank of scholarships, and will 
delay withdrawals from school-work till 
a time of real necessity. Success in the 
other so-called professions requires a 
special professional training. Doctors, 
ministers, and lawyers demand it for 
their own interest and protection. Our 
vocation will never deserve the name of 

profession until we make and obtain like 
demands. We must contend for these 
changes and this recognition until the 
masses of the people feel that we are 
right and that it is for their interest as 
well as ours. 

"Who would be free, themselves must strike 
the blow. v 

An examination is of value, if it shows 
whether a teacher has method or no 
method, a method that is good or one 
that ought to be condemned. Profes- 
sional qualifications are all important ; 
an examination paper alone cannot deter- 
mine them. The examiner must see the 
teacher at work. A teacher's certificate 
ought to vouch for the requisite knowl- 
edge, professional qualifications, and 
sterling; character. 


The increasing and wide-spread ob- 
servance of Arbor day all over the 
United States is very noticeable. In 
almost every town in our own state 
some little act was done to show that 
the schools were not unmindful of the 
governor's proclamation. Should this 
custom be carried out systematically, 
in a few years there would be a radical 
change in the appearance of the 
grounds around our country school 

Some one truly says — " It is of much 
account that the children should early 
learn, as they will by planting trees and 
watching their growth, their own power 
to produce effects, to be something else 
and something better than mere recipi- 
ents of impressions or bestowments from 
others. The trees are of their planting. 
Their growth is, in an important sense, 
their own work. Thus early, and thus 

easy, comes the lesson that they are in 
the world to accomplish something — to 
be doers, and well doers also." 

Aside from this important considera- 
tion, we would urge that as the children 
engage in the- work of planting trees, 
beautifying the school grounds, they are 
led to plan for the future, and provide 
for it. They learn the lesson of unself- 
ishness,— that they should live and do 
for others. 

And while the children are doing 
their part to enhance the beauty of 
their school grounds and streets, let the 
school officials be stimulated to exercise 
greater care and diligence in selecting 
sites and erecting commodious school 
buildings, when this becomes nece.ssury. 
This is one of the most important fac- 
tors in school work. 

In the cities and hirger towns, the 
school buildings of later years are gen- 



erally a credit to the good taste and 
public spirit of the communities in 
which they are situated. But away 
from these centres, many, — alas most — 
of the school buildings are ugly blots 
on the landscape. 

This shows that public sentiment must 
be aroused and educated ; that the people 
must be convinced that neat and attrac- 
tive school buildings and grounds are 
important elements in the educational 
work of our state ; that they are import- 
ant contributions to the mental and 
moral well-being of the children. 

Some of the states have issued books 
on school architecture and ventilation. 

In the library of the state department 
of public instruction, at Concord, are 
several of these books, and efforts are- 
being made to procure others. They 
will be gladly loaned to any responsible 
school officer in the state. The}- con- 
tain plans for school houses costing 
from five hundred dollars to several 

Let us hope that the time will soon 
come when the old dilapidated, dis- 
graceful school buildings may all be 
wiped out of existence, and new build- 
ings erected— not necessarily costly but 
comfortable and healthful for the pupils 
and the teacher. 



Nathan Peters was born in Goshen, and died in South Hampton May 31, aged 
91 years, 4 months, 10 days. In early life he was a neighbor of John G. Whit- 
tier, and for many years his friend. He had resided in South Hampton since 
1S28, and was engaged in manufacturing for many years. He represented the town 

in the legislature of 

I, and had filled the minor town offices. Two sisters, 

one 75 and the other S7 years of age, survive him. 

. Mary P. Thompson was born in Durham, November 19, 1825, and died at her 
home in that town June 6. She was an earnest and able student of local history 
and a writer of rare gifts. Her efforts were largely devoted to historical research 
and writing, and in her death a rich store of information about New Hampshire's 
early days is lost to the state and to posterity. 

William W. Allen was born in Alton, and died in Rochester June 20, aged 36 
years. He fitted for college in the Earmington high school, and graduated from 
Dartmouth college in the class of iS32. He had been a very successful teacher, 
filling with credit principalships at Charlestown, Dexter, Me., and Rochester, being 
at the time of his death principal of the high school in the latter city. 


Miss A. C. Morgan, who died in Portsmouth, June 22, aged 69 years, had con- 
ducted the female seminary, which bears her name, in that city fo: twenty years. 
She had resided in Portsmouth the greater pari of her life, and was widely known 
as a talented and successful teacher. 









I 13 LI! 



Imported T 

i-xl Hooks. I 

:n bodying 



ucatfonal Methods. 







IIMI2 Boylrtnn St 

::i Ea*i 171 


S y.i \\:ii.-.-h Ave. 

O-JH Arch St 

The August number of The Granitic Monthly will contain a biographical 


sketch of 

Mayor Charles A. Busiel, of Laconia, 

by Hon. Henry Robinson, and a profusely illustrated article upon the city of Laco- 
nia, by George H. Moses, Esq. 


A limited number of bound volumes of Volume XVI of The Granitk 
Monthly can be obtained of the publishers for 

$1.25 PER eOPY 

Subscribers desiring their magazines bound can have it done at this office for 
>o cents per volume, style same as heretofore. 


Monitor Bi.dg., Concord, N. H. 


X ! D D A 

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1 >: fUlGi 






C \?°lcime J 
\XfP * 

^r^ ^ 







Tmp <jl>(lN!Tir (*1otf t/UY (9, 

Uhc Granite toontbty, 

AUGUST, 1894. 

CHARGES ALBERT BUSIEL. {With Frontispiece.) Henry Robinson. 

THE CITY ON THE LAKES: A SKETCH OF I.ACONIA {Illustrated'). George H. Moses. 
A POEM. Edward A. Jenks. .......... 

THE FAMILY AT GILJE {Translated from the Norwegian of Jonas Lie). Hon. S AMU EL C 

Eastman. ............ 

THE GROWLER. CLARENCE H. Pearson. ........ 

SONNET TO SUNAPEE. John D. Quackenbos. ....... 


Pearson. ............ 


The Elementary Balance in the Common Schools. ..... 

Echoes from Bethlehem. .......... 


Entered at the post-office at Concord, N. II., as second-class matter. 
Illustrated and Printed by Republican Press Association. 






^itmm wmME>BM2i)fm 

ion 5 - 

m mo MMmmMo 



I I I JL3 V 1 IL© V\ c3 °^ Laconia, Lakeport, and Weirs were made by 


LsLs^?A/H« the ph 


Cabinets now at $2.50 per dozen. First-class finish. 

Hon. C A. P^tel, 


It would interest you to know how many prominent men are insured in the 
State Mutual Life of Worcester. Governors of states, U. S. Senators, Members ot 
Congress, etc., etc. These men have selected the vState Mutual Life because it offers 
the very best that there is in life insurance. Would you like a policy offered by a 
company fifty years old, that has a guaranteed cash and paid up value for each. 
year after its first? Let me explain about our other policies. Specimen policy 
mailed upon application. 

NICHOLAS FROST, General Agent for \e\v Hampshire, 


The Granite Monthly 

Vol. XVII. 

AUGUST, 1S94. 



By Henry Robinson. 

Somebody has said that biography is 
usually falsehood from the mouth of 
flattery, or slander from the lips of 
malice. On the safe middle ground of 
unobjectionable truth is ventured the 
simple statement that Hon. Charles A. 
Busiel is a broad, practical, upright, and 
useful citizen. Manly in his instincts, 
generous in his impulses, genial in his 
manners, fully rounded in all his facul- 
ties, he is remarkably well equipped for 
life's battle. In robust health, with 
resolute enterprise and that inestimable 
quality known as sound good sense, he 
averages far above men in general. It 
is safe to say that no business manager 
in New Hampshire is more highly 
appreciated and affectionately regarded 
in his respective community. Xo region 
of the state can boast of a more popular 
leader, whose superior administrative 
abilities and indefatigable fidelity to 
local interests have been more manifest, 
whose invincible and pervasive spirit 
of comprehensive improvement and 
general development has been more 
marked and successful than that of 
Mayor Charles A. Busiel, who has the 
considerable honor of being the first 
chief executive of the brilliant new city 
of Laconia, a populous and very pro- 
gressive municipality, presenting in itself 

a material and very handsome encomium 
on the splendid work and worth of its 
principal resident, the history, growth, 
and welfare of the cheerful place being 
indissolubly wrapped with his good 

Charles Albert Busiel, the subject of 
this sketch, was born in Meredith (Vil- 
lage), November 24, 1842, his parents 
being John \Y. and Julia (Tilton) Busiel, 
of that town, although John W. came 
originally from Moultonborough, X. H. 
Mrs. Busiel was the daughter of Stephen 
and Julia Tilton, of Meredith. 

The Busiel family moved to Laconia 
(at that time Meredith Bridge) in 1S46, 
Charles being only four years of age. 
He had a sister, who died in infancy, 
and there are now living in Laconia, and 
associated in business with him, two 
brothers, John T. and Frank E. Busiel, 
extensive hosiery manufacturers, and 
public-spirited citizens of sterling char- 
acter and unsullied reputation. 

Charles came of excellent stock, al- 
though his father's earlier circumstances 
were humble. John VV. was a manufact- 
urer, carding rolls for hand-spinning. 
That form of woollen manufacture was 
nearly all that was had in New England 
in those early days. The elder Busiel 
carded rolls and dressed cloth at Mere 



dith, in a small mill hired of Daniel 
Smith, and upon taking up his residence 
at what is now the delightful " City on 

the Lakes," he resumed the same em- 
ployment, occupying the old Bean mill, 
or Morrison mill- as it was subsequently 
called. This was a one-story wooden 
building, standing on the site now occu- 
pied by the dye-house of J. XV. Busiel 
& Co. After the old Strafford cotton- 
mill, which stood directly north of it, 
was destroyed by fire, the senior Busiel, 
in 1S53, purchased the water privilege 
and land there, and erected a brick mill, 
in 1854, where he made woollen yarns, 
and operated four sets of machinery, 
manufacturing some woollen cloth. He 
made what are known as Saxony and 
Germantown yarns, and also made sat- 
inet cloth. 

At that time the old custom carding, 
as it was styled, or the carding of rolls 
for farmers, had almost wholly disap- 
peared. There were still some small 
mills in New Hampshire engaged in 
the business, but it was rapidly going 
out of vogue. 

It was in the neighborhood of 1S56 
that the first letters-patent were taken 
out on knitting machinery, the first 
machines that were available to per- 
sons generally for woollen manufacture. 
Patents of this kind became the prop- 
erty of Jonas and Walter Aiken, of 
Franklin, and also of John Pepper, of 
Laconia; and thus John VV. Busiel, the 
founder of the great hosiery manufac- 
tory of Busiel & Co., was amongst the 
first to use that knitting machinery for 
the manufacture of hosiery. He began 
in a comparatively small way, but at 
the breaking out of the War of the 
Rebellion, the providing of our army 
with necessary supplies served to 
increase greatly the manufacturing 
enterprises of Xew England, and the 

early introduction of the industry at 
Laconia tended to centralize the business 
along the river, that being really the 
home of the woollen hosiery industry. 
The circular ribbed knitting machine 
proved a valuable invention. Shaker 
socks were made, and at one time 
ribbed shirts and drawers. The war 
stimulated the manufacture of hosiery 
of all kinds, and this became the sole 
business of the mill. Fine machines 
for ladies' goods were introduced, and 
the manufacture of men's, women's, 
and children's hose was carried on 
under the superintendence of Mr. 
Busiel, until his death, July 27, 1872, 
at the age of 57. 

Charles obtained his education large- 
ly at the public schools of the i; Bridge," 
having the advantages subsequently of 
attending the famous old Gilford acad- 
emy, but the best business college for 
him was found in the counting room of 
his worthy father, who is described as 
having been a man of kind-hearted, £en- 
erous nature, benevolent, public-spirited, 
and unselfishly devoted to the interests 
of his town. A local authority says that 
his rugged honesty, his strong antipathy 
to sham and false pretense, kindly in- 
terest in, and generous and fair dealing 
with, his employe's, and his ever ready 
help to the poor and unfortunate, are too 
well known to the elder residents of that 
community to need comment. He is 
authoritatively pronounced to have been 
emphatically a self-made man, raising 
himself to a comfortable independence 
in this world's goods, and being univer- 
sally loved and respected. His sudden 
death was deeply and widely regretted. 
Charles was employed by his father 
in different departments of the mill, 
gaining practical knowledge of the im- 
portant business, before he made his 
first venture for himself in the hosier)- 


manufacture, which was in 1S63, when 
he purchased and operated the property 
since known as the Pitman Manufactur- 
ing Co., which he disposed of a few 
years later. Jn 1S69 he formed a part- 
nership with his brother, John T., and 
they carried on the hosiery business to- 
gether until the death of their beloved 
father in 1672, when Frank E. Busiel 
joined in the partnership with his two 
brothers, under the well-known firm 
name of J. W. Busiel & Co., which has 
since continued. It is unnecessary to 
add that this triple partnership has been 
a very progressive and prosperous one 
from the outset, new buildings having 
been added to the original plant and 
various modern facilities and every re- 
cent improvement in the line of machin- 
ery having been adopted. 

At the head of this magnificent busi- 
ness, established and maintained by in- 
dustry, honesty, and capable manage- 
ment, stands Hon. Charles A. Busiel, 
the unassuming and unostentatious cen- 
tral figure of the rapidly growing city, his 
name having become synonymous with 
its commendable advancement in manu- 
facturing, banking, railroading, building, 
and with almost every other branch 
of its legitimate progress and develop- 
ment. No place of no larger population 
in the United States has made more 
rapid strides toward the desirable objects 
of intelligent and cultured civilization, 
and to no man, or set of men, is the 
credit so largely due as to Mr. Busiel 
himself, who modestly interdicts expres- 
sions of appreciation and praise, and 
keeps steadily on with his good work, 
which extends throughout the city, from 
the magnificent new passenger railway 
station, the building of which was pro- 
cured through his efforts and influence, 
to the remotest highways, some of which 
are the model ones of the Granite siate, 

if not of New England : on all sides 
being unmistakable evidences of his 
limitless energy, enterprise, and genius 
of government. 

The Lake Shore railroad is especially 
a monument to his courage, tact, and 
indomitable will. The history of that 
undertaking is the story of success 
against fearful odds, in the face of 
obstacles that would have appalled a 
common mind. The two great railway 
systems of Xew Hampshire were both 
vigorously averse to the enterprise, be- 
cause they believed it would not redound 
to their pecuniary advantage, or might 
be used by one to the detriment of the 
other; but in spite of the tremendous 
momentum of their combined organiza- 
tion, Mr. Busiel maintained an unre- 
mitting crusade for years, during which 
he himself became a director in one of 
the giant opposing corporations, and 
finally saw the happy and remarkable 
spectacle of each vying eagerly with the 
other for the coveted privilege of father- 
ing the project and constructing the line 
which is now such an acknowledged 
public benefit. 

Mr. Busiel has, for nearly ten years, 
been prominent in railway circles, and 
is a considerable OAner in different 
railway corporations. Fie is, at pres- 
ent, an active director in the Concord 
i\: Montreal, Meredith &: Conway, 
Xew Boston, Tilton ii' Franklin, Moosi- 
lauke, Profile & Franconia Notch, as 
well as being president of the Lake 
Shore road. Upon the completion of 
the last branch, he was given a token 
of esteem by the citizens of Laconia 
generally, who improved the opportunity 
to congratulate him upon the important 
success that he had so valiantly achieved, 
especially for that section of the state. 

Laconia was formerly <i Democratic 
town, and Mr. Busiel was associated with 



that party, but, six years ago, he took 
exception to the views of the Democracy, 
as generally expressed, especially on the 
subject of the tariff, a matter regarded 
as of vital importance to him and his 
numerous employes, because of its 
claimed bearing upon the manufactur- 
ing interests. Preferring the national 
Republican platform of principles, he 
voted for Benjamin Harrison for presi- 
dent, and became and remains identified 
with the Republican party, an avowed 
member of that political organization, 
believing, as he avers, that it represents 
those great truths and correct policies 
on which the welfare and prosperity of 
the country depend. Although not 
seeking or desiring the position, he was 
elected and re-elected mayor by a rousing 
majority each time, the latter election 
being by the phenomenal majority of 
almost 600. The prominence of the 
choice under the circumstances is such 
that he is said now to represent more 
emphatically than any other one man 
in the state the great central idea of 
protection to American industries, and 
to the interests of the laboring people; 
and entering the Republican party, as 
he did, with so many followers, and 
assured, as he is declared to be, of 
many more, it is considered not surpris- 
ing that his nomination to the governor- 
ship should be suggested and urged 
at this time as a partisan expedient, 
especially as his geographical location 
and general qualifications are pro- 
nounced so favorable and fitting. 

It is urged that with him as a stand- 
ard-bearer the coming campaign would 
have in it an element of magnetism, 
popularity, and significance which per- 
haps no other available candidate could 
insure to it. His change from affilia- 
tion with one political party to alliance 
with the other was made so apparently 

unselfishly, and upon reasons that seemed 
so conclusive to his own judgment, that 
nobody has arisen to question the sin- 
cerity of his action, however much the 
expediency of the step may have been 
doubted. The universal trust and favor 
Mayor Busiel enjoys at Laconia are 
ample testimonials to his irreproachable 
character, and demonstrate the supreme 
confidence in which he is so very gen- 
erally held by the people throughout 
the whole community in which he has 
his home. Besides being mayor, he is, 
ex-officio, a member of the standing 
committee on finance. He was a dele- 
gate to the Cincinnati National con- 
vention in 1S80, and a member of the 
state legislature in 1S7S, and again in 
1879, exercising as such that keen dis- 
cernment of which he is the fortunate 
possessor, and bringing to bear upon 
the various subjects for legislative con- 
sideration a fund of valuable experience 
and accurate information that made him 
at once an influential member of the 
house of representatives, where his careful 
judgment was held in uncommon defer- 
ence by his associates. Whether in the 
directorship of railroads and other large 
corporations, or in the management of 
minor affairs in Laconia, whether at 
home or abroad, or wherever he may be, 
or however urgent and exciting may be 
the occasion, he is always the same self- 
commanding, comprehensive, capable, 
common-sense man and manager, — ac- 
cessible, kindly, dignified, sincere, gra- 
cious, and able. His name is properly 
placed high in the choice list of the 
leading spirits of the Granite state. 
Called on for the greater part to deal 
with weighty questions, he neverthe- 
less gives adequate consideration to 

This is true of his administration of 
city affairs, in which every point, whether 



pertaining to the police or the fire de- 
partment, or any other branch of the 
public service, is given the required per- 
sonal attention. He was formerly a 
member of the fire department himself, 
was its chief for several years, and many 
a hot run he has had with the "boys," 
and many a time he has led the grand 
march at their annual ball. He was 
somewhat of an athlete, physically, in 
early years and is a finely-formed gentle- 
man of good carriage. He is fond of a 
good joke, tells an apt story, and has a 
strong sense of fun. He is one of the 
most companionable of men, square and 
frank in his statements, correct in his 
dealings, charitable in his judgments, 
and exceedingly kind and indulgent to 
the poor and erring. The fondness with 
which he is held by his own townspeople, 
young and old, of all grades and classes, 
all sorts and conditions alike, is remark- 
able. Its unaffected and unbroken en- 
thusiasm is contagious. 

Mr. Busiel married Eunice Elizabeth 
Preston, on November 21, 1S64, and 
they have one child, an accomplished 
and attractive young lady, now married, 
and resident at Philadelphia, Penn. 
Mrs. Busiel is a lady of superior attain- 
ments, with a wide circle of warm 
friends. Their residence is one of ele- 
gant taste and refinement, and there is 
about their home the same pleasing 
atmosphere of peace, happiness, and 
harmony that characterize their person- 
alities. The family attends the Congre- 
gational church. 

The Busiels constitute the centre of a 
considerable social circle, having many 
friends and acquaintances throughout 
the state, and elsewhere. While not 
indulging in any ambitious display, their 
residence is one of frequent welcome to 
visitors, the hosts having an easy, unob- 
trusive, and very happy faculty of enter- 

taining. It is a grace that comes of 
good breeding, of culture, refinement, 
and experience, — genuine politeness, that 
has origin in generous hearts. The 
Busiel "boys," as they are still called, 
are very widely and very favorably 
known, and, while they have been re- 
markably successful in business, they 
have kept untarnished the honest pride 
of the splendid family name. However 
prosperous they may have become in 
material things, they have never for a 
moment held themselves above anybody, 
even the humblest workman, and their 
advancement has therefore awakened 
nothing of covetousness, not a tinge of 
apparent jealousy. There is no dross 
in their make-up, no discount upon their 
standard qualities. 

The three brothers are each worthy 
of especial mention, but the mission of 
this cursory article pertains only to 
Charles, who in private life is a devoted 
husband and father, a true and willing 
friend, a most accommodating and cheer- 
ful neighbor, a self-reliant, patient, and 
painstaking man, sympathetic and self- 
sacrificing. He has won the respect and 
support of his employe's and business 
acquaintances by straightforward deal- 
ing. His voice and his hand are against 
vice, fraud, corruption, and oppression. 
His business sagacity is his forte, and his 
integrity the shield of his protection. 
The secret of his success is energy, and 
it never tires. He is now in the full 
vigor and strength of manhood's prime, 
with his intellect at the zenith of clear- 
ness. Already he has made a name 
that will be cherished long after he has 
passed from sight, and yet from the 
happy vantage-ground of a sound con- 
stitution and a good mental equipoise, 
he may look forward with reasonable as- 
surance to a future of still greater en- 
deavor and accomplishment. 



Concord &c Montreal Railroad Station. 

By George H. Moses. 

p.' ■■:■/ :.^ J' J 

& - •- «>~~=-_^ . ^s- r~- timers ■ 

O less an au- 
thority than 
the Colony of 
setts Bay first 
claimed juris- 
diction over 
that portion of New Hampshire's terri- 
tory now included in the limits of the city 
of Laconia, and the testimony thereof 
remains to this day engraved on the sur- 
face of the Endicott Rock by Governor 
John Endicott's surveyors, who in Aug- 
ust, 1652, marked here the northern 
boundary of Massachusetts soil. To 
follow the transition of membership 
through the 241 years intervening be- 
tween that day and the time when the 
city of Laconia was born is the histo- 
rian's task, not mine. It is the histo- 
rian's duty to philosophize upon the 
Mason ian grant in which this territory 
was included and from which it took 
its name ; it is the historian's duty to 

trace the growth of the State of Xew 
Hampshire and the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, to point out Endicott's 
error, to show how Mason's claim fell, 
to rehearse the grants by royal and 
state authority, to specify legislation, 
and to point out methods as well as to 
present results. 

A portion of the:>e duties falls to me, 
also, and I must be about my task : 

Where now Laconia stands was once 
embraced within the township limits of 
Meredith and Gilmanton, the former 
under the name of New Salem, having 
been settled early in the century, and as 
Meredith having been granted in 176S. 
Gilmanton came into existence in 1727, 
and passed through several phages and 
titles before coming under its present 
condition. Some portions of the ter- 
ritory have been so frequently made the 
subject of annexation, division, and 
change that they demand a more ex- 
tended treatment than can be given here. 



Cojrt House. 

But, speaking roughly, the outline is 
this: From Gilmanton the Gunstoek 
Parish was set off as the town of Gil- 
ford in 18 1 2 ; from this that portion of 
Laconia lying south of the YVinnipe- 
saukee river was taken in 1S74, and to 
it was restored a portion of this same 
land two years later in order to give 
symmetry to that portion of Gilford in 
which the village of Lakeport was situ- 
ated ; and, the final transfer, the com- 
munity thus made symmetrical was 
made Ward Six of the new city in 1893, 
when Laconia re- 
ceived municipal hon- 
ors. So far as Mer- 
edith is related to 
Laconia there was 
but one transaction : 
that portion of Laco- 
nia, not before men- 
tioned, was taken 
from Meredith and 
erected into a town- 
ship in 1855. This 
was the original terri- 
tory of Laconia, and 

the new town came into existence as 
the result of a catastrophe which befell 
the people of Meredith on March Meet- 
ing day, 1S55. 

On that day the voters of the town 
assembled for the first time in a new 
town-house which had been built at 
Meredith Parade. The structure and 
its location had been the subjects of 
quite the usual amount of heated dis- 
cussion which attends the completion 
of such an enterprise in a rural commu- 
nity, and some of the dissatisfaction 


hit a */r» 


1 9 



tit liUt in. myi 

t , ■ 

Ma-oo.c Terrp.i. 

6 4 




i ■ 

Folsom BIock. 

still exists, even though the occasion 
for it has long since been removed. 

"Twa'n't much of a thing any how," 
said one of the old men who described 
the disaster to me. " Built up 'gainst a 
side hill, humph ! " 

But to our disaster. The meeting was 
about to organize itself and the voters 
were standing before the mod- 
erator's desk awaiting a chance 
to deposit their ballots, when 
the floor gave way beneath the 
weight of the crowd, and sev- 
eral hundred men were pitched 
headlong into the basement. 

Several deaths resulted from 
this disaster, and the discontent 
with the new town-house, coup- 
led with anger growing out of 
the accident, led to the seces- 
sion of the most thriving com- 
munity in the town, and at the 
next session of the legislature, 
only three months distant, the 
village of Meredith Bridge was 
transformed into the town of 

Laconia. The village of Meredith Bridge 
had its beginnings in 1765, when the first 
sawmill in town was erected on the 
sawmill grant. This beginning was 
rapidly followed by the growth of a vil- 
lage around the centre ; settlers in- 
creased ; farms multiplied ; a stage 
route to Boston became a dailv feature 

i - 

- ■ 



ta __ i 





1 1 

Mi''' '■'■ 

■ .-.» 


G'iford Avenue Schoo ; . 



of existence ; industries 
sprang up : a term of 
court was established; 
and the community be- 
came noted. Court was 
first held here in 1S20 
in a building which was 
presented to the county 
of Strafford (Belknap 
county not having been 
erected until 1S40) by 
the citizens of Milford, 
on whose soil the county 
seat was set up. This 
structure, though lately 
replaced by a modern 
and elegant edifice in High School. 

which the county business is transacted, Meredith Bridge took on added im- 

still survives, and is in use as a church, portance, and on court-days it particu- 

the gospel now falling from the bench larly assumed the demeanor of a me- 

where the law formerly held sway. In its tropolis. The "great day" of court 

earliest years some portion of the build- was the first Thursday of the semi- 

ing was used as an academy, so that in annual session. On that day the crim- 

all its history it has at least been faith- inals were brought up from Dover jail 

ful to the one central idea of instruction, for arraignment. The August term was 

With the establishment of the court particularly attractive to the crowd, and 

■ITA**^ ,.-;*..* :,:m ■■» 

Ope'* Kouse. 



on the ''great 
day" the town 
would be full of 
people who had 
come in to trade, 
to exchange gos- 
sip, and, last of 
all, to attend 
court. Meredith 
Bridge on those 
days was full of 
life, the liveliest 
kind of life. The 
route to the 
court-house was 
lined with ped- 
dlers and fakirs. 
T i n peddlers' 
carts, Yankee 
notion carts, gingerbread carts, all kinds keepers to be sold on easy terms. Many 

g^tfrt ;'" 

>-*~. i . 



South Grammar School 

of carts, stood in the row. Here a 
barrel of cider was dispensed at one 
cent a glass ; there a hive of honey 
found purchasers at ik fo' pence a chunk ;" 
next to the honev a load of silk hats 

of the hucksters attracted a crowd by 
means of vocal or instrumental music, 
a violin or an accordeon being most fre- 
quently heard ; those who could neither 
play nor sing would shout, and there was 

found ready purchasers among the dan- noise enough for the passage of an army. 
dies of the day. The clock-maker was Opposite the court-house was a grove 
present, too, with a few wooden time- and an open space adjacent. Here the 

jockeys swarmed 
and swapped 
horses until after 
dark, when the 
dickering was 



!«••« ...... 


■'■ "• . 



4 >* 

N -:• Grammar Scr x 

transferred to the 
taverns and con- 
tinued far into 
the night. The 
celebration of the 
" great day " of 
court was a feat- 
ure in the local 
calendar until 
the outbreak of 
t h e Rebellion ; 
and was, so far 
as 1 can learn, 







•■'•• > 



McLaughlin Foundry. 

almost a unique custom. Coincident 
with the " great day," at least in its 
abandonment, was training day, when 
the sturdy yeomanry of the locality, 
under compulsion and S3. 50 a year, 
appeared "armed and equipped as the 
law directs, for military exercises and 
inspection." Beside the soldiers, the 
striped pig and the other attractions 
of the "great day" divided the atten- 
tion of the crowd. In the ranks there 
was little enthusiasm and the old Queen's 
arm was handed up for inspection with 
small grace. For military purposes 
training day was not a success ; but in 
its social aspect it was without equal, 
and on those rare occasions when the 
governor graced the day with his pres- 
ence and was escorted with great pomp 
and circumstance frum Gilmanton the 
date of muster was sure to be indicated 
with red letters in the calendar. 

It was when these festivals were at 
their height that a suburban visitor 
returned home from a day celebration 
and informed his family that " the man 

who dies without seeing Meredith 
Bridge is a consummate fool,"— though 
his adjective was shorter and more 

■'\i fcj 

. . 


r (I 




. c* — : 

Laconia Nation Bank. 





.. ■ ^ rv - 





- ■ 

'I ! ' III 

1 tr 

I I - 

iiii! wiill!! — r ! 

^JL!E5™ ^^ * • 

,,.,,. mi h 

"\ -. '. - ? vV : ' 

Residence of Perley Putnam. 



emphatic than "consummate." Long the introduction of new lines of travel 
before the " great day " and muster the people felt themselves to be the sub- 
time had passed they were felt to be jects of a daily inspection, 
superfluous ; for affairs had prospered The building of the Province Road 
so mightily at Meredith Bridge that from Gilmanton to Meredith Bridge 
every day was a great day, and with occurred in 1770 and has afforded the 

new community an outlet to the 
"!S^ *v3s? Y/*J: sea at Portsmouth. It was not 

long before a stream of commerce 
ran over this course, and com- 
merce when once begun thrived 
wonderfully. The industries of 
the place diversi- 
fied rapidly, and 
in addition to the 
agricultural and 
dairy products 
which would be 
expected from a 
community as old 
as this, there 
sprang up estab- 
lishments from 
which were turn- 
ed out shooks, 
barrels, pegs, 

- ; - 

;• I) p'Oh 




,^? -' ^ 

Residence of Napo'eon B Gala. 


6 9 



I u 

hats and caps, oil 
cloths, iron imple- 
ments, boots and 
shoes, ticking, pot- 
tery, paper, and 
machinery. Much- 
of these products 
sought the overland 
route and traffic in 
shooks was partic- 
ularly brisk with 
Portsmouth where 
fish-packers and dis- 
tillers furnished 
ready market. The 
huge teams loaded 

high with shooks and drawn by oxen 
were objects of childish wonder in those 
days as they creaked slowly along the 
highway. The first stage of the journey 
to Portsmouth was twenty miles and one 
convivial driver found himself when near 
nightfall eight miles from his first stop- 
ping place and sat himself down to take 
his bearings. " It is eight miles to the 
first stopping place,''" he reasoned, " and 
with eight miles back to where I am, 
that makes sixteen. But it is only 
twelve miles to the Bridge, so I guess 
I'll go back there for the night." And 
he did ; but it was his last trip. 

The diversity of occupation which I 
have outlined was not the natural indus- 

~ v *^WM2 



i I 

. ■ 
- » - . . " 



Residence of E. C Covell. 

trial development of a community such 
as this was destined to be ; and the 
direction of its forces into their proper 
channel under the new condition of pro- 
duction which increasing concentration 
of capital had brought about was not 
completed when the war broke out and 
producers were brought to face still 
newer conditions which brought newer 
problems, though they did not disturb 
the trend of trade. 

Then the real development of the 
place began. Six years before it had 
sought release from its allegiance to the 
town of Meredith and was free to seize 
upon the impetus which the war gave all 
manufacturing: communities in the Xorth 

U ^ 


1 ! 

=* 4 ... ri 'Kr- 

^ •: - - v - -"■' ' 


.. . t< . ■ ■ - I t, . . , 

.,,- .... : — lad. — . — c* I j ! — — 1 — <— kii-j • 

* I L 

Res dt-r.cos on'n Street. 

7 o 



' ' 

Residence of Mrs. Sarah Ide. 


and to make the most of it. That impetus 
has never been lost. It has been les- 
sened at times by stringencies of busi- 
ness, but it has always remained, ready 
at the first opportunity to reassert itself. 
Under these conditions manufacturing 
in Laconia began to assume symmetry 
and coherence. Certain conditions of 
production led capital into certain lines, 
and there it has contented itself to re- 
main, with the result that to-day Laconia 

i 'A i( 4 ■ , i 


Tne H. Tilton Residence. 

is the headquarters of hosiery manufact 
uring and kindred interests in northern 
New England, to name the most limited 
sphere of influence. This has come 
about in a measure logically, but only 
logically as far as the sagacity of the first 
hosiery manufacturer and his sons has 
been applied to producing the eminently 
desirable result. 

Along with the march of time came 
the railroad, the Boston, Concord «$: 
Montreal, reaching Meredith Bridge in 
the last of the '40s. For forty years this 
road was the only means of transporta- 
tion enjoyed, but at the end of 
that time a new opening was 
made by means of the Lake 
Shore railroad which, sweeping 
along the beautiful curves of the 
western shore of Lake 
VVinnipesaukee, gives 
access to the region 
where once the entire 
community did its 
trading over the old 
Province road. Along 
this new avenue of 
c o 111 mere e have 



of them. Social re- 
forms swept over the 
place: the Washingto- 
nian movement, among: 

others, seized the com- 
munity, and among the 
lyceum lectures of the 
times was frequent men- 
tion of the " absorbing 
topic of temperance," 
Tohn P. Hale, among 
others, being invited to 
address the people on 
this subject, 
sprung up small suburban communities. All these improved conditions had not 

the summer homes of Laconia captains been brought about spontaneously. Far 

The railroad fought its wav 

Residence of Frank P. Holt 

of activity, and at Lake Shore Park has 
been found the breathing-place for a 
state. Vet as these are beyond the 
bounds of Laconia they are outside my 
limits also. 

And while Laconia was ^rowinjr to all 
this, it was passing through other expe- 
riences as well. A new county had been 
erected about the court-house. The town 
had taken to itself that portion of its 
neighbor whereon the court-house stood ; 
and had afterward 
given up to its neigh- 
bor some of its own 
self in return. Fires 
had come and gone, 
and the town had 
been benefited by 
them. The old acad- 
emy in the court- 
house had given way 
to graded schools. 
The one church and 
no pastor had been 
followed by half a 
dozen churches, and 
more than that num- 
ber of pastors. A 
newspaper rose up 
and flourished — two 

from it. 

into New Hampshire, and contested al- 
most every mile of its progress. At 
Meredith Bridge, the editor of the 
Belknap Gazette set his face sternly 
against such godless engines as a loco- 
motive, and believed all corporations a 
curse. A railroad he believed especially 
harmful, and besought his readers to 
give such a scheme no countenance. 
" Last week," he exclaimed in one issue, 



Residence of Dtnn.s O Sl-<=a 

■ £3 




... ■ 



^ ir.*- .Jvl .^.^ 





r . 

" a whole carload of live hogs 
was brought from Ohio to Boston. 
Farmers, how do you like that ?" 

They evidently liked it well 
enough to vote that the town 
should subscribe roundly to the 
capital stock of the proposed 

The first minister was received 
with even less enthusiasm ; and 
from his diary and letters a lugu- 
brious tale is told of the growth 
of the gospel here. But both 
railroads and ministers persisted, 
and I have already indicated the 
extra facilities which the place enjoys, 
under the former head. A glance at 
Laconia's churches and pastors will 
show whether there is anything lacking 
in the ministerial line. 

The aboriginal possessors of this 
region made their home within the limits 
of our eighth city. At the outlet of Lake 
Winnipesaukee they set up the village of 
Aquedoctan, where great stone wiers 
were placed in the river, as fish-traps. 
"The Penacook word for river,*' says 


Fish Hatchery. 

Mr. E. P. Jewell of Laconia, an author- 
ity on Indian nomenclature, " was Aque- 
doctan. The great stone fish-trap was 
constructed in the form of a YV. The 
lower points extended quite a distance 
below the present iron bridge ; the walls 
extended up the river some ten or fifteen 
rods, and touched the shore. Good-sized 
stones, such as could be picked up in 
the river and on the shores, were used; 
at low or ordinary stages of the water, 
the walls were never covered ; but at 

rnii«u£. ,!, 

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t , 

» ■ 


Lakeside House. 

flood times the water flowed over them. 
They were substantially built. The 
lower points were left open a few feet 
for the water and fish to go through. A 
short distance below the opening, another 
wall was built, in a half-circle, and into 
the spaces was placed wickerwork, 
through which the water could easily 
flow, but fine enough to secure fish of 

any considerable size 

When the white settlers came the weirs 

were in a good state of preservation, and 
were used by them. Fish wardens were 
appointed yearly, whose duty it was to 
go, two days each week, to see that the 
fish were fairly distributed among the 
people who assembled here. If not 
enough were found in the traps, boats 
and rafts were sent up into the lake, and 
the water was beaten with brush and the 
fish were driven in. This was the method 
pursued by the Indians for years before, 

. ■ . . 

• | 3 ■ 

•IS r 

. : -,J '* 



Endicort Rock. 



for these rude 
walls bore un- 
mistakable evi- 
dence of great 
age. With tiie 
exception of 
the two days 
each week 
when the war- 
dens were pres- 
ent any one 
could use them. 
. . . Exca- 
vations and im- 
provements in 
the interest of 
navigation and 




■ • • - . ■ 

i ft, 

1 : 

People's Church. 


have obliterated all traces of these inter- indeed, after his bound had been hidden 
esting old monuments of another race."' for two centuries and then had reap- 
It was at this point that Worshipful peared — that a new kind of explorers 
John Endicoti, governor, fixed the source appeared, seeking that which knows no 
of the Merrimack river. It was at this jurisdiction, no courts. They were in 
point, long after Gov. Endicott's claim search of healthful influences, the beauty 
had been disputed and overthrown — of nature, rest and recreation. They 

found them all, and the marks 
they set up were not oblitera- 
ted, were not forgotten, but 
were added to year by year ; 
and The Weirs, growing from 
a mere railroad station with a 
steamboat connection, devel- 
oped into a summer resort — a 
great summer resort, where ren- 
dezvous four great religious 
bodies, and where the New 
Hampshire Veterans' Associa- 
tion meets yearly in its new 
buildings— the only place in 
the land where the ' ; boys in 
blue" enjoy such a privilege. 
At The Weirs, too, thousands in 
nowise connected with any of 
the interests named find the 
pleasures of the summer season 
in abundant measure, for the 





• ■ 

; 1 


"• i - : 

French Catholic Church. 

4 SKETCH OF /..ICOX/.l. 

4 I I !! 


i : i — 

Methodist Episcopal Churcr.. 

ended a half-mile below where The Weirs 
now lies, for the place then was too insig- 
nificant to pay any sort of attention to. 
There were four families living here ; a 
chance fisherman now and again reached 
the place ; but that was all. 

In 1S73 certain prominent members of 
the Methodist church fell a-thinking. The 
denomination had established two camp- 
meeting grounds, one to accommodate the 
brethren in the southern part of the 
state at Epping, the other to accommo- 
date the faithful in the north country 
was at Lisbon. The great middle 
class, to borrow a sociological Angli- 
cism and turn it to geographic uses, 
was unaccommodated, and to give 
them what they demanded a site was 
sought for another camp-meeting nearer 
the centre of the state than either 
Epping or Lisbon. 
As may be supposed, there was some 

ter by the Rev. S. G. 
Kellogg, and Messrs. 


myriads of cottages and the dozens 

of hotels that have sprung up here competition among 
shelter the population of a city; who certain aspiring lo- 
demand city conveniencies, and have calities for the honor 
them, even to their own newspaper, of the new associa- 
which, in the form of The Weirs Times, tion's patronage, but 
comes to them weekly from the hands of through the skilful 
Mr. Matthew H. Calvert, one of the handling of the mat- 
most talented journalists in Xew Eng 

These things came quickly to 
The Weirs, for that remarkable 
resort has only just now turned 
twenty-one, and rarely do the 
years of youth contain so much 
of improvement and progress as 
may be noted here. 

In 1S73 the IJoston, Concord <S: 
Montreal railroad ran through the 
woods at The Weirs. There was 
a steamboat landing, but to get 
to it one must come on the cars, 
or walk, either on the railroad 
track or through the woods. 
There was no road here, that 




L. K. Weeks and Hiram Oilman — of 
whom only the last is now living- -the 

new camp-meeting was pitched at The 
Weirs, and in 1S73 the association pur- 
chased twenty acres of land along the 
lake front, and held their first meeting 
that year. At that time the whole re- 
gion through here was woods, and the 
entire camp-ground had to be cleared 
of underbrush and debris before using. 

That was the beginning of The Weirs. 
The thrifty brethren erected their speak- 
er's stand and set up their woodland 
tabernacle in the centre of their tract, 
and plotted the rest into house-lots, 
which sold readily and with some profit. 
From the tabernacle the cottage city 
spread out. It first encircled the lake 
front, then it crept back along radiating 
avenues which bear the names noted in 


i! if" 


1 ( i 






'- _~. ^ 

Unitarian Church. 

Methodism's noble history. Finally it 
burst its churchly bonds, swarmed across 
the railroad track, invaded the hill op- 
posite, swept up the crest, was finally 
hurled back with every position of van- 
tage occupied, and sought a new base 
of operations across the river and along 
the horse-shoe curve of the lake further 

The character of summer residents 
thus brought here was of the highest 
and best to be found in the land. Hun- 
dreds of the clergy and the con>e- 
crated laymen of the Methodist church 
have established themselves here; and 
through the stringencies with which the 
association begirt all its deeds the place 
has been singularly free from most of 
the influences which pervade the mod- 






Hon. E. P. Jewel 

Col. S. S. Jewett. 



. ._ 


W. A. Plummer 


Charles E. Buzzell 

- V 

\V . 

Hon. E. A. Hicbard. 



Hon. E. C. Lewis. 


, : 



ft #% ! 




W. F. Kn.ght. 

Hon. B J. Cole. 

C. L. Puls.fer 




crn summer resort not at all to its ad- 

Along with the growth of the cottage 
system at The Weirs went the hotel 

who some years since went to the 
house not made with hands, and his 
brother, Mr. George \Y. Weeks, now 
manages the hotel, and in addition 

business, though that had a later origin, holds a seat in the city council of Laconia 

and has attained less gigantic propor- 
tions than its forerunner. 

The first hotel at The Weirs was 
built in 1877 by L. R. Weeks, and he 
had eight guest chambers at first. The 
next year he doubled his capacity, and 
three years later he began the real 
development of what is now the Lake- 
side estate with its hotel accommodat- 
ing 200 guests, its detached cottages, 
its two cafes, its casino, and its store. 

as the representative of Ward One, 
that being the portion of the city in 
w h i c h T h e 
Weirs lies. Mr. 
Weeks came 
here in 1S7S, 
and in speak- 
ing of the 
growth of The 
Weirs may say 
that he h a s 

5 its 


The original house was known as the 

seen it all, and 
Lakeside House, and by that name the has been a 

property is still known. Jn hoc signo 

The builder of the first house was 
the pioneer hero, Mr. L. R. Weeks, 


Hon. Perley Putnam. 


great part in 
much of it. 

The wonderful success of the Metho- 
dists at The Weirs led to other ventures 
of a similar character, and in 1S7S the 
Grand Army of the Republic, its Xew 
Hampshire members, at least, held here 
what was destined to be the first of the 
most successful veterans' reunion in the 
country. The first reunion was not 

1 ' £2 -- : 

" v- 

! ; * 1 f ■ . ■ . ; 

r . 

.acor. a Car Com pa ly. 



Hon. VV. L. Melcher 


J. T. 8. 


Frank P. Ho," 




Hon. C. F. Store. 



Col. B. F. Drake. 


Dennis O'Shea. 

.-■•* ; 

9 « 


Geo. A. Sanders. 

F E. Busier 

Ci H. T.lton. 



-... > 

. > 


much like those which followed. Then 
the boys ate and slept and heard the 
speeches in a large tent, pitched down 
in the grove near the water. But they 
soon yearned for something more sub- 
stantial — and got it ; in 1SS0 they formed 
the New Hampshire Veterans' Associa- 
tion, and bought the hillside on the 
north of the railroad track. Here they 
began what now shows itself to be a 

substantial hamlet, with barracks, mess 
buildings, an amphitheatre for public 
meetings, regimental headquarters, asso- 
ciation headquarters, and other struc- 
tures, all solidly and handsomely built, 
well decorated, and finely adapted to 
their purpose. Here each year for a 
week, at the close of the vacation sea- 
son, throng the survivors of the greatest 
war in history, with fast-thinning ranks, 




••j Wto 






_.,... .., 



Belk-.ap County Farm. 

fighting their battles over again, renew- bronze, now standing before the head- 
ing friendships and reviving patriotism, quarters building, the gift of Mrs. John 

F. Zebley, of Xew York, whose summer 
residence is at Xestledown, a lovely 
country seat near by, and whose father 
was a brave soldier in a Xew Hamp- 
shire regiment. The fountain stands 
in his memory, and will be dedicated 
the state. The state itself, through the during the coming reunion this year, 
legislature, supplied the grounds with The same year which witnessed the 
sanitary appliances, and a long roll of beginning of the veterans' work was full 
honorary members gives the association of achievements by others. In that 

year, 1SS0, the highway was extend- 
! ed so far as the Lakeside House ; 
and Sanborn's, then known as Hotel 

cheering their old generals who came 
back with them, and cementing ties 
which death cannot break. 

In the great work which the veterans 
have undertaken at The Weirs they have 
been amply seconded by the people of 

an anchor to 
windward, if sol- 
diers will pardon 
the naval phrase. 
A recent bene- 
faction to the as- 
sociation is a 
beautiful drink- 
ing; fountain in 


^ — —^ 

W. D. Hjse Machine Srop. 

Aoel Machine 




If ^y^m 



'■ t ■■ 

Sggps. ■ 






- i 


Down the River. 

Weirs, was built. The Aquedoctan was 

built in that same year, and the Winni- 
coette followed in 1SS1. 

Beside the Methodists, other religious 
bodies come here for their summer gath- 
erings. The Unitarians, Universalists, 
and Baptists now claim a week in the 
brief season, and the New Hampshire 
Music Teachers' Association is the suc- 
cessor to numerous musical organiza- 
tions which have made The Weirs a 
harmonic centre for at least one week 
each summer for the past ten years. 

Music Hall, an assembly room 

capable of seating a very large 
audience, and charmingly situa- 
ted on the shore, grew out of 
the demand which these associa- 
tions created ; and a pretty little 
chapel, nestling among the pines 
on the slope of the hill, is the 
outcome of so many religious 
gatherings here, its services be- 
ing administered by the Meth- 
odist denomination, by virtue, I 
suppose, of their priority. 

The Weirs has become a great 
summer resort by reason of the 

same cause which has operated to make 
Laconia in its entirety the smartest city 
of its size in Xew England— intelligent 
booming. In this every interested party 
has taken some share, but chiefly to the 
railroad corporation, which traversed 
this spot when it was unbroken woods, 
should credit be given. 

Mr. J. A. Dodge, who was superin- 
tendent of the Boston, Concord & Mon- 
treal railroad when The Weirs first began 
to take on growth, was a firm believer 
in the future of this place, and lost no 

Hgn School, LaU~p.vt. 





Re. Lucius Waterman, D. D. 

Rev. J. H. Haino 


Chapel at The Weirs. 

i m t. 


r *rw 



Father Lamcert. 

Fatr-^r Monge 

• > 

< #sn c 


Rev. William Wa 

\ • 





i . n'JJj A • ?;;- 




Methodist Church, Lamport. 

i ! 


Free B^p: .: Churcl - - ; 



r<£ . 

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A A 

I * •*• A 

v - - - 

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— ^. 



Mill Street Corner. 

company, and various other expedients, quishing the great burden of the busi- 
it became badly involved, and, together ness to his son-in-law, the Hon. Henry B. 
with the bank's privilege on the other Quinby, who has since successfully man- 
side, passed into the hands of a trick- aged it and has found time beside to sit in 
ster, who deeded the property to Abbott both houses of the legislature and in the 
Lawrence, of Boston ; and thence it governor's council ; and has felt obliged 
passed to the Lake Company, thence to take more time than all the rest to 
to the courts, and thence to its present inform his numerous political admirers 


It was during the earlier of these transi- 
tion stages that the father of the Hon. 
B. J. Cole came into possession of cer- 
tain rights here and laid the foundations 
for the plant which has since 
developed into the Cole Man- 
ufacturing Company, and 
which has been perhaps the 
most efficient of all the causes 
which have operated to make 
Lakeport (this being the com- 
munity of which we are treat- 
ing) one of the most prosper- 
ous manufacturing places in 
New Hampshire. To this 
work Mr. Cole gave the active 
years of his life, and found 
time beside to sit in the gov- 
ernor's council before relin- 

that he does not desire to become chief 
magistrate of the state. 

The Cole Manufacturing Company is 
but one of a dozen industries which 
have grown up at Lakeport, and when 

J. A. Burleigh & Company. 


8 9 



fl H "ii 

-j i vl 

■ .. : . , ■ . 

. i* I- 

that thriving community was lost to the 
town of Gilford there was little left. 

In 1893 the situation in this commu- 
nity which we have been viewing was 
this : At three points on the Winnepe- 
saukee river — at its source, a short dis- 
tance below, and a mile and a half below 

that — were three important villages, the 
first, The Weirs, a great and growing 
summer resort; the second, Lakeport, 
an active, prosperous manufacturing 
town, and the third, Laconia, like the 
second, only larger. These three com- 
munities were geographically and lo^i- 




- , 



.■..■■ ■■- ■ 




Eagle Hotel. 




■t. v . - 

r ■ - ■ Jlllfr 

- i I : i b tf to 

. ^ : V".*^--.» ^.j-,^^' 


f > 


Hon Henry B. Quinby. 

Residence of W. A. Plummc 



Thomas J. Wnipp! 





#11 Kt.BBjg 

■"i"** *i"i j f, ri^WfTY^V^rfrl 

Residence of J. T. Busiel 





I s mi 



* Til I 5 ii i 

3~* I 


EW# - 


The Wmnecoerte. 



■ '■>■■• • ... 

- . 1 \\ >• -V- 

I . - ,. v. .--■-- ■ 

. M - * ," ■ 


" Nes'.ledown." 

I$* , 

■ •'■ . 




General R. N. Batch 


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1i. I -I i ') !"*"■ ^ 

*f tl -J t •;-. > 

; .._ sr _.._ 

i -■;■-■ >..: 

Residence of Mrs. J. Busiel. 

eV 1 


* ■■. .-" " : "• ■■: 


:• fet 

Residence of Frank E. Busiel 




. : 

Hon. John C. Mou'tor 

9 2 


cally one. their business interests 
were practically identical, two of 
them were already embraced within 
the same township lines, and, taken 
together, contained wealth and pop- 
ulation sufficient for a city of no 
mean importance. This view of it 
presented itself forcibly to the leg- 
islature, and the city of Laconia, 
the eighth in the state, was char- 
tered, embracing, in addition to the 
town of Laconia. that portion of 
Gilford in which the village of 
Lakeport was situated. The pop- 
ulation of the new city was nearly 
12,000, and on the second Tues- 
day of March, 1893, the first city 
election was held. 

The new city was fortunate. It 

Residence of Eugene O Shea. 

had all the material for making what it de~ 
sired to become, a Xew 
England city of the best 
: type : and its first city 
government was composed 
of men who understood 
exactlv how best to mold 

Pitman Manu'actur 

Tne Lacor, a Lumber Works 


G. C00U & Sons. 

their material to this pur- 
pose. This government. 
in all its essential feat- 
ures, the citizens had the 
good sense to retain in 
office when the second 
municipal election d a y 
rolled around. 

jy$, ;•- » -Vr 



1 ' '■ ' .it- '■ \ ' - - - 



'f *^ /J»v 


f .....' .-■ . •■' r • .-y.^-r: 

Story's Hotel. 



" * 


I- L- K p 1 * 




? * 




Residence of C. /» . B'.sie!. 

Dr. Joseph C. Moore. 



! I- t • 



- 3 

S. B. Sm;tn 

M:oro s Op-e-3 E:, :«. 




• ! ■ ■■> 

Hi »3 


. ■■•> 

i '. 






.... tat fc ---. I .*•-"**»*.- ~.iV— 

Trarrp Building, Veterans' Grove. 

The first mayor of Laconia, the Hon. 
Charles A. Busiel, is a man of very clear 
and comprehensive plans for the devel- 
opment of his city; and his associates 
in office fell so largely beneath his influ- Waring system of sewerage and a super- 

ence that the public improve- 
ments undertaken during his 
term of office took logical se- 
quence and were planned with 
reference to future growth and 
necessities quite as much as 
to present demands. The re- 
sult is that a visitor to Laco- 
nia receives no impression 
that is not distinctively urban, 
yet carrying with it an almost 
personal character as of the 
place. There can be no doubt 
that Laconia is a real city. Its 
trains roll into an elegant 
stone passenger station, which 
has no superior in northern 
New England. Suburban train 
service and a line of horse 
railroad make all parts of the 
city accessible. Elegant mod- 
ern residences adorn all the 
streets ; three opera houses, 
one of them excelling any- 
thing in its line in the state, 
cater to the public amusement ; 
wholesale and department 
stores lavishly provide for every want of 
the population of the city's six wards ; a 
superb equipment of the public schools 
attests the city's enlightenment; the 



Trie AquedoWtan. 



f / 



• \ . ; 

. f 

Concord & Montreal Station at The Weirs 


A. G. Folsom. 

iiiiiCGiipr i 

in in :i r vi m 

.. . 

Electric Light Piant, Lakeport. 

N ] j 


L •..-^v_'_^,;'^-^i_- :,-:. ■■- ^r" 



Cty Water Worl<s. 

Frank Lo'jget 

9 6 


lative water-works plant indicate the 
foresight of this people ; paved and 
asphalted streets are added metropolitan 
evidences: electric lights and gas are 
j-. ... plentifully be- 

strewed along 
every avenue, 
and a park, the 
gift of Mr. A. 
G. Folsom, is 
now under de- 

And its mills ! 
Go into them ; 
nowhere will 
vou find better. 






Hon. Martin A. Havnes 



-7— ■ -— - - £ 



Soldiers' Monument at 

The Weirs. 

Here are produced stockings by the 

thousands of dozens of pairs daily ; here [ 

is made all the machinery which the pro- >' 

duction of so many stockings demands ; 

here the Laconia Car Company, now 

disastrously crippled by tire, is engaged 

in sending out a noted product ; here 

the American Twist Drill Company is 

busy with its unique device ; here a hours. And all this, these busy mills, 

malleable iron foundry monopolizes its these whirring wheels, these shrieking 

branch of industry in the region; here saws, is set down next to nature's heart; 

two large lumber mills with shrieking for in the midst of all the perfect loveli- 

saws find constant employment; and ness of lake, mountain, forest, and field 

at Lakeport, hosiery, car axles, and Laconia is situated. "The city on the 

machinerv occupy -. lakes," they call it, and well they do; for, 

surrounding Opeechee and bordering on 

and Winni- 
pe s a u k e e , 
Laconia is 
well calcu- 
lated to fig- 
u r e a s a 
dimple cre- 
ated by the 
S mile of 
the Great 


the waking 

• :< 

•P f*£ •;■■■■. 

>iy-z- 1 ii -1 Hi . '■ .- 


■ ' 



m" * 


- sr ■■ ■- I 






Eastma "i RrsHencG 

By Edward A. Jenks. 

[Read at the Seventy-Fifth Anniversary of Thetford (Vt.) Academy, June 2S, 1S94.] 

In a far Eastern land— the splendid Sunrise land — 

There lived a King, three thousand years ago : 
So wise was he, so gentle, and so large of heart. 

That all the kins-s of earth would come, and <ro, 
And come again, to question him, and catch the pearls 

Of wisdom that, like gleaming drops of dew, 
Pell from his rich, ripe lips. His fame spread over all 

The lands; and once a Queen, with retinue 
Of camels that bore spices, and much gold, and stones 

Most precious — the most beautiful and wise 
Of women — came to prove him with hard questions. But 

The half had not been told ; — she veiled her eyes ; 
There was no spirit left in her. She sadly turned — 

This proud and noble dame — back to her own 
Fair land, with all her train of servants, cattle, gifts, 

And stores of wisdom hitherto unknown, 
A nobler, sweeter, purer, queenlier Queen 
Than wise King Solomon had ever seen. 

But once — so runs the tale — the great King Solomon 

Received command from a far greater King 
To build a palace — a grand temple — to His Name, 

Whose richness and magnificence should ring 
Adown the laggard ages — unapproachable 

By king or potentate, ere yet the tide 
Of Time should drift us all upon the farther shore 

And close the record on the hither side. 

The great King called his builders and his architects 

Into close counsel, and his plans were told : 
But there were not, in all his realm, artificers 

In wood and brass and ivory and gold 
With skill and subtle wisdom equal to the task 

Of inlaid work and carved cherubim. 
Gigantic pillars of bright brass, a molten sea 

With just three hundred knops beneath the brim, 
And lions, massive oxen, brazen wheels, and all 

The thousand other weird and wondrous things 
That made this palace of the Greater King divine — 

A Wonder of the World, as history sings. 

The great King's heart was sorely troubled, and he went 

To the high tower where he was wont to pray, 
And drew a soft divan to the great window, where 

He could o'erlook the city ; — 't was broad day — 
But he was weary, sad, and sick at heart, for he 

Could see no sunshine brightening his way. 

98 A POEM. 

Some unseen finger touched his tremulous eyes — he slept. 

A voice familiar fell upon his ear : 
"O King ! take heart of grace: thy father's dearest friend. 

The King of Tyre, will help thee : never fear ! 
Awake ! e'en now his servant standeth at thy door 

With kindly messages for David's son."' 
The. King awoke : the dream was true — the problem solved ; 

The building of the palace was begun. 

Meanwhile (the King was very near the hearts of all 

His loyal subjects) a vague rumor spread 
Throughout the city that his heart was troubled sore 

Because he had no artisan with head 
Sufficient for the royal task ; and sympathy 

And tender helpfulness and kindly words 
Came up from every side. But one bright early morn 

A flock of brilliant plurnaged, white-winged birds 
Came flying o'er the city from the smiling west, 

And all the air was full of sparkling song, 
Which seemed to say to all those eager ears. — <: Cheer up, 

For help is coming, and 't will not be long ! 
Look to the west ! Cheer up ! " — and then they circled round 

And o'er the expectant city, till the hearts 
Of all grew lighter than the lightest thistle-down : 

E'en merchants came from all the crowded marts 
To join the throng: and as they gazed, came winding down 

The hills, with rapid, graceful, easy swing, 
A long procession — horses, camels, men — and at 

Their head the grand old man from Tyre — the King ! 
As this great retinue approached the wide-eyed throng, 

And recognition came like lightning flash — 
" Hiram of Tyre ! " they cried — '-The King ! Hiram the King 

Hiram our Benefactor ! " Crash on crash 
The shouts rolled back in thunder peals, wave after wave, 

Over the city, over hill — and hill — 
Dying away in faintest echoes, as dies the storm 

At the great Master's mandate — " Peace ! be still ! " 

So Solomon and Hiram, friends and lovers, built 

That wondrous pile. Their fleets sailed side by side 
To Ophir, and brought back great store of ivory 

And gold and precious stones, and fabrics dyed 
In the rich colors of those dim, barbaric climes, 

To decorate the temple. And the King 
Of Tyre denuded Lebanon of cedars, firs, 

And everything of worth, that he might bring 
The oil of gladness to its humble worshippers. 

And when the task of that seven years was done — 
The twice one hundred thousand artisans at rest — 

That regal dream stood Hashing in the sun, 
The grandest epic of the ages, and the best. 

So runs the strange old story; — it is quaintly told 

On dim and musty parchments, in the deep 
And dark recesses of an ancient monastery 

.vV. ' 

A POEM. 99 

In the far East, where strangest legends sleep. 
And only curious travellers, who dig and delve 

For hidden gems, can rouse them from their slumbers : 
Let them sleep. 

Alas for that grand pile ! Where — where is it to-day ? 

No human eye for eighteen hundred years 
Has gazed upon its towers and peerless pinnacles : 

'T is buried in a soundless sea of tears. 

Another temple — not so grand and beautiful — 

We sing to-day ; a temple reared by hands 
And hearts and brains as true as ever struck a blow 

For love of God and man in Eastern lands ; 
A temple round whose modest pillars cling the loves 

Of thousands who have worshipped at its shrine, 
Whose tender memories, quivering through the haze of years. 

Dress it in robes that seem almost divine ; 
A temple reared to Education. Truth, and God. 
Most of whose builders lie beneath the sod. 

And yet this temple groweth still — it is not done : 

Of years three score and ten and five, it stands 
Baring its white, cool, youthful forehead to the sun, 

Gazing adown the centuries, its hands 
Outstretched in passionate welcome to the splendid sons 

And daughters of the future, whose clear eyes — 
As full of sweetest laughter as your mountain brooks — 

Shall aye reflect the nations' destinies. 
Here shall they come, in troops, to taste the cooling spring. 

And thirsty souls shall drink, and drink again, 
And, passing out these academic doors, shall go 

To raise to higher planes their fellow-men. 

Another Hiram, 1 too, we sing — and every inch 

A man — a king — yea, every inch a king 
No whit the less than he of fragrant memory 

Whose praise the Poet has essayed to sing. 
The strength and wisdom of his ripe and golden years, 

His forceful guiding hand and teeming brain, 
Helped fashion here a fane so grand, we could but think 

The King of Tyre had come to earth again. 

To-day we saw a long procession winding up 

The hill, in gay attire, and at its head 
A form and face familiar in the years gone by : 

Our hearts were lighter — baleful fancies tied — 
For in that noble form we saw Hiram the King! 

And warm hearts greeted him with silent cheers. 
No crown of gold sat heavy on his brow — instead, 

> Hiram Orcutt, LL. D., principal of Tnetford Academy from 1S43 to ,s 5 r '- Under his admirable 
management the institution attained its highest prosperity and its greatest measure of usefulness. 
He was present at tins seventy-fifth anniversary — at the age of eighty — ':i good health and made an 
entertaining after-dinner speech at the banquet under the great tent. His presence added much to 
the pleasure of the occasion. Mr. Orcutt i> now a resident of Boston. 


The rime of wisdom and of four-score years, 
As light and airy as the fleecy clouds of June 

Afloat in ether; and an easy grace, 
Born of a life well spent, spread o'er his countenance : 

We thought he had a wondrous lovely face. 
Welcome, King Hiram, to your own ! — a kingdom won 
By the sheer force of duties nobly, grandly done ! 

And here, upon the summit of this sun-crowned height, 

A beacon light, this modern temple stands, 
And hearts of irold will turn to her their eas;er feet, 

Drawn to her altars by her high commands. 
Her gracious light shall not be hid ; — like Joseph's kin — 

The sun, the moon, and the eleven stars — 
And all the circling mountains — feel their pulses thrill 

With humble homage, and shall leap the bars 
That stand between them and old Thetford Hill. 

The Poet, from the vantage-ground of his high tower 

Upon the rocky, thunderous coast of Maine, 
Looks out of his wide window on the turbulent sea 

And sees uncounted ships — an endless train — 
Go sailing by, and every canvas swelling with 

The hope and faith that high endeavor knows. 
How eagerly their white arms welcome every breeze, 

From softest kisses to the hardest blows ! 
See how the salt spray leaps and flashes in the sun, 

And falls in cooling drops upon the prow ? 
See how the parting waters humbly step aside 

To leave a pathway for the gleaming plow ! 
And you can hear the jocund voices of the crew 

Come lilting o'er the waves — / hear them now ! 
So each fair ship goes sailing on — and on — and on — 

Bound to some far-off port — God only knows 
The where, or whether its great anchor ever will 

Be cast where never more the wild wind blows ; 
Or whether, as the full, ripe years go marching by, 

These brave craft, weather-beaten, canvas-torn, 
Will proudly sail across the harbor bar of home 

And cast their anchors where their hopes were born. 

Old Thetford Hill has sent her noblest craft to sea: 

Where are they now ? — Sometimes she cries, with tears, 
" When will my ships — my splendid ships — come back to me ? 

When will my ships come home?" But darkest fears 
Give place to triumph ! Look ! This early morn a soft 

Brisk breeze across the white-capped waters blew : 
A fleet of bellying sail came flying down the wind. 

On every deck a bronzed, stout-hearted crew ; — 
And look around you now ! These faces-— do you know ? — 
Are but the ships old Thetford launched— her ship^ of Long Ago. 



By Jonas Lie. 

[Translated from the Norwegian by Hon. Samuel C. EASTMAN.] 


Joergen must start on his journey be- 
fore the sleighing disappeared, for the 
bad roads when the frost was coming 
out might last till St. John's day, and to 
harness the horses in such going would 
be rash madness. If he was not to lose 
a whole year, he must go early and be 
prepared privately for admission to 

Joergen was lost in meditations and 
thoughts about all that from which he 
was going to be separated. The gun, 
the sleds, the snow-skates, the turning- 
lathe, the tools, the wind-mill, and the 
corn-mill left behind there on the hills, 
all must be devised with discretion — 
naturally to Thea first and foremost, on 
condition that she should take care of 
them till he came home again. 

If he had been asked what he would 
rather be, he would doubtless have an- 
swered " turner," " miller," or *' smith " ; 
the last thing in the world which would 
have presented itself to his range of 
ideas, saying nothing of coining up as a 
bent or longing, would have been the 
lifting up to the loftier regions of books. 
But Greece and Latium were lying like 
an unalterable fate across his path, so 
that there was nothing to do nor even 
to think about. 

The pockets of his new clothes, which 
were made out of the captain's old ones, 
on the day of his departure were a com- 
plete depository for secret dispatches. 

First a long letter of fourteen pages, 
written in the night, blotted with tears. 
from Thinka to Inger-Johanna, in which 
with full details she gave the origin, con- 
tinuation, and hopeless development of 
her love for Aas. She had three keep- 
sakes from him, — a little breast-pin, the 
cologne bottle which he had given to her 
on the Christmas tree, and then his let- 
ter to her with a lock of his hair on the 
morning he had to leave the office. And 
even if she could not now act against 
the wishes of her parents, but would 
rather make herself unhappy, still she 
had promised herself faithfully never to 
forget him, to think of him till the last 

The second dispatch was from ma to 
Aunt Alette, and contained, — besides 
some economical propositions, — a little 
suggestion about sounding Inger-Johanna 
when Captain Roennow returned from 
Paris. Ma could not quite understand 
her this last time. 

The captain never imagined 

that there would be such a vacuum after 
Joergen was gone. In his way he had 
been the occasion of so much mental 
excitement, so many exertions and anx- 
ieties, and so much heightened furious 
circulation of blood, that now he was 
away the captain had lost quite a stim- 
ulating influence. He had now no 
longer any one to look after and super- 
vise with eves in the back of his head, 



to exercise his acuteness on, or take by 
surprise, — only the quiet, unassailable 
Thea to keep school with. 

7'he doctor prescribed a blood-purify- 
ing dandelion tonic for him. 

And now when the spring came — 
dazzling light, gleaming water every- 
where, with melting patches of snow 
and its vanguards of red stone broken 
on the steep mountain sides. — Thinka, 
with a case knife in her numb hands, 
was out in the meadow gathering dan- 
delion roots. They were small, young, 
and still tender, but they were becoming 
stronger day by day. 

The captain, with military punctuality, 
at seven o'clock every morning emptied 
the cup prepared for him and stormed 

Today a fierce, boisterous, icy cold 
blast of rain with hail and snow met 
him at the outer door and blew far in 
on the floor. The sides of the mountains 
were white again. 

These last mornings he was accus- 
tomed to run down over the newly 
broken up potato field, which was 
being plowed ; but in this weather — 

" We must give up our day's work, 
Ola," he announced as his resolution 
in the yard — " it looks as if the nags 
would rather have to go out with the 

He trudged away; it was not weather 
to stand still in. It drove and pounded 
in showers down over the windows in 
the sitting-room with great ponds of 
water, so that it must be continually 
mopped up and towels placed on the 

Ma and Thinka stood there in the gray 
daylight over the fruit of their common 
work at the loom this winter, — a roller 
with still unbleached linen, which they 
measured out into table-cloths and nap- 

The door opened wide and the cap- 
tain's stout form enveloped in a drip- 
ping overcoat appeared. 

u I met a stranger down here with 
something for you, Thinka, — wrapped 
up in oil-cloth. Can you guess whom 
it is from ?" 

Thinka dropped the linen, and blush- 
ing red advanced a step towards him, 
but immediately shook her head. 

" Rejerstad, that execution-horse, had 
it with him on his trip up. He was to 
leave it here." 

The captain stood inspecting the 
package. " The sheriff's seal — Bring 
me the scissors." 

In his officiousness, he did not give 
himself time to take his coat off. 

"A para — sol ! — A beautiful — new" — 
burst out Thinka. She remained stand- 
ins: and 2;azm2; at it. 

" See the old — picador ! ' Things are 
getting thick for you, Thinka." 

"Don't you see that here is 'philo- 
pene ' on the seal, Jaeger," ma put in, to 
afford a cover. 

" I won a philopene from him — on 
New Year's day, when father and I took 
dinner at the Minister Horn's — after 
church. I had entirely forgotten it," 
she said, in a husky tone. Her look 
glanced from the floor half way up to 
her parents, as she quietly went out, 
leaving the parasol lying on the table. 

" I guess you will use your linen for a 
wedding outfit, ma," said the captain, 
slapping his hands and swinging his hat 
with a flourish. " What should you say 
to the sheriff for a son-in-law here at 
Gilje ? " 

"You saw that Thinka went out, 
Jaeger." Ma's voice trembled a little. 
" Very likely she is thinking that it is 
not long since his wife was laid in the 
grave. Thinka is very good, and would 
like to submit to us ; but there may be 



limits to what we can ask." There was 
something precipitate in her movements 
over the linen, which indicated internal 

" The sheriff, ma ; is not he a catch ? 
Fine, handsome man in his last years. 
Faith, I do n't know what you women 
will have. And, Gitta," he reminded 
her, a little moved, " it is just the men 
who have lived most happily in their 
first marriage who marry again the 

Time flew with tearing haste towards 
St. John's day. Brewing of spring in 
the air and over the lakes. The meadow 
stood moist and damp, hillock on hill- 
ock, like the luxuriant forelocks of 
horses. The swollen brooks sighed 
and roared with freshly shining banks. 
They boiled over, as it were, with the 
power of the same generating life, and 
the sap which made the buds start for- 
ward in alder, willow, and birch almost 
audibly, and shows its nature in bounc- 
ing, vigorous movements of the mountain 
boy, in his rapid speech, his lively, shin- 
ing eyes, and his elastic walk. 

At the beginning of summer a letter 
came from Inger-Johanna, the contents 
of which set the captain's thoughts into 
a new flight : 

June 14, 1843. 
Dear Parents : At last a little breath 
to write to you. Captain Roennow went 
away yesterday, and I have as yet hardly re- 
covered my balance from the two or three 
weeks of uninterrupted society while he was 

It will be pleasant to get out to Tilderoed 
next week on top of all this. It is beginning 
to be hot and oppressive here in the city. 

There did not pass a day that we were not 
in company, either at dinner or in the evening ; 
but the pearl of them was aunt's own little din- 
ners, which she has a reputation for, and at 
which we spoke only French. The conver- 
sation ran on so easily, one expresses one's 

self so differently, and our thoughts capture 
each other's already half guessed. Roennow 
certainly speaks a brilliant French. 

A man who carries himself as he does, 
makes a certain noble, masterly impression ; 
you are transported into an atmosphere of 
chivalric manly dignity, and hear the spurs 
jingle, I had almost said musically ; you al- 
most forget that there are those who stamp 
their feet. 

When I compare the awkward compliments 
at balls, which may come smack in your face, 
with Captain Roennow's manner of saving 
and not saying and yet getting a thing in, 
then I do not deny that I get the feeling of a 
kind of exhilarating health. He claimed that 
he had such an illusion from sitting opposite 
me at the table. I resembled so much a 
portrait of a historic lady which he had seen 
at the Louvre ; naturally she had black hair 
and carried her neck haughtily and looked 
before her, smiling, with an expression which 
might have been characterized, "I wait— 
and reject — till he comes, who can put me in 
my right place." 

Well, if it amuses him to find out such 
things, then I am happy to receive the com- 
pliments. It is true there are such godfathers 
and uncles who are utterly infatuated with 
their god-daughters, and spoil them with non- 
sense and sweets. I am afraid that Roennow 
is a little inclined to this, so far as I am con- 
cerned, for, sensible and straightforward as 
he always is, he continually launches out into 
superlatives so far as I am concerned ; and I 
really cannot help thinking that it is both 
flattering and pleasant when he is continually 
saying that I am made for presiding where 
ladies and gentlemen of the higher circles 
are to be received. He really must think 
something more of me than I deserve, be- 
cause he sees that I am perhaps a little more 
open and direct than others, and have no 
natural gift at concealing what I mean, when 
I am in society. 

Yes, yes, that is the thanks you get be- 
cause you have continually spoiled me; in 
any case I do not immediately creep under a 
chair, but try to sit where I am sitting as 
long as possible. 

io 4 


But, now, why lias n't such a man married? 
If he had been younger, and I just a little 
vainer, he might almost have been dangerous. 
He still has a fine black hair: a little thin, 
and perhaps he takes a little too much pains 
with it. There is one thing that I cannot 
understand, and that is that people try to 
conceal their age. 

The captain gave a poke at his wig : 

" When one soes a-courtin<i, Ma," he 
said smiling. 

Two mail days after he came 

home from the post-office with a long 
letter from Aunt Alette to ma. She 
was not a favorite of his. In the first 
place she was too ''well read and cul- 
tured " ; in the second place she was 
''sweet'' ; lastly, she was an old maid. 

He seated himself in an arm-chair, 
with his arms folded before him, to have 
it read to him. He plainly regarded it 
as a bitter document. 

My dear Gitta : It is no easy task, but 
really a rather complicated and difficult one, 
you have laid upon tfce stioulc.e^ of an old 
maid, even if she is your never failing, 
faithful Aunt Alette. If we could only have 
talked together, you would have soon guessed 
my meaning: but now there is no other way 
for me to free my conscience than to write 
and write till it has all come out that I have 
on my mind. 

Now you know well enough that the gov- 
ernor's wife is not of my line, and if it had 
not been for what you wrote me when you 
sent Inger-Johanna here, I certainly should 
not have moved my old limbs so far out of 
Gamlebyen, where I have my circle of firm 
friends, and gone in to make city visits at 
the governor's, notwithstanding she always 
is excessively friendly and means it, too, I 
dare say. 

First, and foremost, I must tell you that 
Inger-Johanna is a lady in every respect, but 
still with more substance to her, if I may 
express myself so, and stronger will than our 
poor Eleanor. It is certain that she in many 
ways overawes, not to say domineers, over 

your sister-in-law, strict and domineering as 
she otherwise has the reputation of being. 
And, therefore, she must also resort to flat- 
tery in many things when she finds that it 
won't do to play the game so open for Inger- 
Johanna, as now according to my best con- 
victions has been the case with regard to the 
captain. He certainly came here this time 
from his trip to Paris with the full intent of 
completing his courting, after, like a wise and 
prudent general, having first surveyed the 
ground with his own eyes. Simply the man- 
ner in which he always addressed and paid 
his respects to her would have convinced a 
blind person of that. 

" The only person, however, who does not 
understand it, notwithstanding she is besieged 
in a thousand ways, is the object of his atten- 
tions herself. She sits there in the midst of 
the incense, truly protected against the shrewd- 
ness of the whole world by her natural inno- 
cence, which is doubly surprising, and, old 
Aunt Alette says, to be admired in her who 
is so remarkably clever. 

I will not, indeed, absolve her from being a 
little giddy at all the incense, which he and 
your sister-in-law incessantly burn before her 
(and what elderly, experienced person would 
not tolerate and forgive this in a young girl) ! 
But the giddiness does not go to the desired 
result, namely, the falling in love, but only 
makes her a little puffed up in her feelings of 
being a perfect lady, and is limited to her, 
doing homage to him as the knightly cavalier 
and her father's highly honored friend. 

It is this, which he, so to speak, is for the 
present beaten back by. so he is going to 
travel again, and this evidently after consul- 
tation with your sister-in-law. Inger-Jo- 
hanna, if my old eyes do not deceive me, — 
and something have we two seen and expe- 
rienced, both separately and together, in this 
world, dear Gitta — is not found ready for the 
matrimonial question, although her vanity and 
pride have hitherto appeared as a fei 
entirely isolated from this. 

There was a snore from the leather- 

covered chair, and ma continued more 
softly : 



She may, indeed, and that tolerably ear- 
nestly,- wish to rule over a tine salon: but 
she has not yet been brought clearly to com- 
prehend that she must take the man who 
owns it with it. There is something in her 
open nature which always keeps the distance 
between these two questions too wide for 
even a captain of cavalry to leap over it. 
God bless her ! 

Love is like an awakening, without which 
we neither know nor understand anything of 
it.-> holy language; and unhappy are they who 
learn to know it too late, when they have just 
imprisoned themselves in the so-called bonds 
of duty. I am almost absolutely sure that 
love has not yet been awakened in Ingcr-Jo- 
hanna — may a good angel protect her ! 

"Ouf! — such old maids," said the 
captain, waking up. "Go on, go on— 
is there any more? " 

How far the young student who has a 
position in the office is in any degree a hin- 
drance to these plans, I do n't dare to say, 
either pro or con. But the governor's lady 
thinks or fears something, I am firmly con- 
vinced, from her whole manner of treating him 
lately, although she is far too bright to let 
Inger-Johanna get even the slightest sus- 
picion of her real reason. 

I heard it plainly when I took cotlee 
there on Sunday, before they went away to 
Tilderoed, and she had the maid tell him 
that she could not see him. There was not 
a very gracious allusion to his " Sunday pro- 
fessorship of pettifoggy ideas " as she called it. 

I suppose these must be something of 
the same sort of ideas that I was enthusiastic 
about when I was young and read Rousseau's 
*' Emile," which absorbed me very much, 
nay, which can yet occupy some of my 
thoughts. For she stated, as one of his lead- 
ing ideas, that he, in his headlong blindness, 
thought that he could simplify the world, and 
thereby first and foremost the education, lo a 
very few single, natural propositions of so- 

called principles. And you know, we— still, 
that is going to be quite too long. To be 
brief, when Inger-Johanna with impetuosity 
rushed to the defence of Grip, she saw in 
him only the son of the idiotic "cadet of 
Lurleiken," as he is called, one of the well- 
known, amusing figures of the country ; but 
this one, in addition to his father's distracted 
ideas, was also equipped with a faculty of 
using that fearful weapon : satire — voila the 
phantom Grip ! 

Youthful student ideas could perhaps be 
used gracefully enough as piquant topics of 
conversation : but instead of that, to set them 
in motion in a headlong and sensational man- 
ner, without regard to the opinion of older 
people, was a great step, was pretentious, 
and showed something immature, something 
boyish, which by no means ought to be 

I have reported this so much at length 
in order to show you by the very expressions 
that there may be here a "good deal of cotton 
in the linen," as the saying is. 

And since I am going to bring my inner- 
most heart to light, I shall have to tell you 
that he appears to me to be a trustworthy, 
truthful young man, whose natural disposition 
is as he speaks and not otherwise, and he 
carries a beautiful stamp on his countenance 
and in his whole bearing. If possibly he is 
a little forgetful of ".My son, if you want to 
get on in the world, then bow," that is worse 
for him and not to his dishonor, we know. 

It was also a truly refreshing enjoyment 
for me, as if looking into the kingdom of 
youth, awakeningmany thoughts, to talk with 
him, the two evenings this winter when he 
accompanied me, an old woman, home, from 
the governor's (for him, I have no doubt, a 
very small pleasure) all the way out to the 
old town, when otherwise I should have been 
obliged to go anxiously, with my servant-girl 
and a lantern. 

"Bah! nobody will attack her," 
growled the captain, tired. 



l>y Clarence Henry Pearson. 

" Wal, I '11 be burned," said old Ligc Burke, 
" If ever I see sich shif'less work ; 

There's my two darters. Faith an' Hope, 

That orter be a-bilin' soap 
Or weedin' out the onion patch, 
A-makin' up a wuthless batch 

Of bricky-brac an' folderol 

Ter trim the parlor an' the hall. 

" Sich high-Mown notions an' sich airs ! 
They want a carpet for the stairs, 
A boughten carpet, too, at that, 
But they won't git it, now that 's Hat. 
If I'd ha' known them gals would learned 
Sich stuff at school — wal, I '11 be burned 
'F I would n't kep' 'em here ter hum 
A-piecin' quilts till kingdom come. 

" An' there 's their mother, strange ter say, 
She 's gittin' 'most as bad as they ; 

Time was, when night or morn you 'd see 

Her workin' busy as a bee ; 
But now, 'bout half-past two o'clock 
She jest puts on a fancy frock. 

An' sets an' reads or sews a bit 

Till time the supper fire was lit. 

" You '11 hardly b'lieve me when I say 
That them ere women folks to-day 

Asked me, right out, ter waste my time 

A-settin' out some vines to climb 
Upon the porch — yes, sir, that 's so ; . 
But I just riz an' let *em know 

That warn't the way my dimes was earned. 

Sich tarnal cheek — wal, I '11 be burned." 

So all his life old 'Lijah Burke 

Just growled and grumbled like a Turk ; 
His school tax was "too pesky high," 
The village church was " mighty nigh 

Too fine for common folks " like him, 

And nothing satisfied his whim. 

And every hour with nose upturned 

He 'd hoarsely croak, " Wal, I '11 be burned ! " 

When years three score and ten had passed, 
Death claimed the old man's soul at last ; 

His kinfolks stood around the room 

And watched amid the gathering gloom — 
The pale lips moved — he strove to speak, 
To catch the sound so faint and weak 

His faithful wife sprang to his side, 

" Wal, — I 'II— be- burned ! " he gasped, and died. 


*~l ^^ UT ^ U *»*> 4 Su^JL (fa** tUswJt 

0i j do e~ ft jh Jcts^ 4 ^ ^^ 

kilAi. iL tLuJlJh^ SuX&l&f i.^W JLjLu 


By II. C. Pearson. 

I T is one of the glo- 
ries of this great 
land of ours, that 
within its borders 
~?*f '"^r:~ homesick wander- 

f> ers, no matter 
from how far decant climes, can all 
find the scenes and surroundings of 
their fatherlands paralleled and repro- 
duced. Even the Bedouin or the Ethio- 
pian from Sahara's sands can view once 
more, in Arizona or New Mexico, the 

familiar, fictitious beauty of the mirage, 
and a Russian political exile from Sibe- 
rian steppes would feel entirely at home 
if placed in the midst of a North Dakota 
prairie in dead of winter. 

And so I can imagine a young Scotch- 
man, fresh from the highlands of the 
old country, shouting with delight at 
sight of Sunapee lake in earliest June, 
and recognizing here among New Hamp- 
shire hills his own Loch Lomond oi 
Loch Katrine. It is w.-H to specify the 

1 NOTE. The illustrations accomi-aru irr_j this article are fn 
artistic taste and technical skill is largely due their succc-^. 

photographs by George II. Colby, to whose 



From a dra-wi* 


f <^y //. B. Coiby. 


season of the year, for just a little later, 
when the foliage and the verdure are in 
the richest, ripest beauty of their abun- 
dance, the scenery of our lakeland 
possesses an added charm that the 
heather-clad shores of the lochs can 
never claim. 

Comparisons are odious, however, and 
the lustre of Sunapee's renown needs no 
verbal polishing. Else it would be but 
the truth to say that not a jewel in Xew 
Hampshire's glittering girdle of lacus- 
trine gems shines with a clearer, purer, 
more entrancing loveliness than does 
Sunapee in its granite setting. 

Ten miles in length, and from one to 
three in width, with a winding, ragged 
shore-line of ^ miles' extent, Lake 
Sunapee, itself 1,103 feet above the tide 
level, lies embosomed in typical New 
England hills. At its very head rises 

Mount Sunapee (2,683 feet); in the 
west are seen Austin Corbin's Blue 
Mountain. Ascutney, and Killington 
Peak ; and . to the east, historic old 
Kearsarge, Ragged Mountain, and 
Mount Cardigan. The ice-cold waters 
of the lake, fed by hidden springs, now 
find their outlet in the dashing, foamy 
course of Sugar river to the west, where 
they prove useful as well as ornamental, 
and turn many wheels of industry. 
Once upon a time, and that not so very 
long ago as geologists reckon, the out- 
let was at Xewbury, at the southeastern 
end of the lake, where the railroad, 
when it forced its entrance and kissed 
a sleeping princess into new life, had 
to cut its way through 60 feet of solid 

Marvellous changes nature here has 
wrought, and scientists love to tell of 


the great diversity of glacial phenomena set his foot upon the lake shore. He 
here exhibited ; of the erosion that was a scout in advance of a Boston 
hollowed out the lake basin ; of the exploring part}-, who halted on the War- 
moraines that formed the hills : and of ner river through fear of Indians. Now 
the striations, the grotesque caverns, and then, in the years that came after, 
the rocking-stones and the pot holes, individuals and smaller parties followed 
that are all but ear-marks of that vast in his footsteps ; but it was not until 
primeval ice mass that changed the face 1772 tha' a permanent settlement was 
of the continent when yet the complete made in the vicinity. Four years pre- 
world was not. When first the veil is vious, in 1768, that portion of old 
lifted upon the human history of the Cheshire county now included in the 
lake it lay within the territory of the town of Sunapee had been granted, 
Algonquin nation, and many tribes of under the name of Saville, to John 
that great family frequented its shores Sprague and others. Settlers came 
for hunting and fishing. from Rhode Island, and a little later 

They gave it a melodious title — which from Portsmouth, but though scarcely 

we have not unsuccessfully modernized more than a century has passed, the 

into Sunapee — signifying " the water of only trace of these pioneers that 

the wild fowl." A curious instance of remains is " Granny Howard's Rock" 

the survival of this nomenclature in a at the outlet. From this ledge, so tra- 

vulgar form exists, perhaps, in the name, dition says, an eccentric and far from 

"Goose Hole," applied to a small body Puritanical member of these first fami- 

of water near the lake. lies was wont to fish day in and day out 

It was 1630 when the first white man in all sorts of weathers and seasons. 

. .A 5 • < 


1 IO 



■ -. 


ii i 

i. . 

Residence of Hon. W. C. Sturo: 

In 17S1 the name of the town was Sunapee lake is not by any means 

changed to Wendell, in honor of one of entirely within the borders of Sunapee 

its Portsmouth proprietors, and in 1S50, town. Nearly one half of its eastern 

by act of the state legislature, it became shore, including Dr. Quaekenbos's beau- 

the same as that of the lake. The tiful park, owes allegiance to the good 


history of Saville- 
Wendell-Sun apee 
has been as honor- 
able as that of any 
New Ham p s h i r e 
town, though more 
uneventful than 
most. It furnished 
its quotas of sold- 
iers at all times of 
national need; re- 
ligion and educa- 
tion were carefully 
cherished and 
cared for alike 
by its earlier and J 
later inhabitants ; 
sturdy families 
grew up within its 

borders, whose sons and daughters have gone 
forth to posts of usefulness and honor in the 
outer world, or have stayed at home and con- 
tributed to the steady and substantial develop- 
ment of the lake. The Smiths, the Georges, 
the Chases, the Runals, the Youngs, and the 
Hartletts are a few of those who cone instantly 
to mind, and there are a dozen others scarcely «->-'*'*, 



I ■ '-■' 


: ■.-•.- • a - : 



I 1 ' it 
| \t\ : - 


l ■ , : 


1 Mfl 

H j 1 f f fj 




• . - • 








1 1 1 

:' 5. 


old hill town of New London. And an 
even larger portion of the lake, with 
Blodgett's, Colonel Hay's, Pine Cliff, 
and Lake Sunapee station as notable 
points , largely 
helps to increase 
the valuation of 
; the town of New- 
bury. It is not, 
however, to the 
chronicles of 
these latter towns 
that we m u s t 
look for informa- 
tion regarding 
days of old upon 
and about the 
lake, but to the diligent antiquarian re- 
searches and vivid personal memory of 
that venerable historian, as well as bard, 
of Sunapee, Hon. William C. Sturoc. 

An especially interesting reminiscence 
is the account of the hurricane of Sep- 
tember 9, 1821, which he gives as fol- 
lows : 

During the day of that memorable Sunday 
it was unusually hot and sultry, clearly indi- 
cating electrical forces, and about 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon the black clouds began to 
roll, soon followed by the roaring of the 
bronzy, a.shen-colored bugle of the whirl- 
wind, as it sped on to the southeast, on its 

Wm. C. Sturoc. 

errand of destruction. It was noticed to 
start, apparently, from the south side of Gran- 
tham mountain, striking and partly demol- 
ishing one habitation in Croydon ; thence 
onward through the northeast part of Suna- 
pee, doing damage only to the forests and 
fences, until it readied the house and barn of 
J. Harvey Huntoon, near the west shore of 
the lake. It lifted the barn from its founda- 
tions and threw it in fragments down hill 
toward the shore. It whirled the roof from 
the house and shattered to pieces all above 
the cellar, while a bed on which the youngest 
child was laid was snatched up and carried in 
the air to the centre of the lake and there 

A few days af- 
ter, as Dr. Alex- 
ander Boyd, of 
Newport, with 
Moses Muzzey. gg^ 

the blacksmith of 

Wendell, and oth- , 

ers were looking 
over the path of 


tijLl . ,/r-i.. .-.; w J-Jtarftim 

Hon. Edmund 


hk g 


the destroyer, they I 

noticed an object I 

near the entrance ^ 

of the creek, and, 

on rea ching it, 

they found the body of the child, its little 

dress torn to shreds, and its head bruised 

and battered almost beyond recognition. 

Mr. Huntoon and his wife, Naoma, re- 
moved soon after to 
Concord, Ohio, where 
they died not long ago, 
and where they had 
been visited several 
times by persons now 
living in Sunapee. They 
retained, as a sad me- 
mento of that dreadful 
and fatal day. a small 
piece of the baby's 
dress, which they had 
encased in a frame, 
under glass, with its 
brief but sorrowful 




When Charles Dickens, the English nov- 
elist, visited the United States, some one 
related to him the above-named facts, and on 
them he built his story of "The Fisherman 
of Sunapee," which had the run of the maga- 
zines and newspapers of that time. 

Very few, however, are the tragic or 
unpleasant associations connected with 
the shores of Sunapee. And so many 
are the beauties and charms that cluster 
around them, that it is difficult to under- 
stand its comparatively slow develop- 
ment as a place of summer resort. 

View House, now incorporated into the 
Burkehaven. It was a good-sized hotel 
for those days, and it had many guests, 
but the profits were not sufficient to pay 
the 20 per cent, interest, and, through 
mortgage foreclosure, it became the prop- 
erty of the late Hon. Edmund IJurke, one 
of the most stalwart, honorable, useful, 
and respected personalities in the history 
of western New Hampshire. To his ef- 
forts and to those of his son-in-law, Col. 
George H. Dana, is largely due the devel- 
opment of the west shore of the lake. 


4 - 


... . sir 




Sunapee Harbor. 

Almost a half century ago, N. P. Rogers, At Sunapee harbor, where now there 

the poet, christened Lake Sunapee as are two first-class hotels, the 15en Mere 

"the Loch Lomond of America." Later and the Sunapee Harbor House, the 

came Prof. Samuel Longfellow, brother first important venture of this kind was 

to our unquestioned laureate of song, the Runals House, built in 1 vS 7 7 . by 

and said to Lafayette Colby, who owned Albert Runals and John V. Gardner, 

much land upon the west shore of the A little later annual camp-meetings were 

lake: "There is no more beautiful spot established by the Spiritualists at Blodg- 

for a summer hotel in America than ett's Landing, where the Messrs. Hlodg- 

this." Mr. Colby was an enterprising ett built the Forrest House and numbers 

man, ahead of his times, indeed, and he of cottages clustered around. At various 

acted upon his guest's suggestion. Bor- sightly points about the lake cottager 

rowing a sum of money at usurious colonies settled like swarms of bees, and 

interest, he built, in 187?, the Lake here and there one who desired seclu- 



sion from all save his friends withdrew 
j'.ir from the madding crowd and built a 
more or less elaborate and beautiful villa. 

Meanwhile this steadily increasing 
summer population demanded means of 
transportation over and about the lake. 
The first craft more pretentious than a 
sail or row boat of which we have record 
was a "horse boat." built in 1854. by 
Timothy Hoskins and William Cutler. 
It carried 100 passengers, and ran eight 
\ears. July 4, 1S59, Austin Goings, of 
New London, launched TJic Surprise, 
a side-wheel steamer of 65 feet keel, and 
with a carrying capacity of 300. Cap- 
tain and crew enlisted when the war 
broke out, their boat was dismantled, 
and for fifteen years the shriek of a 
steamboat whistle was unheard on the 
waters of Sunapee. 

In 1876, N. S. Gardner placed upon 
the lake the little steamer Penacook, 
later purchased by Captain Nathan 
Young, remodelled, improved, and 
named the Mountain Maid. In the 
same year the Woodsum brothers, 
Frank and Daniel, came to Sunapee 
from Maine and built the Ladx Wood- 

sum, still a substantial and honored 
member of the lake flotilla. 

In 1S85 the Edmund Burke, built by 
a stock company, and named in honor 
of one of the lake's most ardent advo- 
cates, was launched; and two years 
later there came from Chester, Pa., the 
iron steamer, Armenia H'/iite, fast, 
speedy, and safe, the handsome queen 
of Sunapee shipping. A dozen steam 
launches and hundreds of sail and row- 
boats of every description may also 
now be seen skimming the wind-ruffled 
waters, anchored for the benefit of the 
patient angler, or slowly moving to suit 
the liking of a typical summer girl and 
her favorite of the day. 

After all, a present so prosperous 
and promising as Sunapee's is more 
attractive than a past, however honor- 
able and interesting. In many respects 
Lake Sunapee is without a parallel 
among New Hampshire's varied resorts 
for summer outing. Its situation is at 
once beautiful, healthful, and inspiring; 
upon its waters and along its shores the 
artist, the scientist, the sportsman, the 
seeker for rest and the seeker for 




mop Harhor 

ii 4 


ble Connecticut valley to 
Claremont Junction, and 
thence, by a short flight 

through the busy manu- 
factu ring villages of 
Claremont and Newport, 
reach his destination. 
Or he may take the Sound 
steamers, connecting at 
their termini with 
through trains for Suna- 
pee. If he chooses the 
latter route, the tourist 
will hear the whirr of the 
thousands of spindles 
that the busy Merrimack 
turns at Lowell, Nashua, 
and Manchester; will admire the beau- 
tiful passenger station at Concord ; and 
then will be whirled along over the 
Concord & Claremont road through 
forests of pine and maple, by daisy- 

Bay Point. 

pleasure may alike attain their sev- 
eral ends with unalloyed enjoyment ; 
convenient of access, and with admir- 
able hotel accommodations, it is still 
thus far unspoiled by the artificial 
modes and manners of life of more starred meadows and lily-decked ponds, 
famous and pretentious watering-places ; up the steep grade at Newbury, and 
yet the character of those who frequent deposited bag and baggage at the very 
it year after year is one of its strongest edge of the lake. 

recommendations to the cultured and There is a train I wot of on this road 
truly refined, who desire a home for that rarely carries the regulation sum- 
the summer season, where their environ- mer visitor, and which has yet a pedi- 
ment and their associates will be as liar charm of its own. Made up of a 
congenial as during the months of their dozen freight and a couple of passenger 

city life; every sea- ,_ _ - . - 

son that passes sees 
an even higher social 
tone at the lake, and 
makes it more worthy 
to rank with Dublin, 
Newcastle, and North 
Conway. An intend- 
ing Sunapee sojourn- 
er coming from New 
York or points be- 
yond, has his choice 
of two routes. He 
may come up the no- 


^TTtfN-r ^ 



■ ■ 



- * 





cars, it loiters lazily along from station 
to station, its various pauses punctuated 
by a fusillade of discharging milk cans. 
It stops at Mast Yard, Bagley's, Roby's, 
Melvin's, and anywhere else that a 
good-sized barn appears in view. No 
one connected with the train is in a 
hurry, and its schedule is apparently so 
arranged, that if the engineer or fireman 
feels inclined, he can stop the train 
long enough to gather wild flowers or 
berries without any appreciable delay. 
The result is a railroad trip exactly 

old Mount Sunapee, a symmetrical 

height of almost 3.000 feet. Just a 
step down to the steamer wharf, and we 
find all three boats, the W'/iitc, the 
Burke, and the Woods um, waiting for 
us. Out on the lake the stiff breeze 
that is almost always present proves a 
delightful change from the close heat 
of city and cars. 

Following the west shore of the lake, 
the first cottage we spy is George 
Wright's pretty summer home at Breezy 
Point. Then the dainty little settle- 
suited to the country through which ments of Bay Point, Brightwood, and 
one passes. The various aspects of Montclair are reached, passed, and 
nature can be almost as carefully noted admired. These are peculiarly Bellows 
and appreciated as on a carriage ride, Falls and Claremont colonies. Hon. 
and the most nervous passenger can A. N. Swain and Norm an Brockway of 
conjure up no harrowing dreams of dis- the former town were the pioneers of 
aster. the locality, and C. YV. Black, whose 

Lake Sunapee station, where passen- Idlewood is one of the handsomest 
gers for all points on the lake alight, is cottages of the group, is their townsman, 
tucked away at the very foot of grand The main islands of the lake, Great, 

Little, and Liberty, are next sighted. 
Great island lies partly in Newbury and 
partly in Sunapee ; it boasts a recently 
" 3 constructed wharf, and is 
soon to be opened up 
and developed. Little 
island is the headquar- 
ters of a camping club 

■ 1 : 


• « 

Ml ' 


r ' , 


-v -: 

...•■'. ~ • 






of congenial spirits, while Liberty island 
is the property of E. B. Craddock, who 
has largely improved it. 

Now we enter sheltered Burkehaven 
and see before and above us the long 
white front of the Burkehaven Hotel, 
known until very recently as the Lake 
View House. It is a peculiarity of 
Sunapee that its every visitor selects 
some spot from which he determines 
that the most beautiful view of the lake 
can be obtained ; and when once his 
choice has been made he will admit of 
no contradiction, but blazons forth its 
particular advantages at every oppor- 
tunity. I confess to have myself found 

I ■ 


Burkehaven Hotel. 

- ' 

that spot upon the piazzas of the Burke- 
haven. The somewhat romantic history 
of this house has already been referred 
to. It is this summer under the efficient 
management of Joseph G. Chandler, 
whose season is so successful that a 
new and larger hotel upon the same 
site is already assured. The capacity 
of the present house is ioo and it is 
built 1,214 feet above the sea level. 

A most distinguished band of cot- 
tagers are comfortably ensconced in the 








vicinity, and add their society to the 
pleasures of the hotel clientele. Here 
are Judge William J. Forsaith of the 
Boston municipal court; General James 
J. Dana, U. S. A.: Rev. George A. Hall 
of Peabody, Mass.; Madame Lillian 
Blauvelt, the concert prima donna of 
world-wide reputation ; William Young, 
the playwright ; F. W. Tappenbeck, 
Richard B. Grinnell, and Arthur C. 
Bradley, of New York ; Charles B. 
Vardley of Orange, New Jersey: Charles 
V. Swan of Morristown, N. V. ; Mrs. L.-T. 
Chapman of Brooklyn; and others. 

Here, too, is Col. George H. Dana, 
feudal proprietor of the estates and 
patron saint of the west shore, whose 
devotion to the lake and labors for its 

Just ar oun d 
Birch Point, at 
"Cold Spring" 
is located Camp 
Sunapee, where 
C. K. Mellen of 
De Veaux col- 
lege, Suspen- 
sion Bridge, 

A ■ < .-" 


Col. George H. Dane 

New York, and 

Dr. William S. 

Hubbard have 

charge each 

year of a band of youngsters, who are 

getting all the wholesome fun possible 

out of their vacation and at the same 

time learning much that will be useful 

to them in after life. 







Col. G. H. Dana's Cottage. 

best growth and upbuilding never flag. Sunapee Harbor, where the lake has 

Kdmund Burke could not possibly have its outlet and where is also the largest 

chosen more wisely, than did his daugh- settlement about its shores, is the next 

ter for him, a fit successor in his love point touched on the steamer routes, 

for Sunapee and faith in its future. A Just opposite the wharf rises the Ben 

veteran of East Indian seas and Western Mere Inn, new in 1890. the largest and 

plains, Colonel Dana is now content to handsomest house upon the lake, and 

rest on his beautiful lakeside and a model in all respects. It is four 

bestow the charms of his genial and stories in height and 150 feet long. Its 

many sided personality upon his friends, present proprietor, M. P. Courser, is 







The 6en Mere. 

a veteran landlord, whose experience a large and well-kept hotel, possessing 
ranees from New England to Florida, a commanding location and a lame and 

. ■ I .-a^ 

\ %\W\\\\ " 1 

I ii«hHliinKl V - 

. .-...._ 


Granite Hame Snop, Sunapee Harbor 

and who knows and anticipates every constant patronage. Its management 

wish of his patrons. is enterprising and up to date, and 

The Sunapee Harbor House is also bound to retain its present reputation 







• c ■ 

*- ^ -■- ..;.• .;•.:; v 


... - . . . , - 

Enrc-'ion Paper MiH, Sunapee Harbor. 






• • 

Hon. J. E. Robertson's Cottage. 

as one of the most popular houses at pany and the factory of the Granite 
the lake. Here at the Harbor are manu- Hame company. Here, too, is the 
facturing enterprises, chief among them century-old residence of Hon. William 
the mills of the Emerson Paper com- C. Sturoc, made widely famous by 

mention in William Black's novel, 
li Stand Fast, Craig Royston," as the 
bard of Sunapee. Though somewhat 
past the three score and ten limit, 

I _ 

" ~* ■¥*.- 



■iiWL ... 





-,. sg 



Col. •/. S. Hopk ns'c Cottage. 




Mr. Sturoc retains the 
vigorous and undimmed 
use of mental and physi- 
cal fac u 1 1 i e s that any 
younger man might well 
envy. Possessing a vast 
store of historical knowl- 
edge and traditional lore, 
he is at the same time a 
true poet of vigorous imag- \ 
ination and facile expres- 
sion, as the following fre- 
quently quoted verse from 
a tribute he has paid to 
Sunapee will prove : 

Sweet Granite " Katrine " of this mountain land ! 

O jewel set annd a scene so fair ! 
Kearsarge, Ascutney, rise on either hand, 

While Grantham watches with a lover's care, 
And our dark " Den " to Croydon sends in glee 
A greeting o'er thy silvery breast, Lake Sunapee ! 

Among the handsome cottages at 
the Harbor is The Boulders, where A. 
Perley Fitch, the prominent Concord 
business man and president of the 
Woodsum Steamboat company, has made 


..\ : \ 

*- V 


H. • * \ 

* r«a * 


w -- _. ;-. 

Dr. J. R. Nilsen's House. 

his summer home. Near by are the villas 
of Hon. John E. Robertson, ex-mayor 
of Concord, and Colonel \\\ S. Hopkins, 
the great Massachusetts criminal lawyer ; 
and probably no three men about the 
lake deserve greater credit for its recent 
development and new life than they. 

Upon this same side of the lake are 
Hill Crest, where Dr. J. R. Xilsen of 
the New York Postgraduate Medical 
college has built beautiful Breidablik, 



and Dreamland, the 
property of Professor 
Dunning of Columbia. 
At the little country 
village of George's 
Mills, where are good 
boarding-houses galore, 
the steamer turns, and 
we begin our study 
of the shore on the 
cast side. The es- 
tate of Edward C. 


Or. J. D. Quae: 

And now for two miles 
along shore stretches 
Soo-Nipi- Si de Park, 
where Dr. John I). 
Quackenbos, of New 
York, professor emeri- 
tus of rhetoric in Col- 
umbia college, has 
planned and consum- 
mated the nearest ap- 
proach to an ideal 
s u m m e r resort that 





Soo-Nipi-Side Lodge. 

Woodruff, Esq., of Elizabeth, Xew Jer- exists to-day in America. The grounds, 

sey, is first passed, and then The Ledges, 400 acres in extent, being under one 

Lakeside, and Hastings's. ownership and management, are secure 

* against invasion from 

>S& ■.-■.^* ..''** ■■':** abroad or rebellion from 
jPS within. They abound 

in fragrant thickets, cool 
shaded groves, and purl- 
ing brooks ; and along 
almost their entire ex- 
tent stretches by far the 
best bathing beach upon 
the lake ; clear and shal- 
low water over a hard, 
white sandy bottom. 

The Lodge, accommo- 
dating 70 guests, is a 
" reference hotel," and 
! its summer life is the 
'— -^--^•^-••'^ most refined and hijrh- 

. - 



Grace Place. 




t ; 







"■■'- 53 :?^.r. 

, ... . -• 
- - 


2 ... 3 


. _ . i:_ 

. .— 

Nirvana Cottage. 

bred, yet restful and informal, imagina- sumptuously furnished throughout. The 
ble. The house embodies every modern doctor's own private place, poetically 
requisite of a perfect hotel, and is named Nirvana Cottage, is equally a 






Parlor ir, Soo-Nipi-Side Lodge 



gem in * ts wa y> anc ^ reflects in ever) 
room the potent and interesting per 

n > 

of Dr. 


spot for the silvery ouan.iniche and the 
' sparkid-sided trout.'" 

sonality of its owner. Here, largely through the 

Grace Place, the property of Prof. B. generosity and helpful aid 

H. Campbell of Columbia Grammar 

School, adjoins the park, occupying a 

most picturesque location. " Where 

the deep pine forest opens toward the 

lake, and cold Pike Prook, fed by 

perennial springs, breaks from the 

protecting shadows into a sun-lit slade 


then skirting a hemlock-grown 


ripples on through dense alders to its 






■ • . 


Quackenbos, the state fish commission 
does some of its most valuable work. 
A completely equipped station, with a 
peculiarly favorable situation, has a 
capacity of a million young fish per 
annum, and under the competent 
immediate charge of A. J. Cheney has 
already made Sunapee known the coun- 
try over as one of the finest fishing 
dark estuary — there, in a fragrant fern- grounds in any degree easy of access. 
Shaw, sung over by wild birds the sum- Six species of Salmonidae inhabit the 
mer-day through, stands the Sunapee Sunapee system : the brook trout, the 
Lake Hatching House — romantic birth- land-locked salmon, the Loch Lever] 




, .... w 
' 7 l 

Steamer " Lady Woodsum.' 


V , , . 


Steamer " Edmurd Burke.' 






-- r I . 

- - 


St«.amor "Armenia White. 




trout, the rainbow trout, the blue-black, 
and the Sunapee saibling or white trout. 
The small-mouthed black bass also 
affords tine fun for fly fishers from 

15 to August 1 



three feet beneath the surface, in all the 
glory of their nuptial tints, Hash schools 
of these dazzling beauties, circling in 
proud sweeps about the rocks they 
would select as the scene.-> of their loves, 

<& . V - 

The V/oodsums, " Dan ' and " Frank.' 

autumn days fair sport may be had the poetry of an epithalamium in every 

with the gun on the mainland. motion — here, offering to the sunbeams 

"It is a unique experience," says Dr. in graceful leaps their golden sides, 

Quackenbos, <: to watch the American dashed with vermilion and clouded in 

saibling spawning on their midlake amethyst; there suddenly darting in 

beds — the grandest sight ever viewed little companies, the pencilled margins of 

by angler, and one which nowhere else their fins seeming to trail behind them 

can be enjoyed. On shallows two to like white ribbons under the ripples. 

There are conspicuous differ- 
« - - 
4 fe 

J t. 

: -■ 




&»t? £ 4 

• '' ■ . 


ences in intensity of general 

coloration, and the gaudy 

hues of the male are tem- 

„ ^ pered in the spawner to a 

■•>- . --.' : • -" \ dead-lustre cream tint or del i- 

■ cate olive, with pearl spots. 
The wedding garment nature 
has given to this charr is un- 

Over the town line, in New- 
bury, lies Blodgett's Landing, 
where every August the lead- 
ers of American Spiritualism 
gather for their annual uamp- 

■ •_ 


■ -. 

y . * - . 4--~ —) • '- -*--_: 

A. Periey Fitcn s Cof.agc. 


lasting for several 



■ • .:' 


; R 



lr '^ 





' L 

v ---, . 





weeks, and invariably 
drawing large crowds. 
The Forrest House. 
owned by the Blod- 
getts, is the principal 


' '■ ■ 

\ -> 


. i 


u&jLi . . .. - . . -.- . ..- . .. a 

Col. John Hay's Cottage. 

hotel here, and scores 
of small cottages sur- 
round it and swarm 
upon the lake shore. 

"Labrador" and 
"Camp Comfort" in- 
tervene before we 
reach "The Fells," 
where Col. John Hay, 
the biographer of Lin- 
coln, has become an extensive landed Like a 'witching maid, it is difficult to 
proprietor and has built a beautiful sum- say in which of Sunapee's varied aspects 
.. - she is most beautiful. 

At earliest morning 
earth and water are 
instinct with new 
life; the purest, 

) freshest air man ever 

breathed stirs the 

veins, steadies the 
nerves, and strength- 
ens the muscles of 
one rising from 
quiet, restful sleep. 
As the day waxes, 
the sun pours down 

A Bit of the _s 

mer residence. Pine - 
Cliff, the lovely abid- 
ing-place of Concord 
people, — the Whites 
and others — is next 
passed; and then — un- 
less we take a short 
sail down to Newbury 
— we are back at our 
starting-point, L a k e 
Sunapee station. 

*•■■- ■ 

% i 

- ' - 


The Btach at Hastings'^. 



the torrid radiance that in sweltering sunset glories are reflected from 
cities makes noisome myriads weary of calm surface of the waters below. 


existence ; but here the west breeze stirs 



is . w < 


But after all, the choicest memory I 

would carry away 

.'->.£ from Sunapee is that 

^'^ \:^* of a moon-lit evening 

on the water. Over- 

h e a d fast-scudding 

clouds now clasp pale 

Luna in all-envelop- 

r — - — 


the lake into cool rip- 
ples, and kind nature her- 
self fans the siesta of her 
children. At eventide 
great bands of fading 
light and violet shadow 
lie across Mount Suna- 
pee, and in the west are Pine Cliff - 
fleecy clouds and a sky of Italian, blue, ing embrace, .and then, once more, re- 

fast changing into gray, whose gorgeous 

lease her clear light 
the dark waves below 



to silver-crest 
Against the 
black background of the forest-clad 
shore the lights and lanterns of the cot- 
tages glimmer cheerfullv, and now and 
then a bonfire blazes up or the glittering 
illumination of a hotel strikes the eye. 
Over the water come faint laughter, 
and the echoes of rattling banjo, jolly 
song, or tender ballad. Silently the 
steamer's prow cleaves the lake's ebon 
surface, and leaves a wake on either side 
of cold, clear crystals, glittering gem-like 
in the pale light. As co< 
beautiful as these glinting ar< 
midnight waves, is Sunapee. 

as clear, as 

'• -«= from 

Conducted by Fred Cowing, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 


By J. W 

A short time ago, in a leading British 
magazine, I read an educational article 
by an author of greater or less repute 
on the other side of the ocean, and from 
that article I quote the following para- 
graph : 

Nearly every school-teacher is didactic, he 
is so accustomed to be constantly laying 
down the law to very small people ; so 
engrossed in impressing on the minds of his 
young disciples the doctrine of his personal 
infallibility, that he gradually becomes a con- 
vert to his own creed, and by imperceptible 
stages grows wedded to the idea that he really 
and truly is infallible. To a man whose 
vocation is to teach, and who is fortified, 
furthermore, with the pleasing- conviction 
that whatever he says himself is right, and 
that whatever another man says is probably 
wrong, the prospect of a conference is most 
attractive. He regards it as a golden oppor- 
tunity, which may never recur again, for 
instructing his brothers in arms, and for con- 
vincing them that his own system of educa- 
tion alone is perfect. 

Now whatever may be the conditions 
surrounding the public educational sys- 
tem in England that such a denunciation 
of instructors should be called forth, 
and whatever may be the criticisms 
upon the shortcomings and the narrow- 
ness and unprogressiveness of English 
conferences of teachers, will interest us 
Personally here in New Hampshire very 
little; nevertheless there are suggested to 
every thoughtful teacher who is desirous 

. Kelley. 

of his own advancement and of the 
future well-being of his pupils, certain 
questions : Am I too self-centred in my 
opinions? Am I teaching subjects sim- 
ply because all my predecessors have 
taught them ? Am I teaching certain 
subjects so many hours per week, 
year after year, because that course was 
mapped out twenty years ago, and has 
been unhesitatingly followed ever since ? 
Am I fully alert to the ever-changing 
conditions of social life, and the con- 
stantly increasing demands made by 
society and business upon those under 
my care who are soon to take their 
places in the world ? Am I " impervious 
to the gentle showers of the new educa- 
tion ? " Do I attend the teachers' confer- 
ence simply as a respite of one day from 
routine school work, or is my mind open, 
and ready and willing to take in and 
assimilate new ideas and new methods, 
appropriating that which seems certainly 
good, giving an impartial trial to that 
the expediency of which seems doubtful, 
and discarding that which personal 
environment renders impossible ? 

These, I repeat, are questions we must 
ask ourselves, and the longer we teach, 
the more thorough should be our self- 

If we could answer them all satisfac- 
torily to ourselves, and then find our 
schools illy preparing our children for 
life, we should conclude that the march 
of civilization, the multiplicity of invert- 



tions, the wider range of knowledge, and 
other nineteenth century advancements, 
had partially overwhelmed us ; and we 
could only hope to plod on in a vain 
attempt to catch up. 

But how many of us are there who 
can answer these questions satisfactorily? 
How many can say. * ; We have tried, inde- 
pendently of prescribed work, to broaden 
permanently our field of vision and to 
give to all our pupils, according to their 
capacities, as much of as many things as 
they should have ! " And this considera- 
tion leads me directly to my subject 
proper — " The Educational Balance in 
our Elementary Schools." 

For the purposes of this paper, let us 
take a circular piece of cardboard with 
a radius of six inches, and let it repre- 
sent a child's existence for six years, the 
last of which has been spent in school. 

The first five inches in all directions 
from the centre will be unmarked, for up 
to that point schools have done nothing 
for him, but the outer inch ought to and 
does show us something. We find 
a space taken up with discipline, 
another with number work, another 
with phonics and reading, another with 
busy work, and we find two very small 
spaces taken up with singing and draw- 
ing. These studies are very, very neces- 
sary, nothing can be said to their dis- 
advantage ; they appeal to the memory 
mostly, and at a good time, but there 
are several spaces at the top and bottom 
of that circle unmarked. 

Let us imagine now that our card lias 
a radius an inch longer : we have com- 
pleted the second year of school life and 
another circular inch of the card is 
marked. Do we find a greater number 
of divisions on the card ? Xo, we find 
the same markings as in the first year, 
with a space for writing taken up. 

We find here, as in the first year, that 

the memory is exercised greatly, and 
here also are the spaces at the top and 
bottom unmarked. 

Remember, I do not say that any 
time of the pupil is unused, I simply say 
that in the ever-broadening circle of a 
child's school li'fe, there should be some- 
thing to show on every radiating line of 
that circle, and yet there is not. 

Let us go now to the third grade, and 
our card has an eight-inch radius. One 
of our unmarked spaces finds a happy 
utilization here in the subject of geogra- 
phy, and another portion of unused 
space — though small — is occupied by 


These additions at this sta^re 

also appeal largely to the memory. 
Number work is the special feature of 
this grade, and pupils will say the difTer- 
ent tables with so much precision and 
glibness, and with a rapidity so marvel- 
lous, you are almost tempted to believe 
they really understand what they are 
saying ; they will repeat them back- 
ward as well as forward ; but if you are a 
questioner, do not skip about in your 
questions, the system fails to take into 
account questions of that character, and 
besides, that precision, as exemplified in 
two times two are four, three times two 
are six, or two threes make six, three 
threes make nine, and so on, would be 
in a measure sacrificed. What wonder, 
then, that in this grade we find number- 
work overleaping its limits and taking 
up some of the unmarked space at the 
top and bottom of our eighth circular 
inch; but I remark here, that while this 
increase may mean more instruction, it 
does not indicate more education. Com- 
ing to the fourth grade of school life, we 
find busy work thrown unt, and clay 
modelling, if once tried, soon abandoned, 
because, even if the children are very 
enthusiastic over it, too much work 
devolves upon the teacher. As much 



time as possible is given to reading and 
number; all else is made of secondary 
importance. In considering double pro- 
motions or advancement, proficiency in 
both these hides a multitude of short- 
comings in other studies. 

Geography is carried along as it was 
started, the book is the main support ; it 
is put into the hands of the pupils at the 
earliest possible moment, and kept there 
until the last ; there is not enough 
thought upon local surroundings; the 
connection between the high hill or 
mountain seen in the distance from the 
school window, and the slope of land 
upon which the school-house is situated, 
is not brought into proper prominence. 
But the pupils here, as in all else, must 
memorize, and nothing more is asked. 
Dr. William T. Harris, speaking upon 
memory study, as now generally under- 
stood in the educational system, says, 
" Memory is moribund, and in province 
after province it is losing its importance." 

Professor Patrick, of Iowa, says, " This 
is an age of books and of printed and 
written records. With our indexes and 
our book-keepers and our typewriters 
and our newspapers, we no longer find 
it necessary to depend upon our memo- 
ries for the preservation of the myriad 
events of our private and public life. 
Our reading habits, furthermore, are 
utterly destructive to memory, and 
the mind becomes the recipient of an 
incessant stream of weak impressions ; 
the mind is becoming less like a store- 
house and more like a clearing-house ! " 
Now neither of these men undervalues 
the need of memory, and both argue 
well for its cultivation, but they say, il Let 
us abolish paragraph recitations, veto 
learning and dry memorizing of useless 
Stuff, and reinstate memory study and 
training upon a higher plane." 

In the fifth <£rade in the better schools 

a portion of the unmarked space of the 
tenth circular inch is taken up by lan- 
guage — called here reproduction work— 
and it is high time a beginning was 
made; here, too, we find the memory is 
the chief factor. It is in this fifth year, 
however, that geography as a time and 
energy consumer leaps into prominence. 
In some schools it is used by the page, 
in others by topics ; when a visitor enters 
the child is called on, and at once 
plunges. If the visitor has any regard for 
teacher or pupil, he keeps perfectly still ; 
if, however, he does not know his place, 
he may interrupt the child by a simple 
question, which, had the pupil been 
at all drilled in self-reliance or thought, 
he could easily answer. Does the child 
reply ? No, he is even incapable of 
making the attempt. That question was 
not among his topics. He looks blankly 
at you, then at his teacher ; the other 
pupils in the room look at each other 
wonderingly, and fear that they in turn 
must suffer a like trying ordeal. Per- 
chance the visitor now says, "Never mind, 
go on with your answer." Does the child 
go on ? No. but back he goes to the 
very beginning, takes a fresh start, and 
in the very same words as before makes 
his answer, and finishes this time without 
interruption. If the visitor has the book 
open at the proper place he will notice 
that not even an article is left out. 

Evidently there is not much thought 
in the work. Arithmetic stands next in 
this grade, and as much time and labor 
is expended on the table of jeweler's 
measure as on the table of United States 
money. We, therefore, find the studies 
started in the lowest grade are still the 
studies toward which the teaching force 
is directed ; we still find the pupils 
expending the bulk of their energies 
upon the same routine, and we find the 
unmarked space upon our tenth circular 



inch a very large factor of the whole. 
This blank space, which represents the 
untrained and undeveloped faculties of 
the child, has constantly grown from the 
first to the end of the fifth school year. 

In the sixth grade, represented by the 
eleventh circular inch, the work of the 
fifth year is carried on, but more broadly ; 
we are emerging in this year somewhat 
from that blind dependence upon the 
memory, which has been and still is the 
chief aim. The work in English, if the 
school is a good one, leaves out and 
ramifies, it takes up some of the 
unmarked space, it encroaches, too, upon 
the time hitherto devoted to reading 
and phonics. It takes none of the time 
devoted to arithmetic, not at all ; we find 
teachers and pupils alike intent on prob- 
lems in decimal fractions of from five to 
nine places in all of the four processes, 
and in common fractions we find denom- 
inators of three figures, and one half of 
them prime numbers at that. What 
wonder then that no time can be taken 
from arithmetic — why, there is not time 
even for mental work, not time for writ- 
ten work in easy practical problems, with 
speed as the main object. Geography 
occupies relatively the same place as in 
the year before. If the school is well 
graded, drawing will come in for wider 

What do we gain in this year for what 
we lose in memory work — for all agree 
that from the sixth year on memory 
plays a less prominent part than in the 
preceding years ? Do the children gain 
in pow r ers of deduction ? They surely 
ought, for all arithmetic is deductive ; but 
I fear they do not, for having abandoned 
a given class of examples for two weeks, 
on a resumption of that work, the class 
as a whole will be in doubt as to how to 
go to work to do these self-same exam- 
ples. They will try — not to reason out 

the why and wherefore — but to remem- 
ber how they did the example before. 
If they succeed, very well ; if they do not, 
we give them the rule or we show them 
how the first one is done ; all is then 
easy sailing — once stimulate the memory 
by a single example done, and the class 
will go through the rest of the problems 
— provided they are exactly similar — 
with ease, precision, and accuracy. 
Does such work as this do much for 
pupils ? Can nine tenths of the work 
done in this year in that study of arith- 
metic — loudly heralded everywhere as 
the practical and hence sacred study — 
be called useful ? The public never use 
mixed numbers, they never do and never 
will use decimals, they rarely use tables 
of weights and measures, and now going 
ahead of my subject, for the moment, 
into the mathematics of the seventh, 
eighth, and ninth grades, the common 
people never use ratio ; they never use 
proportion ; they never use square root ; 
they could not do cube root if they knew 
the rule ; they never need mensuration ; 
they rarely have work in interest to do ; 
and when they do they go to some friend 
in school or in a bank ; and so I might 
go on until nothing was left but plain 
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and 
division of very easily handled numbers, 
and very simple common fractions; and 
still we devote the best hours, the best 
teaching energy, and the longest term of 
years to this so-called practical study — 
which in reality — with the exceptions 
last noted, and which could be obtained 
in two years at the most — is not as prac- 
tical as dozen of studies which could be 
substituted for it. 

You need no citation of authorities to 
convince you of the truth of this state- 
ment, but here is a quotation from that 
Mecca of the New England teacher — the 
Cook County Normal School — that aptly 



expresses the idea. ''Arithmetic — and 
form, also, to a less degree— more strongly 
than any other subject, stands intrenched 
in the dogmas and traditions of the past. 
So long has it been enthroned in every 
school-house and in the heart of every 
teacher, as the great subject to be taught, 
that it now stands aloof and apart in a 
state of almost complete isolation. When 
one looks back over his school-days, no 
other subject looms up in such propor- 
tions as arithmetic. It is the one thing 
which consumed his time and absorbed 
his energy. Goaded on by the promise 
of future reward, we unceasingly and 
unlovingly toiled. But now, when in 
later years we stretch out our hands 
to seize the promised reward, we find it 
turns to ashes/' 

In the seventh school year, covered by 
the twelfth circular inch, we find £eo£ra- 
phy still holding its space and with a 
more comprehensive text-book. Arith- 
metic covers plain measurements, com- 
pound numbers, and percentage, while 
there is a constant effort to prevent the 
pupils losing all knowledge of decimals ; 
the other studies are continuations of 
the work of previous years and along 
the same lines : but we find little that is 
new and little that is inspiring, our 
unmarked spaces are still very constantly 
with us. 

Going on into the eighth and ninth 
and last school years, the thirteenth and 
fourteenth inches on our card, we find 
history introduced, and the eagerness, 
the avidity with which pupils seize upon 
this new field, shows with what a thirst 
they have been consumed. Many a 
teacher new to these grades has allowed 
the enthusiasm of his classes to displace 
his better judgment, and the field of his- 
tory has been run through at a break- 
neck pace. We gain here by the intro- 
duction of this one studv many things 

apart from mere knowledge : we get to 
know our children, we see the individual 
intellects rise into view, the pupils bring 
themselves into closer touch with teach- 
ers, because, without urging, they wish to 
k n o w. 

But what becomes of geography at 
this time ? Our boys and girls have had 
geography forced upon them in more or 
less drastic doses four days a week for 
six or seven years. What wonder then 
that teachers find it difficult to hold the 
attention of pupils on this oft-covered 
ground ! What wonder that pupils are 
restive here and refuse to be interested! 

Woe to the teacher who does not in 
these later years make a judicious union 
of this subject with the newly introduced 
study of history, for history will become 
its mainstay and prop. 

Arithmetic, however, is still held to 
the mouths of the pupils, and they are 
forced to drink, even to the last day of 
the last year. 

The pupils, too, impressed with the 
vim, eloquence, earnestness, and anxiety 
of the teacher, persevere in the set tasks, 
plod on up the mathematical incline, and 
while there is a lack of enthusiasm, there 
is a perseverance developed which almost 
makes one say that the study is best 
adapted for the development of dogged 
determination. To be sure, throughout 
every course in the elementary schools 
there is a certain amount of physiology 
prescribed by law to be taught, but I 
fear it is very desultory and unproduc- 

In this cursory review I have touched 
only the main points. I recognize that 
here and there in the course certain ele- 
ments in education and instruction which 
I have not touched upon have received 
a good share of attention, but not con- 
sistently throughout the course. I fur- 
ther admit and hope that certain centers 



have maintained a steady pressure 
throughout the course on some studies 
which I shall advocate. But the ques- 
tion I now ask is : Is not the teaching 
force in our elementary schools in this 
state devoting the bulk of its time, its 
energy, its best thought, its most persis- 
tent efforts, to the development of the 
pupils along a certain group of associa- 
ted and closely correlated radiating 
lines ? Is it not building a wheel and 
putting in but eight spokes, very strong 
ones to be sure, but irregularly arranged, 
when symmetry and strength and beauty 
demand twelve, evenly distributed ? 

If you answer these questions in the 
affirmative, then surely the educational 
balance in our elementary schools is n't 
a balance at all, all the weight is put 
upon too few studies. The question is, 
how shall we restore the equilibrium ? 
and here allow me to quote an extract 
from an educational article read some 
time ago : 

" To nearly every teacher in a public 
school the question must at some time or 
other have presented itself, whether the 
work in which he is engaged is in the 
long run really calculated to benefit the 
rising generation — whether in fact the 
young people of 1900, who will have 
passed through the curriculum of modern 
elementary schools, will be as efficient 
representatives of their class as were 
those of the earlier part of the present 

Efficient representatives of their class ! 
Is the efficiency of our pupils keeping 
pace with the marvellous social, indus- 
trial, and mechanical progress of the 
times ? 

Beginning, then, with the first grade I 
advocate a cultivation of the observa- 
tional powers of the pupils. I would do 
this, because their observational sense is 
rapidly unleaving and they are especially 

susceptible to sense impressions. I 
would use natural history or geology, 
localizing the study to the nearby sur- 
roundings of the school. I would abolish 
the text-book in the school-room, in these 
new departures : let the teacher study it 
at home. 

One writer cites the text-book as " the 
prop of indolence," another says, " Devo- 
tion to text-books is and has been the 
curse of all educational systems," while 
still another says, " when the text-book 
comes in at the door, nature flies out of 
the window." 

Let the pupils talk, handle, touch, see, 
teach them to observe successive stages 
of development, encourage them to ask 
questions. Of course the child's vocab- 
ulary in this grade is limited, and his 
ability to inquire restricted accordingly, 
but do the best you can, and you will 
observe an amazing increase in the num- 
ber of new words owned by the grade, 
for by localizing the study and allowing 
a handling and an inquiry, a picking to 
pieces so to speak, each new word given 
them acquires a living force and is there- 
fore the more readily understood and 

You are not expected in the lowest 
grade to cover a great deal of ground. 
you should not expect to be able to pro- 
ceed regularly from the particular to the 
general, your little ones will be purblind 
in the beginning, will comprehend only 
the salient points : you must guide them 
by skilful questioning to see still others : 
nature herself will instruct if the teacher 
will gently direct. In order that your field 
in the lower grades may not be too broad, 
I would suggest that you confine your- 
selves to studying observationally plants, 
minerals, and rocks, local surroundings 
which make the beginnings for geogra- 
phy, and in the second, third, and fourth 
grades a limited number of the simplest 



and most easily grasped experiments in 
physics. If you care to use but one of 
these studies, perhaps botany would be 
preferable to either of the others, but the 
question depends on- the teacher's taste. 
Observation being the foundation of all 
science work, the pupil must be led to 
observe with an ever growing accuracy, 
and a teacher can measure her success 
in this respect, help fix the newly 
acquired knowledge of the child, and 
make an important "contribution to lan- 
guage study by having the pupils give 
alternating oral and written accounts of 
what they have seen. In all observa- 
tional work remember you are cultiva- 
ting not only the sense of sight, but the 
sense of hearing, the sense of smell, the 
sense of taste, and the sense of touch, 
you are adding to the vocabulary, you 
are helping the language, and you are, 
lastly, not only opening wide fields of 
useful information, but vou are giving 
them the ability to gain knowledge, and 
the power and disposition in later life to 
be still a learner. 

Now I seem to hear the voice of many 
a teacher saying, " I cannot do this work, 
I do not know enough about botany or 
geology to conduct recitations in either 
of them, especially in lower grades. If 
a text-book were allowed me in class I 
might be able, but to lead offhand a reci- 
tation on such an unfamiliar subject is 

A somewhat thorough previous ac- 
quaintance with these sciences is of 
course desirable, yet it is not at all 
impossible that an earnest and progress- 
ive teacher, thoroughly alive to this kind 
of training and disposed to do the work, 
may fit himself by personal and private 
observation and study to teach the high- 
est studies demanded by elementary 
schools. The publishing houses issue 
series of books for just such science 

work, and at a nominal cost they can be 
obtained. Again, I have asked young 
teachers, those who have been members 
of the profession but two or three or four 
years, why they did not enter upon this 
science work with more force, and inva- 
riably they answer that they have no 
system to go by. they have no one to 
advise them, they have no one to map 
out a course for them. X~o one of these 
reasons is valid. 

System ! Have schools not suffered 
enough from a cut and dried system ? 
System in Natural Science ! I am not 
decrying the system mapped out by the 
teacher for his own class in natural 
science, but would condemn any arbi- 
trary and minute routine— at the present 
development of these studies — pre- 
scribed by any one in authority, designed 
to be followed to the letter by all teach- 
ers of each grade in a city, or by all 
teachers in a given county or district. 
Xo ! each of you design your own plan, 
read all the books you can obtain, talk 
it over as much as you please with each 
other and with those in authority, watch 
others do the work when possible : then, 
I repeat, make your own plan, design 
your own system- — one that will fit you 
and your pupils and your and their envi- 
ronment, then persevere, persevere with 
one half the energy you persevere in 
number work, and you will succeed. So 
much for the four lower grades. For 
the five or four (as the case may be) 
upper grades, continue this work, if it has 
been begun lower down ; if not, make a 
beginning. Also make a plan for work 
in some of the mechanical sciences, nota- 
bly physics first and chemistry later; 
again 1 say no text-books in the i 
room, and no absolute system mapped 
out by others than yourselves. Publish- 
ers have recognized the needs of these 
departments, and handbooks like ( ool- 



ey's and Faraday's are very helpful and 
easily obtained. The work must be 
completely experimental, and the experi- 
ment must not fail to work as advertised. 
If you try the experiments just before 
school your chance of failure in class is 
small indeed. Everything of educational 
advantage that has been said in favor 
of the natural sciences can be said con- 
cerning these experimentally applied 
mechanical sciences, and two things 
more, analysis and deduction, may be 
developed to good advantage. I call to 
mind eight easy experiments with a tal- 
low candle and a common lamp chimney, 
each showing a principle easily under- 
stood and applicable to the common 
experiences of life. 

I remember five experiments with 
splinters of wood, three with kerosene, 
five with paper, five with a common 
flame, and so on. 

I have tried these and many more on 
a fifth grade, average age ten years, with 
ample success, and as one example of 
what a lesson will lead to I have put on 
the blackboard during a single exercise 
no less than twenty words hitherto unfa- 
miliar to most — not suggested by me 
but groped after by them to describe 
some stage or some fact in the course of 
the experiment — such words as kerosene, 
gaseous, lamplighter, alcohol, liquid, 
spirit, charcoal, ignite. 

I simply mention these to show the 
simplicity of the work, and what utter 
absurdity it is to fear to start, even when 
the work is not prescribed and there is 
no one in authority to direct. 

I lay so much stress and devote so 
much space to this elementary science 
work because it is considered especially 
adapted to the purposes for which it was 
introduced, and because teachers outside 
the centers and many in the centers fail 
to take hold of the work with promptness 

and vigor. Furthermore, since, as one wri- 
ter puts it, "it is the business of the 
school to cultivate, not some particular 
faculties of the pupil, but so far as possi- 
ble everyone of his faculties, to liberate all 
the powers of mind and heart latent with- 
in him,'' and since science properly con- 
ducted cultivates all the senses which in 
the present scheme of education are left 
untrained, let that be a further reason, 
if any is needed. If language is not now 
begun as early as the third grade, it 
should be gradually moved down so that 
it can be taught there re^ularlv and svs- 
tematically. The development of a lit- 
erary taste, cry it down who will, is 
essential to a popular liberal education, 
and no less important is the cultivation 
of an artistic taste as developed in music 
and drawing. Since the best profes- 
sional singers are not the best masters. 
so it is not at all necessary that the good 
public school teacher must be able to 
sing, in order to properly train a class in 
music. Our own observation shows that 
the very opposite holds good, and the 
teacher who cannot sin^r a single true 
note often has the most proficient class. 

Could we not also introduce United 
States history a year earlier, making it 
possible to finish this work in the eighth 
grade instead of the ninth, leaving us 
the last year in school for a brief but 
thorough study into so much of English 
history as will show the origin of the 
race, its characteristics, and the relation 
between the English speaking people the 
world over and the early dwellers in 

In my own city by concluding arith- 
metic in the eighth grade we are able to 
take algebra in the ninth, and I have 
found only this danger in it. — the pupils 
unless closely looked after will devote 
too much of their time and energy to it, 
to the exclusion often of proper arte;.- 



lion to other subjects. The study does 
not need that expenditure of vitality on 
the part of the teacher required by arith- 
metic. The pupils are interested and 
the results seem to have demonstrated 
beyond a doubt that a wise advance has 
been made. We have also concluded 
geography as an independent study in 
the eighth grade, and we have put in its 
place in the ninth grade physical geog- 
raphy, and we use in connection with it 
as many experiments as possible, thus 
carrying on the experimental science 
work begun in the fifth grade. 

The pupils tnke very kindly to it, and 
although at times there is difficulty in 
comprehending the fulness of certain 
topics, we surmount it as far as possible 
by simple illustrations. We think we 
develop in the pupils more in this study 
than we have ever been able to do in 
the work which formerly had its place. 
We have gained some time for geometry 
by doing away entirely with double entry 
book-keeping, and also single entry 
book-keeping by name, devoting our 
attention in this branch to methods of 
keeping simple personal accounts, 

We do not tell the grade we are 


ing them geometry ; the teaching is 
objective, and made to fit in as closely 
as possible with the work in constructive 

drawing. This is begun now in the 
seventh grade. 

I will only say in conclusion that the 
benefits resulting from this work will 
depend entirely upon the individual 
teacher. Do not set about it unwillingly, 
or wait for someone to force you to it, or 
complain because someone does not plan 
the detail of the work ; do not distrust 
your own abilities — no one of us, thor- 
oughly in earnest, knows his or her capa- 
bilities in untried directions. So hope 
on and work on. Having once entered 
on the prosecution, carry it forward with 
vigor ; the temptation will be in the 
experimental work, for all concerned to 
regard it as a time for inschool recrea- 
tion — a time for amusement. Correct 
at the outset any tendency in that direc- 

Finally, bear in mind that an " elemen- 
tary education must be a liberal educa- 
tion, that no opportunity can be lost to 
give to the multitude which passes from 
the portals of the elementary schools 
the very best they may be able to re- 

Nature will not allow us to unduly 
force the mental any more than the 
physical development of our pupils, but 
nature is ever ready to help balance that 
development when reasonably aided. 



The educational movement in which we 
are now especially concerned, is set toward 
economy in the use of time. Main of the 
old methods of teaching were dilatory and 
wasteful to the last degree. They were repe- 
titious. They were to some extent indis- 
criminatin^ in subject-matter. They did not 
receive perfect adaptation of material to the 

mind of the pupil : and they failed to develop 
that kind of progress which lies in a true 
continuity of studies. I believe that no 
effort of more significance has been made in 
the interest of sound education than that 
embodied in the Report of the Committee of 
Ten, the L:reat nature of which is economy. 



A degree cannot guarantee one's per- 
sonality, but the process through which 
one reaches the teacher's degree ought 
to ensure stability of mind, maturity of 
judgment, breadth, of view, certainty of 
mental action — qualities which go very 
far toward the make-up of a successful 
teacher. I believe that there is no pro- 
fession which can so ill atTord haste in 
preparation as the teaching profession, cer- 
tainly when it essays the higher educa- 

In education, in distinction from instruc- 
tion, the element of time is of supreme value. 
The child has not begun to be educated until 
he has been awakened. A certain discipline 
of a negative kind may precede, but positive 
work begins with the real awakening of the 
mind. And when the whole disciplinary 
period has been passed, a sufficient time 
must be given to liberalizing the mind before 
the individual can afford to take the intellect- 
ual risks of specialization. 

Second. Education, so far as it is 
expressed by the terms instruction, informa- 
tion, learning, must be proportionate to the 
age. A disciplined and liberalized mind is a 
constant quantity, but the contents of such a 
mind will vary from age to age. Intelligence 
and ignorance are relative terms. The man 
of to-day who ignores the new subject-matter 
of education is to that degree an ignorant 
man. The "new education" demands all 
the time which can be saved by the most 
rigid economy in method. 

Third. The time of the student is best 
economized by increasing the teaching power 
of the teacher. Xo system can accomplish 
the desired result without a constant advance 
in the skill and equipment of the teaching 
force. The teacher must know how to man- 
age the system, how to keep the true propor- 
tion and perspective in his work. 

Fourth. In estimating the time requisite 
for an education, regard must be had to the 
responsibility of an educated man to the 
Republic. A distinguished literary man said 
recently, that, on the whole, the universities 

were a greater safeguard to the liberties of 
the country than the common school system. 
The remark had this element of truth in it. 
that the common school system is chiefly pro- 
tectivein its results. It prevents the masses 
from being imposed upon. Ignorance always 
carries the burdens of society. Hut it does 
not reach to leadership. Leadership belongs 
to those who know how to form an opinion, 
and who have the data for their task in dis- 
tinction from those who simply reflect public 
sentiment. The power to interpret public 
sentiment, rather than merely to express it. 
is a part of the capacity of an educated man. 
The working period of life is being so far 
extended that we can atTord to take time for 
the period of education. Society capitalizes 
the whole life time of a man if he has suffi- 
cient resources to last. — President IV. J. 
Tucker of Dartmouth College. 

In these days of falling markets, surplus 
products, industrial commotion, and social 
unrest, it is refreshing to consider the value 
of an old fashioned coin stamped Character. 
It is not coined by an act of Congress : spec- 
ulators cannot corner it ; and strikes do not 
raise the price. Its value does not depreciate ; 
the supply does not exceed the demand : it 
always commands a premium, and passes 
current in the world's markets and the celes- 
tial exchange. 

That is the best education which produces, 
not physical brutes, intellectual prodigies, or 
religious pietists, but well-balanced, s\ m metri- 
cal men and women. — //. S. Cowell, prin- 
cipal of Cushing Academy, Ashburnham, 

The better and larger ground of confidence 
in the college is positive and concerns the 
ends and aims of student endeavor. These 
are at least four. The first is method. 

The difference between efficiency and i 
ciency is largely a matter of method. The 
man who knows himself and his task directs 
every movement straight to the mark. This 
means saving of time, saving of energy, sav- 
ing of material. The possibility of good in 



this is simply incalculable. The second is 
power; Method is nothing except as an 
instrument of power. There is something in 
man that lives and moves. That, whatever 
the namegiven to it, is power. Its attainment 
is a distinct educational aim. It involves 
development. Man is to be turned from a pos- 
sibility into a fact. It involves capacity. Man 
is to grow from scant to full. It involves 
inspiration. Man as spirit is to be open 
to spirit without lifting him to larger life. It 
involves persistence. It involves intensity. 
The third is culture. 

Culture, or the development of the spiritual 
life, saves from the narrowness that waits 
inevitably upon the different trades and pro- 
fessions. In it man rises from the individual 
to the universal, and for the first time gets 
possession of himself. In the discovery of 
himself he finds that important as practical 
interests are for daily life, their chief value 
lies in their use as instruments and incidents 
in the development of the soul. The fourth 
is character. This is the main thing. The 
colleges at their best seek not scholarship but 
scholarly men. There are two sides to the 
student, a man side and a book side. The 
man side is infinitely the more important. 
In the developed side man is the realization 
of the thought of God as a temple for his 
own indwelling. — President B. L. Whitman 
of Colby University. 

I firmly believe that the public schools, as 
a whole, exert an influence of positive moral 
good upon the individual, the home, the state, 
and the nation. The aim of the teacher is to 
educate the pupil, not merely to increase his 
learning, but to fit him to fill his own little 
place in the world in the best possible man- 
ner for his own good and that of his neigh- 
bor ; in short, the formation of character. 
For the accomplishment of this purpose each 
teacher has his own method. 

Character is greater than intellect. When 
the eye no longer detects the truths of science, 
and the hand loses its geometric cunning, 
when memory fails and the words of great 
writers can no longer be recalled, when for- 

eign languages are sleeping in the dim cham- 
bers of the past and historic deeds lie buried 
beneath the waters of oblivion, the character 
still lives. — Miss Carrie E. Small* Principal 
of Woodward Institute, Ouincy, Mass. 

itself, demands a multiplicity of studies to 
meet this differentiation, which the leaders of 
thought everywhere are trying to meet by 
eliminating non-essential studies and coor- 
dinating the various branches taught. To 
prepare the pupil for complete living, then, 
makes it of the first importance that the 
school should aid him sympathetically to 
interpret the meaning of his social relations 
and with vigorous, manly courage to act 
towards others according to his enlightened 
mind and heart. 

It is not extravagant to say the schools are 
doing more for this all round training of the 
social man and woman than any other modern 
institution, and is therefore more closely in 
touch with modern life. More and more as 
the years go by are discipline and instruction 
*in the grammar school made to minister to 
character building. — W. F. Gordy, Hart- 
ford, Co/in. 

Scientific and technical colleges appeal to 
those who are in earnest, who are ready to 
work hard. They make it their chief busi- 
ness to search for or enforce the truth — 
especially the truth as found in nature. In 
doing a chemical analysis, in making a phys- 
ical measurement, truth, and not sophistry, 
alone avails. They also insist on industry; 
on fidelity; on perseverance; on honesty. 
They do not enforce moral precepts but 
moral practices. They inculcate, both by 
their subject-matter and their methods, hab- 
itual morality. 

The American college, of whatever kind 
and however imperfect, whether it be univer- 
sity, college, technical, or scientific school, 
or law. medicine, or theological, stands on the 
whole for the truth and makes powerful h for 
righteousness in tiie community. It is an 
ideal moral force because it not onlv orlers 



precepts, but commends plain living and 
sound and high thinking, and enforces the 
practice of truth and morality — Dr. Wm. 
T. Sedgwick of Mass. Institute of Tech- 

The objects of nature study are threefold. 
First. To cultivate the tastes and higher 
nature of the child and lead him through 
nature to that which is above nature. Second. 
To develop his powers of seeing, telling, 
and thinking: observation, expression, and 
reasoning. Third. To give him a knowledge 
of his environment, of nature, as well as of 
man. In nature study the child must be the 
center. What he learns about nature is very 
secondary. What he gets from nature is all 
important. Plants have been found to be the 
best for beginning the study of nature, while 
older pupils may study animals — birds in 
spring, insects in the fall. The pupil, in 
order to attain the best result, must study 
nature out of doors, and under natural con- 
ditions, the result of the study being to bring 
both teacher and pupil not only nearer to 
nature, but to each other. « 

Nature study misses the highest purpose, 
the great purpose of all, education, unless it 
leads the child from nature to man; if beyond 
man to the Author of nature ; unless from the 
seen the child reaches the unseen, from care 
and protection looks up to a Protector ; 
through Function and purpose and plan, sees 
a Planner.— Dr. C. B. Scott, St. Paul, 

There are six essential constituents of all 
worthy education, which make part of the 
educational process from first to last in every 
year and at every stage. We should all 
learn to see straight and clear, to compare 
and infer, to make an accurate record, to 
remember to express our thought with pre- 
cision, and to assimilate high ideals. These 
six constituents are simultaneously and con- 
tinuously developed from earliest childhood 
to maturity. None of them apply in school 
but not in college, or in college but not 
in school. The aims and the fundamental 

methods at all stages of education should 
therefore be essentially the same : because 
the essential constituents of education arc 
the same at all stages. From first to last it 
is the teacher's most important function to 
make the pupil think accurately, and express 
his thought with precision and force, and 
in this respect the function of the primary 
school-teacher is not different in essence 
from that of the teacher of law, medicine, 
theology, or engineering. 

The main object of education now-a-days 
is to give the pupil the power of doing him- 
self an endless variety of things which uned- 
ucated he could not do. To give personal 
power in action under responsibility is the 
prime object of all education. This prin- 
ciple obviously applies just as well in the 
primary school as in the professional school. 
Education should be power-giving all the 
time, from the beginning to the end of its 

The judicious teacher, like the judicious 
parent, will not rely in childhood, if he can 
help it, on a set of motives which he knows 
must of necessity cease to operate long before 
the period of education is ended. — as for 
instance on a highly stimulated emulation 
and the fear of penalty. A method of dis- 
cipline which must be inevitably abandoned 
as the child grows up was not the most 
expedient method at the earlier age, for the 
reason that in education the development 
and training of motives should be consecu- 
tive and progressive, not broken and dis- 
jointed. There comes an age when methods 
which rely on the fear of pain, or on artifi- 
cial penalties or deprivations, are no longer 
applicable. By preference, permanent mo- 
tives should be relied on from beginning to 
end of education. Among the permanent 
motives which act all through life are pru- 
dence, caution, emulation, love of approba- 
tion, particularly the approbation of persons 
respected or beloved, shame, pride, self- 
respect, pleasure in discovery, activity or 
achievement, delight in beauty, .strength, 
grace, and grandeur, and the love of power 
and of possesions as giving power. Any 
of these motives may be over-developed; 


but in moderation they are all good, and who deserve the name now recognize that 

they are available from infancy to old age. self-control independent of temporary arti- 

Frora the primary school through the univer- tidal restraints, exclusions, or pressures, 

sit y the same motives should always be in and also of the physical presence of a dom- 

play for the determination of the will and inating person. — President C. II'. Eliot of 

the regulation of conduct. All teachers Harvard University. 


Thomas B. Sanborn, M. D., was born in Newport, July 19, 1S52, and died in 
that town June 30. He was the son of Dr. Thomas Sanborn, an eminent physician 
and surgeon, and was educated at Colby academy and Bellevue medical college, 
New York. He enjoyed an extensive practice in Newport and surrounding towns; 
had represented his town in the legislature ; was a member and secretary of the 
United States board of pension examining surgeons; was a director of the 
Citizens' national bank, and prominent in Masonic circles. 


Rev. William H. Waldron was born in Farmington, July 16, 18 17, and died in 
that town July 6. As a highly respected clergyman of the Free Baptist denomina- 
tion he had filled pastorates in Rhode Island and New York and in Farmington 
and Milton. He had been retired from the active ministry for several years. 
Rev. Mr. Waldron was a descendant of Col. John Waldron of the revolution. 


Mrs. Jane Anthony Fames was born in Wellington, Mass., January 21, 1S16, 
and died in Concord July 8. She married Rev. J. H. Fames, and moved to 
Concord in 1S58 when her husband became rector of St. Paul's Episcopal church. 
She was a writer of much versatility, her published works including books for 
children and letters of travel in Europe and of sojourn in Bermuda, while her 
newspaper articles are numbered by hundreds. Mrs. Eames was a generous and 
unostentatious giver for church and charitable purposes, her larger contributions 
being for the rebuilding of Trinity church in Bermuda, to the fund for the support 
of the Episcopate in New Hampshire, for a free bed in the Margaret Pillsbury 
General Hospital, and for the rebuilding of the cathedral in St. Johns, New- 


Col. Josiah Butler Sanborn was born in Deerfield, January 22, 1S27, the youngest 
son of Benning VVentworth Sanborn and Polly Jenness Sanborn, and died in 
Concord July 6. After receiving an academic education at Pembroke and Oilman- 
ton, he taught school for a time, later becoming a clerk in the Concord book store 

li. M. Sough Brops 

E-. 'T. Hardy Go., odanchbster, r a 


The attention of parties intending to leave town for the summer is called to the 
unequalled facilities of the Concord Safe Deposit Vaults, for the safe storage of 
silver and other valuables. 

Receipts will be given for all packages left in the vaults, and satisfactory rates 
are guaranteed. 

Safe deposit boxes of various sizes to let at reasonable rates. 

with the First National Bank, Concord, N. H. 

Y Y 

Y A well selected SCHOOL LIBRARY, 

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properly used, is one of the most em- 
eient, economical, and practical means to 

l/i XjX\t f ik\k jfifO stem the tide of unwholesome books and 

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Do n't you want such a library in your school ? Don't you wish to add a few 
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A POSTAL CARD request will bring you by return mail a copy of our new 


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CHARLES H. HOYT (Illustrated). II. C. Pearson. ...... 

THE STORY OF RED MOUNTAIN ( Translated from the German of C. A. Kcehler). Marie 

A. MOLINEUX. ........... 

PASTORAL NOTES. Adelaide Cillky Waldron. ...... 

RESTING IN HOPE. Frank Walcott Hitt. ....... 


CHAMBER MUSIC. H. G. Blaisdell. ......... 

HAPPINESS. George Bancroft Griffith. ....... 

HON". CORNELIUS COOLEDGE (Illustrated) Sarah M. Bailey. .... 

AT THE END. IDA G. Adams. ......... 

THE FAMILY AT GILJE {Translated from the Norwegian of Jonas Lie). Hon. Samuel C 

Eastman. ............ 

KENNETH, AGED TWO. Myra B. Lord. ....... 


Symposium upon Rural Schools. ........ 


1 6 


21 I 


Entered at the post-office at Concord, N. H., as second-cla^s matter. 

Illustrated and Printed by Republican Press Association. 



W ® 3 2iiliJ<lIIJJ^ 



Af A I L € O FOP TEN C £ .V T 3 





The man who has his life insured for the benefit of his family gives 
the best proof of his affection for them. 

. . . The State Mutual Life of Worcester . . . 
invites your attention to its honorable record of half a century. Our 
claims are promptly paid and our policy-holders are protected by the 
insurance laws of Massachusetts, the best in the world. I should like 
to explain to you about our Life Rate Endowment Policy. This is 
endowment policy issued at our old life premium, and meets the needs 
of those who wish to protect their families at the lowest cost, and at the 
same time furnish a provision for their own old age. 
Specimen polity mailed upon application. 


C as:. Block, Concord. 

Charles II. Hovt. 

The Granite Monthly. 

Vol. XVII. 


No. 3. 

awKI J\\^ BILITY to entertain 

~\ <\ 1^'' <v!£ wholesome, hearty 

\fe 1 >//r s ^*<? ^ ur1, dashed with sat- 

Wy -^^^v^^V ire without malice 

?QikSs2^ ? and w: 


By II. C. Pear so n. 

ith pathos that 

is real, is a power to 
be honored and ad- 

!-, __ .. ~_. • ... * \\y\ oc nonoreu arm au 
^yS'nirVJ mired. Its precminen 
^\{l\7 possessor is Hon. Charle: 
/£f#f **. •^^ o y t ' ^ ew Hamp- 
' I shire's play-wright. 

\/ Fifty years ago t 
r^v counted within its 


the state 
counted witj 1 us border; 
few more widely known or 
L more universally respected 
* citizens than George W. 
Hoyt. For many years the keeper of 
good hotels in different New Hamp- 
shire cities and towns, and later con- 
nected for a period with the railway 
mail service, he numbered friends and 
acquaintances by the thousand, who 
were ever ready to declare his sterling 
qualities of mind and heart. 

These invaluable possessions he be- 
queathed in full measure to the son, 
Charles H., who was born to him and 
his wife at Concord July 26, i860. The 
career of that child, from the hour of 
birth to this hour of writing, has of 
late years been enveloped by the 

ubiquitous and invaluable press agent, 
with so glittering a web of humorous 
and striking incident that one hesitates 
to tear it aside in order to discover the 
facts within. 

It is safe, however, to state that the 
younger Hoyt's education was gained 
at a private school in Charlestown, 
N. H., where his family residence has 
been since 1S68, and at the Boston 
Latin school. He first inclined towards 
the legal profession, and read law for 
some time with Chief-Justice Cushing 
of New Flampshire. But he learned 
more of the judge's good stories than 
he did of Blackstone's wise definitions, 
and soon sought the more congenial 
walks of newspaper work. 

The St. Albans (Yt.) Advertiser was 
the lucky paper to obtain his maiden 
services, but the work he did there soon 
drew him into a wider field. For five 
years he made the "All Sorts" para- 
graph column of the Boston Post the 
brightest of its kind in the countrv, and 
took upon his shoulders as well the 
duties of musical, dramatic,' and sport- 
ing editor. The experience there gained 
has been invaluable to Mr. Hoyt in his 
later work, and there will always be in 
his heart a very soft spot for newspaper 
men of whatever sort or condition. 



Some clay, perhaps, he will write a play 
and show the American reporter as he 
is, not as he has been maligned. 

The story of Mr. Hoyt*s first step 
upon the ladder' of dramatic glory and 
success is of interest. One clay, in the 
year 1S81, he met upon the street in 
Boston the veteran theatrical manager, 
William Harris, then in control of the 
old Howard Athenaeum. 

" I 'm in a fix, Charley," said he. 
"The company I had booked for next 
week have gone back on me, and I 
can't find anything good to fill. But 
I 've got some good stock people. Xow, 
I want you to write a play for them. 
We '11 put in some good variety acts 
and make a go of it." 

"What do you mean?" replied Hoyt. 
"Write a play, stage it, rehearse it. and 
produce it within a week ? It can't be 
done." But it could, and Hoyt and 
Harris did it. This first stage piece of 
the present prince of comedy was a 
three-act melodrama, occupying an hour 
and a half in presentation, and having 
in its leading roles those sterling play- 
ers, Frank Wright, Leonora Bradley, 
and Ben Gilfoil. 

Its success was so immediate and 
considerable that, as Mr. Hoyt says, he 
at once concluded that he was the lead- 
ing candidate for the position of Ameri- 
can Shakespeare. He worked hard 
upon his next production, a four-act 
comedy, " Cezalia," 'given at the Globe 
Theatre, Boston, in May, 1882, by XV. J. 
Ferguson, R. J. Dillon, Frank Losee, 
Emmie Wilmot, Clara Ellison, and 

To his utter disappointment and 
chagrin, the piece proved very nearly 
a failure. It read well, but on the 
stage it lacked that indefinable, indis- 
pensable element of "go" which is so 
conspicuously present in all its author's 

other work. It was not sent on tour 
after its Boston run, and the majority 

of those now interested in theatrical 
matters are not even aware of its ex- 

Mr. Hoyt now determined to desert 
the stage and stick to' his newspaper 
desk ; but another little incident diverted 
him from his purpose, and started him 
straight towards the goal of financial 
and professional success. 

Xath. Childs had written for Willie 
Edouin and his wife (Alice Atherton) a 
piece called " Dreams," which, upon its 
first appearance in Boston, was vigor- 
ously and unanimously "jumped on" 
by the critics. Among the number was 
Hoyt, and to him Childs and Edouin 
went for aid. At their request he re- 
vised the piece in accordance with his 
own ideas, writing in one or two oris:- 
inal scenes. The result was a complete 
change in the public verdict and great 
success for the play. 

Naturally enough, Edouin was now- 
very anxious that Hoyt should write 
him a piece. The latter finally con- 
sented, and at Newark, X. J., on Dec. 
13, 1SS3, was produced "A Bunch of 
Keys," really the first of the famous 
Hoyt farces. The cast included, be- 
sides Mr. and Mrs. Edouin, James T. 
Powers and others. The success of 
this then unique laugh-producer was 
immediate and wonderful. In the first 
season of its production Edouin and 
his manager cleared $56,000. 

When Hoyt learned of the money 
this child of his brain was earning for 
some one else he grew thoughtful. The 
result of his meditations was the forma- 
tion of a partnership between him and 
a fellow-worker on the Post^ Charles W. 
Thomas; the writing of a new play. "A 
Rag Baby ; " and its production under 
the author's own management at New 



Bedford, Mass., March 17, 1SS3. with pair of fun makers, Evans and Hoey. 

Frank Daniels, Harry Conor, and Jen- produced at Asbury Park, New Jersey, 

nie Yeamans in leading- roles. There " A Parlor Match." For 10 years their 

was no doubt from the rising of the cur- names and that of the farce have been 

tain that first night as 'to the fate of "A associated in the public mind and 

Caro! re f/is'-tel (Mrs. Cnaries H. Hoytj 

Rag Baby 

"Old Sport" jumped into the houses they had on their last 

immediate and lasting prominence as season's tour proved conclusively that 

the character creation of a stage the match is by no means burned to its 

Dickens, and Hoyt and Thomas re- end. But the "book agent" and the 

signed their places on the Post. " collector " have decided to wend sep- 

In September, 1SS3, that inimitable arate ways and will no longer take part 



S 2 

/■'"-; , ;, 

L'V.- ■■'■ ^c~~ 



together in the gambols of "Innocent 

"A Tin Soldier," written upon the 
same general lines, was produced at 
Xew Bedford April 2S, 1SS5, with James 
T. Powers, Amy Ames, and Isabelle Coe 
in the cast, and proved another imme- 
diate success. 

In March, 1SS7, came "A Hole in 
the Ground," given at Columbus, Ohio, 
by Flora Walsh with Charles A. Bigelow, 
\Y. C. Crosbie, and others in the sup- 
port. The actors named were soon re- 
placed by George Richards and Frank 
Lawton, who formed, with Miss Walsh, 
a rarely equalled comedy trio. 

Clear across the continent, at the 
Alcazar Theatre, San Francisco, April 
4, 18SS, Mr. Hoyt's next production 
first saw the light. "A Midnight Bell " 
had in its cast such people as L. R. 
Stockwell, James R. Grismer, Phcebe 
Davies, and Ethel Brandon, and proved 
an altogether new departure for the 
concoctor of comedy farce. It is a 
drama of Xew England village life, to 
the writer's mind strong, interesting,and 
inspiring. It is the favorite play of Mr. 
Hoyt himself and of many of his friends, 
but the general public has not received 
it quite as cordially as his less serious 

In " A Brass Monkey," given at Xew 
Bedford in April, 1889, by Flora Walsh, 
Charlie Reed, Tim Murphy. Otis Har- 
lan, and Rosa 1'rance, this venturesome 
voyager upon unexplored dramatic seas 
took still another tack. The heedless 
hilarity of his earlier productions was 
here tempered with a satire that never 
stung yet was effective and softened by 
pathetic etTects, sparingly used, but 
skilfully and truthfully introduced. 

Again at Xew Bedford, one year later, 
pranced fortli " A Texas Steer," the 
keenest satire upon American political 

life ever written. Its tremendous and 
never flagging success has been in a 
large degree due to the skill of that fine 
young character actor, Tim Murphy, as 
the Honorable Maverick Brander. He 
was assisted in the first production by 
Flora Walsh, Alice Evans, George 
Marion, Julian Mitchell, and others. 

That record breaker of all comedies, 
" A Trip to Chinatown," began together 
its own life and that of the new opera 
house at Decatur, Illinois, in Septem- 
ber, 1S90, Harry Conor, George A. 
Beane, Jr., Harry Gilfoil, and Lena 
Merville heading the cast. It was 
played 639 nights in Xew York city, 
by far the longest run in history, and at 
one time was being presented in two 
theatres in that city simultaneously. 

Of greatest interest to New England- 
ers, yet arousing storms of comment 
from ocean to ocean, is " A Temperance 
Town," first produced at Buffalo, Xew 
York, in February, 1S91, with the lead- 
ing roles entrusted to George Richards, 
R. J. Dillon, Eugene Canfield, W. H. 
Currie, and Elsie Lombard. It is a 
scathing attack upon certain temperance 
reform methods and the prohibitory 
system, comparable in its boldness of 
outline and deftness of touch only to 
the work of Sardou. Whatever may be 
thought of its motive and its morale, no 
one can deny that it furnishes some of 
the best sketching of Xew England 
character types ever put upon the stage. 

-A Milk White Flag," born at 
Wilkesbarre, Pa., last December, is a 
return to the old days of unrestrained 
hilarity. Very bright fun is poked, to be 
sure, at the militia but it is not serious 
satire and the citizen soldier is very 
thin skinned who would be offended at 
it. Much good music makes the piece 
almost a comic opera. The original 
company included Charles Stanley, 



Isabelle Coe, J. C. Miron, Mamie Gil- 
roy, Frank Lawton, and others. 

September 10th of this year Buffalo, 
New York, will have an opportunity to 
hear the first bleat of "A Black Sheep " 
with Otis Harlan, Jos. Frankau, Belle 
Black, Agnes Lane, and William De- 
vere concerned. A new play in which 
the present Mrs. Hoyt (Caroline Mis- 
kel) will star is another possibility of the 
not far distant future. 

The verdict of the New York press 
and public upon American plays is al- 
most as conclusive as that of London in 
England, and of Paris in France. In 
this connection it is interesting to note 
the runs of the Hoyt pieces in that city. 
"A Tin Soldier ''was given 136 nights; 
"A Midnight Bell," 137 ; "A Brass 
Monkey," 102 ; "A Texas Steer," 102 ; 
"A Temperance Town," 112; and "A 
Trip to Chinatown," 639. "A Milk 
White Flag," which will be given its first 
New York production this fall, ran 102 
nights in Chicago and 76 in Boston, and 
"A Temperance Town " stayed at the 
Hub for 179 performances. 

The partnership existing between Mr. 
Hoyt and Charles W. Thomas was un- 
broken until the latter's death, Novem- 
ber 17, 1893. It was the happiest of 
combinations, alike from a business and 
a personal standpoint, and the friend- 
ship of the parties was as great as their 
united success. The sad death of Mr. 
Thomas, just as he was in a position to 
enjoy the best of life, brought greater 
grief to no heart than to that of Mr. 
Hoyt, who can now find no words warm 
enough to voice his affection and esteem 
for his late associate. 

That bright young son of old Ken- 
tucky, Frank McKee, now looks after 
the business end of the Hoyt enter- 
prises, the firm name being Hoyt & 
McKee. Their success may be judged 

from the fact that during the phenom- 
enally hard times of last season their 
profits amounted to considerably more 
than Si 00,000. In October, 1S90, Hoyt 
*Sj Thomas became lessees and managers 
of the Madison-square Theatre, New 
York, and when their lease expired this 
spring the shrewdness and tact of Mr. 
McKee secured a long-time renewal. 
The house is now being entirely rebuilt, 
and will hereafter be known as Hoyt's 

The secret of Mr. Hoyt's success as 
a playwright is not difficult of discovery. 
In the first place he always amuses his 
audience. A man in the deepest depths 
of the blues can go to see a Hoyt play 
with the certainty that for two hours, at 
least, he will forget his woes and heartily 
enjoy clean, honest, irresistible fun. Mr. 
Hoyt does not perpetrate double enten- 
dres ; he is never vulgar, and seldom 
coarse ; but in all his works are situa- 
tions so overwhelmingly ludicrous that 
the gravest, staidest, saddest, auditor is 
defied to withstand their infection. The 
tread-mill scene in "A Temperance 
Town,'' the armory in '-A Milk White 
Flag," the entrance and exit of the in- 
vestigating committee in "A Texas 
Steer," are cases in point: and every 
reader will readily recall others. 

Again, in the truthful portrayal of ec- 
centric character-types, Mr. Hoyt has no 
rival — unless it be Mr. Harrigan — in the 
ranks of the world's playwrights. In 
every New England village Mink Jones 
sits on the store steps until his scolding, 
loving wife takes him home, and every 
resident of Wa>hington has often seen 
Christopher Columbus Fishback, " min- 
ister to Dahomey." 

Mr. Hoyt's satire is most effective 
when it is incidental, as in "A Texas 
Steer," "A Brass Monkey," and -'A Trip 
to Chinatown." M Pa's election was 



honest, anyhow," says Bossy Brander. 
•• Every man got his pay for his vote." 
The earnest and sincere but somewhat 
biased and bitter key-note of "A Tem- 
perance Town " is much less suited to 
the general taste. 

I never see a Hoyt play but that I 
think of a Dickens novel, and the sug- 
gestion usually comes at the introduction 
of a pathetic incident. The grotesque 

present his pieces are always in ever}' 
way competent. There is never a 
"stick" in the cast, and every character 

is played to the full extent of the au- 
thor's conception. To accomplish this 
result, Mr. Hoyt never hesitates to em- 
ploy at good salaries people with previ- 
ously acquired reputations ; but perhaps 
his greatest successes have been made 
through men and women whose capabil- 

The Den." 

love of old Jonah for his daughter 
Baggage, " a useless little girl, always in 
the way," stays in the mind longer than 
any other feature of "A Brass Monkey," 
and there is no more effective scene in 
"A Temperance Town " than the village 
drunkard's rescue of the clergyman's 
daughter, whom her father had driven 
forth into the winter's cold. 

Another important element in Mr. 
Hoyt's remarkable career, is his judg- 
ment of mankind. The companies which 

ities he himself was the hrst to discern. 
Just one example. Some years ago, 
Mr. Hoyt happened to drop in at Tony 
Pastor's New York variety theatre, one 
night, and saw there a clever young fel- 
low drawing crayon portraits and giving 
imitations. He sent for the boy, hired 
him, and wrote parts fur him: to-day, 
Tim Murphy is acknowledged to be in 
the front rank of American comedians. 

But having secured good people to act 
good plays, Mr. Hoyt is still not content. 



Like Henry Irving, he insists upon the 
nearest possible approach to perfection 
in every detail of stage management, 
and he gets it. Even the costumes for 
his pieces he designs himself, and no 
part of the ensemble is too trivial to be 
brought to his personal attention. He 
is constantly studying, revising, and im- 
proving his plays, and ever welcomes 
criticism and suggestion. 

Mr. Hovt thoroughly believes that the 


Isabelle Coe (Mrs; Frank McKee) as The Widow in 
'• A Milk Wh.te Flag." 

secret of all success is hard work, and, 
indeed, when to talents so unique and 
useful as his is added so remarkable a 
capacity for industry and application, 
failure is well-nigh impossible. 

There is another side of Mr. Hoyt's 
life, quite as interesting, perhaps, to New 
Hampshire people as his stage career. 
For three months in every twelve he 
turns his back upon cities and theatres, 

and hies him to the beautiful country 
village of Charlestown. Here in his 
family homestead, beneath wide-spread- 
ing elms a century old, he works and 
plays and rests, and proves himself an 
ideal host to far-gathered friends. 

Mr. Hoyt's home life has always been 
most happy. He first married, in 1SS7, 
Miss Flora WaLh, of San Francisco, the 
star in several of his earlier plays, whose 
ability and success as an actress were only 
equalled by her sweetness and charm as 
a woman. Her death, occurring at al- 
most the same time with that of his 
father, in January, 1S93, came as a 
heavy blow to Mr. Hoyt, who has erected 
at Charlestown a massive granite mau- 
soleum to their memory. 

His present wife, Mrs. Caroline Miskel 
Scales Hoyt, came from the blue-grass 
region of Kentucky, far famed for its 
good horses, good whiskey, and beautiful 
women. As Ruth in "A Temperance 
Town," her praises were heralded from 
ocean to ocean, and her return to the 
stage, from which she temporarily re- 
tired upon becoming Mrs. Hoyt, is 
anxiously awaited. 

Before her bewildering beauty pen of 
man falters in conscious inefficiency, but 
this is what another woman. Miss Kate 
Jordan, says : " Her Titian hued hair 
and large, flashing eyes make a study in 
color that is fascinating and haunting. 
Her type of beauty might be called 
4 ruddy-blonde,' for there is a great deal 
of red in the gold of her bewildering hair. 
The face is arch, and a little irregular — 
indeed the nose is saucily retrousse. This, 
while in its way very charming, robs Miss 
Miskel of a distinctly Grecian profile. It 
is a slight affliction, and can well be borne 
when one is given eyes that are bound 
to conquer, hair that drives coloristb wild, 
a brow and mouth like Venus's, and a 
figure that in its pliant grace, while 

CHARJ.ES h. hoyt. 

l 5* 

draped in the short-waisted empire gown, 
suggests the immortal Recamier's. Miss 
Miskel is much sought after by artists. 
How could it be otherwise, with dark- 
lashed eyes of electric brightness, white 
skin having a blush of spring-like deli- 
cacy, and hair waving above a low, broad 
forehead that can be compared to noth- 
ing more fitting than flames whose gold 
is touched with red." 

Mr. Hoyt has at Charlestown a fit nest 

by no means limited to this house and 
grounds or to his other property in the 
village, of which he has considerable. 
He sincerely loves the fine old town, and 
is ever ready to contribute in any way, 
personally and pecuniarily, to its pros- 
perity and upbuilding. Evidences of 
his generosity and public spirit are seen 
on every hand, though he is the last to 
call the visitor's attention to them. 

Mr. Hoyt is repaid for his efforts by 


, F 



W. H. Currie and Mrs. Hoyt in "A Temperance Town. 

for this beautiful bird. The large, roomy 
house is luxuriously and tastefully fur- 
nished, and the grounds surrounding it 
are as lovely as any in the state. Within 
them is also situated i; the casino," or 
"the den," which contains a dance-hall, 
gymnasium, study, cook-room, bath- 
room, and cold storage refrigerator. Here 
"A Black Sheep" has been written this 
summer, while genial Bert Dasher, just 
back from Europe, has played the /Eolian, 
and sturdy Will Currie has punched the 
bag like a professional. It is its owner's 
special province, and his particular pet. 
Mr. Hovt's outlav at Charlestown is 

the universal esteem and affection with 
which he is regarded by the people of 
the town. Here a prophet is certainly 
not without honor in his own country, 
for every man, woman, and child in 
Charlestown honors Mr. Hoyt, considers 
him a friend, and can tell you all about 
his work and its success. 

A striking evidence of his personal 
popularity was given by his election to 
the state legislature, as a Democrat, in 
1S90, although Charlestown had always 
been considered a bed-rock Republican 
constituency. He was the candidate of 
his party for the speakership of the 

*5 2 


house, and did yeoman's service in se- 
curing a legislative appropriation for 
New Hampshire's creditable representa- 
tion at the World's Columbian Expo- 
sition. During this- brief term of service 
Mr. Hoyt made many friends who would 
like to see him continue more ambitiously 
in this field; and while his own inclina- 
tion is rather averse to political life, it is 
not at all improbable that a few more 
years may see him his party's choice for 

a seat in congress or the governor's chair. 
Personally "Charley" Hoyt is a prince 
of good fellows. Simple in tastes, and 
unaffected in manner, his heart is as 
large as his brain is active. His friends 
are thousands, and his admirers legion. 

The most successful playwright of his 
day, happily married to the most beau- 
tiful woman of her time, with an honor- 
able past and an unclouded future, what 
more could man desire ? 

Translated from the German of C. A. Kcr/iler, by Marie A. Molineux 

Afar from the palaces and warehouses 
and wharves of the great commercial 
city, lonely and hidden by thickly branch- 
ing trees, in a side valley that is sur- 
rounded by heavily wooded mountains, 
not far from Lake Winnipiseogee with 
its countless inlets and hundreds of 
green islets offering a lovely prospect, 
stands a little cottage, in the midst of 
green meadows and fruitful fields. 

Over this little spot of earth that lies 
far from the peopled dwelling-places 
and great highroads, broods the magic 
of a quiet peace. Never through the 
blooming fields sounds the shrill whistle 
of the iron horse, only here and there 
one hears the melodious sound of the 
bells of pasturing herds or the proud 
cackling of the house-hens. 

In the cottage dwelt an industrious 
widow with her three children. The 
family sustained itself plainly and well 
from the produce of the little farm. 
They passed their days in content and 
troubled themselves little about what 
happened in the outside world ; always 
gayly and successfully they finished their 
daily labors, and sweet sleep strength- 

ened them at night after their work was 
done. Not for much treasure would 
they have exchanged their lot. Since 
such contentment is but seldom met, 
in this case there must be some special 
cause at work; and this was even so, as 
you shall soon hear. 

The cottage in which these contented 
people dwelt lay near the foot of a 
mountain. This was so thickly grown 
with trees and bushes that it was impene- 
trable to human foot. When the rough 
winds of autumn changed the fresh 
green to brighter colors, then the trees 
glowed in scarlet dress, and it seemed 
as if a great red coverlet was spread on 
the rocks. Hence the mountain drew 
its name of "Red." High aloft, on the 
top, the mountain spirits had built a 
castle out of massive granite blocks, 
and in order not to be disturbed by any 
intruders they had surrounded it with 
a thick wall of creepers and nettles. 
Woe to the man who lost his way here ! 
No path would lead him from the 
enchanted wood. In the castle the 
spirits had dwelt now many hundred 
years, and very seldom had a mortal 



seen them; for they stayed generally in 
the great halls decorated with gold 
and jewels and adorned with shields 
and armor, or else they wandered in the 
wide courtyards and the splendid gar- 
dens that surrounded the fortress. There 
they tried all sorts of pastimes with 
lances and spears ; they threw giant 
boulders, or contended with each other 
in friendly combats; and, too, they often 
sat together at great golden tables and 
agile servants poured for them the drink 
of the gods. Sometimes they had mock 
battles; then it thundered from mount 
to valley, fiery lightnings pierced the 
heavens, and men, fearful, hastened into 
their huts and whispered, "The old 
men of the mountain are quarrelling." 

But the mountain spirits held prisoner 
a maiden with charming face and 
wonderful figure and graceful bear- 
ing. Strictly watched, she seldom was 
allowed to leave the castle, and, within 
a charmed circle that magic drew about 
her, to mingle with mortals. To them 
she was mild and friendly; the good 
she heaped with blessings, and joy 
spread itself wherever she appeared. 
An unspeakable sadness pervaded her 
features, as if deep sorrow and inner 
longing filled her heart, so that 
all that ever saw her had pity and 
sympathy for her and her fate that 
must be right sorry. 

When, on moonlight nights, it sounded 
from the woods, low and stirring like 
distant .-Kolian harp notes, then the peo- 
ple said: "The fairy of the mountain 
sings to her harp a lament." Many 
wonderful tales the peaceful valley- 
dwellers told of the spirits' castle and 
the unfortunate maid that pined yonder 
and wept in secret sorrow, and they 
azed shvlv at the enchanted red moun- 


Now one fine day a young fellow- 

turned his steps to the quiet valley. 
He bore a light knapsack, that indeed 
was capable of holding his entire prop- 
erty. While he wandered along and 
sang a gay song, he looked bravely and 
brightly about, as if the whole world 
belonged to him. 

He was quite surprised at the beauty 
of the country, and thought to himself: 
" Here I should be well pleased; it is to 
be hoped I can find rest, refreshment, 
and a night's lodgment in that cottage 
that peeps so friendly from the protect- 
ing trees." A hearty welcome he re- 
ceived, indeed, as he modestly knocked, 
and he soon found himself at home as 
one of the little family circle. After 
refreshment began the story-telling. The 
wanderer told of the distant countries 
through which he had travelled, of the 
strange people he had seen. The sim- 
ple cottagers in return related all won- 
derful things they knew about the " Red 
Mountain." The housemother took the 
lead and told the following: "Many 
years ago came my ancestor to this spot 
of earth that then was a thick wilder- 
ness. Counselless and helpless he 
looked across the many hindrances that 
opposed a settlement, and thought to 
withdraw in despondency, when the 
imprisoned maid of Red Mountain 
appeared and spoke to him. ' Huild 
on this spot thy hut. I will bless thy 
industry so that thou and thy descend- 
ants to latest life shall have a modest 
but care-free and contented subsistence. 
Vet a condition I add to my gift ; namely, 
that this dwelling-place stand hospitably 
with doors open to strangers and wan- 
derers. Perhaps among them will be 
one to whom it is permitted to free me 
from the imprisonment in which I have 
languished now these manv, many years. 
Know I was snatched by force from the 
arms of my beloved and enchained here 




by the might of sorcery. Only a pure, 
enthusiastic youth can free me and 
unite me again with my beloved. Xo 
wanderer may be turned from thy door, 
for at last my rescuer must and will 
come. When once seven ravens fly 
thither from the mountain and circle 
round that high oak, then the favorable 
moment for my deliverance has come.' 
With these wuids the maiden vanished. 
My ancestor did as she bade. And 
wonderfully, almost without his assist- 
ance, the wilderness changed to smiling 
fields. Loyally he kept his promise to 
receive any wanderer hospitably. So 
have we, too, done, until to-day and — as 
the maiden promised— never have peace 
and contentment deserted our cottage." 
The youth had listened with bated 
breath to the story of the house-mother, 
and — touched by the sad tale of the 
maiden — had but the one wish that it 
might be permitted him to free her. At 
that same moment he heard — oh, miracle ! 
— the croaking cry of seven coal-black 
ravens that flew from Red Mountain 
to a high oak and encircled it seven 
times. Then he knew he was called to 
be the rescuer. Without knowing what 
was the deed of prowess, he quickly 
grasped his staff and hastened up the 
mountain. Soon he reached the wood, 
that was so thickly surrounded by net- 
tles that it was a sheer impossibility to 
penetrate it. Helpless he stood, and 
knew not what to do. Then a couplet 
came to mind that he had dreamed the 
previous night : 

«« Thornhcdge, fear thou me, 
Quickly open thee." 

As he spoke these words the thicket 
opened and showed a small footway 
that led up over fragments of rock and 
trunks of trees. Everywhere appeared 
obstacles that demanded ereat effort to 

overcome; right and left hissed snakes, 
ravens and daws with their hateful cries 
swarmed above his head, nasty frogs and 
various monsters glowered with uncanny 
eyes; it seemed as if all would prevent 
his progress. Courageously he pressed 
forward, not heeding the wounds that 
the thorns tore, nor the boulders that 
barred his way, nor the cries of the ugly 
creatures that sputtered fire and poison. 
After much effort and difficulty he 
reached a dusky rock-grotto, out of 
which a huge black serpent stretched 
its poison-swollen tongue. Seized with 
fear and terror, he thought to flee — then 
an inner voice spoke to him: "The 
brave man wins." As if filled with 
new zeal, he raised his staff and strode 
towards the serpent. With three mighty 
blows he conquered the horrible mon- 
ster. As he turned from the dead 
creature he saw a glistening golden ring. 
He picked it up and put it on his linger ; 
on the instant he saw before him a 
heavenly white-enshrouded vision : it 
was the maiden, that with friendly sym- 
pathy smiled on him and spoke. " Brave 
youth, thou hast stood the test of cour- 
age and given me hope that thou canst 
release mc from my bondage : much 
hast thou striven, yet this remains for 
thee to do. Know, my beloved waits 
before the castle in order to take me 
thence, yet he lacks the magic word 
that opens to him an entrance, and only 
to a mortal of heart and courage is it 
permitted to wring this word from the 
Old Man of the Mountain that dwells 
deep within this rock. The ring on 
thy finger will lead thee through the 
grotto to his palace. Hold it towards 
him, and as soon as he has spoken the 
word turn back and tell me. Xo sound 
must, in the meanwhile, escape thy 
lips. Royal gratitude shall reward thy 



The youth, indeed, felt a secret trem- 
bling, but the earnest pleading of the 
maid, and the pity he felt, forced him 
to bring to an end the hardest task. 
He held the ring towards the rocky 
wall of the grotto — it opened of itself 
and became a magnificent entrance to a 
long colonnade, that glittered with gold 
and gems and led to a spacious hall. 
Blinded by the brilliancy and splendor 
with which every portion of the walls 
and the high cupola glowed, the youth 
scarcely could perceive a high throne 
of costly white stone on which an ancient 
greybeard with long flowing locks sat. 
He and his surrounding attendants were 
sunk in deepest slumber. Swiftly the 
youth drew near the old man and 
held the ring towards him. Then the 
greybeard showed fear and cried out 
"Ossipee!" That means, " Open !" But 
scarcely was the word uttered than he 
broke into a terrible rage, his hair flew 
wildly about his head, his eyes shot 
lightnings, and a mighty thunder peal 
shook the apartment as if the mountain 
would burst, and the old man threw him- 
self threateningly upon the youth. He 
fled, holding high the ring, and reached 
fortunately the exit, although dreadful 
monsters pressed upon him from all 
sides, hissed at him, and threatened to 
tear the ring from his grasp. Thunder- 
ing closed the rock door behind him, 
and scarcely could he whisper the word 
"Ossipee," before he fell to the ground 
stunned. When he came again to con- 
sciousness the blackest of clouds had 
covered the mountain, hollow thunder 
struck unceasingly upon his ear, sharp 
lightnings traversed the firmament, and 
high over the peak he saw the mountain 
spirits closed in a raging battle. Hither 
l and thither surged the grim fight, wild 
war-cries and shoutings of rage filled 
the air, shields and swords clashed and 

showered sparks of light. At last quiet 
was restored, the raging hordes van- 
ished, and stillness again ruled. 

A heavenly fair pair, the maid hold- 
ing her harp in her hand and her lover 
grasping his sword, floated down from 
the peak of the mountain that again the 
golden sun bathed with light. The 
maiden approached the youth and said : 
'* Heartiest thanks are thine for the 
service thou hast done us. The magic 
word that thou gainedst opened to my 
beloved and his hosts the entrance to 
the wood and to the fortress. In strong 
battle has he conquered my jailors, so 
that they freed me. Now we hasten 
toward Elrland, where joy and mirth 
ever rule. Ask a boon of me, thy wish 
shall be granted.''* !i Kind fairy," replied 
the youth, " nothing for myself do I 
desire. The fairest reward is my share 
in that I was chosen the instrument of 
your freedom. But if you will bethink 
yourself of the people from whom I 
received hospitality, and who now must 
fear that when you depart the blessing 
and luck will vanish from their threshold, 
then I pray you regard this as my wish." 
"Be it -so," responded the fairy maid, 
and immediately a swan-drawn golden 
chariot carried the happy pair from the 
sight of the astonished youth. But at 
the same time three fairies approached 
the cottage, and one after the other 
announced to the startled occupants 
the message of the maiden. 

The first said: "I assure to you, in 
the name of my mistress, possession of 
this plot of earth forever, fruitfulness 
to the soil, increase to the cattle and 
winged creatures." 

Then the second took the word : " I 
give health, strength, and power for 
work." The third added: " I promise 
as the most precious gift, contentment 
and an always serene spirit." 



Joyously touched, the good people 
desired to acknowledge their thankful- 
ness to the fairies, — but they vanished 
in a cloud of rose-perfume. The house- 
mother and her children could scarcely 
control their astonishment, and hardly 
knew what had happened to them. The 
youth, however, related his adventures, 

and with hearty words of thanks he 
departed from the hospitable house, 
promising them he would return the 
next year and share their good fortune. 
To those that travelled thereafter 
through the lovely valley, the people 
gladly told the wonderful tale of " Red 


By Adelaide Cilley Waldron. 

In 1830 a young man just beyond his 
majority was teaching school near the 
homestead of his father and several of 
his uncles, all of whom were men of 
note in the vicinity, and possessed of 
large estates. 

Sons of farmers, when fonder of books 
than their brothers, used, in those days, 
to take a school between their terms of 
study, and even after they had received 
their diplomas, and so remarkable a 
young gentleman as he of whom I write 
was sure to find his position as peda- 
gogue a centre of admiration, a<id to be 
made much of. 

To be sure, young Dan did not dance 
at social gatherings, for he had been 
converted, and felt a call to preach, to 
the intense displeasure of nearly all his 
cocked-hatted and silk-stockinged kins- 
men, to say nothing of the aversion felt 
for the denomination which he proposed 
joining, by more youthful members of 
his large family connection. 

But fixedness of conviction, and the 
strain of obstinate combativeness which 
had made his forbears famous on many 
battle-fields, were his by inheritance ; to 
become a preacher of the gospel as he 
understood it, he was ready to give up 
even brotherly association. 

Over six feet in height, of a classic 
cast of feature, with blue eyes that black- 
ened with emotion, an enviable fairness 
of complexion, and extreme elegance of 
carriage, — " To think," said the tribe, 
"that Dan will persist in turning par- 
son. You see, his father wished him 
to be the landholder in his place, bear- 
ing the name he does, and it was all he 
could endure when, rinding Dan had not 
the least faculty for farming like a gen- 
tleman, he gave in for the boy to study 
medicine. And then he must fall in 
with that new set, and 'get converted,' 
as they call it. Now, if he visits a body, 
that heavenly voice of his rolls out a 
horrible hymn of death and damnation, 
and then he prays us oil to bed, and 
never a prayer-book thought of." 

"Well," some gentler cousin would 
reply, " a heavenly voice is appropriate 
for hymns ; but I would ask him to sing 
of God's love and tenderness. Coaxing 
is a mighty sight better for some folks 
than scaling them to death." 

Parson Dan was not given to tasting 
the hot flip prepared on cold nights, nor 
could he bear the odor or taste of to- 
bacco. For a youth bred in the follies 
of families of wealth, then customary, 
he was a blackbird very nearly white. 




Old Colonel Royale, his father, had 
many good horses, in affectionate train- 
ing of which the son found lively 
pleasure, when at home, and, of course, 
all the boys had colts of their own. 
When Dan's was old enough his young 
master would ride him to the meetings 
he wished to attend, and in the winter 
there was no girl for miles around who 
was not delighted to go to a singing- 
school, in the snug cutter behind the 
thoroughbred that had known neither 
check-rein nor "winkers," with Colonel 
Royale's favorite son beside her. 

But, of all whom he saw, the pretty 
schoolmistress at Epping pleased him 
the most. She had no fortune beyond 
her bright wit and scholarship and her 
dignified beautiful self, but that was far 
from being a fault, for the lordly fellow 
preferred being the head of his family, 
in all respects, and were he to become a 
poor parson it would be against his in- 
nate pride to marry a rich woman. So 
he courted Eleanor Xewmarch with all 
his might, after the manner of his day, 
and station in life, with steadfast pur- 
pose, to say naught of the longing his 
blue eyes held, and the carelessness he 
showed to other maidens. His letters 
to her were full of simple and straight- 
forward affection, but giving items of 
interest, concerning all sorts of affairs 
of state and of individuals, of church 
and school, of earth and heaven, as seen 
at a delightful distance through unsoiled 
and youthful eyes. 

The replies of these journalized epis- 
tles were written in the elegant copper- 
plate hand once in vogue among gen- 
tlewomen, and were models of propriety. 
The demoiselle was in fact a born old 
maid with a passion for teaching, and 
the height of her ambition was reached 
when at the age of nineteen she became 
" preceptress " of a well known old 

academy. Her friends, and his, too, 
were anxious for a marriage between 
these young people who were among the 
finest Mowers of their families, in every- 
body's opinion, and the young woman 
was inclined to write her name Royale 
if she ever should change her estate as 
spinster to that of spouse, but she did 
wish folks would let her alone. 

It is likely that, had there been any 
symptoms apparent of a transfer of 
affection from her shrine to that of 
some more eager girl, Miss Eleanor's 
angry passions would have arisen to 
surprise her; but Daniel's was the most 
loyal of hearts. 

From among his long letters ('post- 
age was high and one felt it a duty. to 
write the money's worth) maybe quoted 
enough to amuse some reader : 

"My brother Hampton moved from 
Exeter to N. Sept. 9, 1830, to the Chace 
farm given him by our uncle Hampton 
for whom he was named. 

" Uncle Roger Royale of N. died Jan. 
29, 1 83 1, aged fifty-seven. A very 
great loss; he was much respected and 
lamented, a friend to the poor and 
afflicted. My uncle Col. Hampton 
Royale died Dec. 17, iS3i,on Saturday 
night at eleven o'clock. A solemn 
scene, at which I was present. His 
will is disputed : my father and two of 
their brothers are in favor of its stand- 
ing, but cousin Jack, Aunt Prescott's 
family, and the Langdons are against it. 
Cousin John (a congressman who later 
met a tragic death; is appointed a spec- 
ial administrator, and Daniel Webster 
and Jeremiah Mason are his legal coun- 

" Uncle Hampton's great fortune was 
not of much good to him. Childless 
and the prey of a strange fear that he 
would come to want, he came to his 
end by his own hand leaving the largest 



estate in his county. Such is life. 
1 Neither poverty nor riches,' that is best. 

'• Feb. 6, 1S32. I fainted, falling to 
the floor in my school, and was ill one 

"On the 28th, Elder Osborne died, 
aged sixty-three. 

"(P. S.) Elder Osborne was of the 
Christian order. lie was universally 
beloved and admired both as a preacher 
and a citizen, and two thousand people 
were present at his funeral which was 
in Masonick order, the first I have at- 
tended, very solemn. 

"Oh, my Eleanor, I could find it 
sweet to die amid such affection as his 
wife's and children's for him ; but how 
much happier I would be to live, with 
my love / 

"March 21, my honored father and I 
attended the Probate Court, on business 
connected with Uncle Hampton's will. 

" I heard the great Jeremiah Mason 
for the first time, but Daniel Webster 
has been often at our house, and I have 
heard him make pleas. He has the 
Bachelder eye, and a young man in 
Massachusetts, named John Greenleaf 
Whittier, inherits a similar eye. You 
will remember that we have several 
Greenleafs in our family, but I do not 
know that this young man is any kin to 
us. He is a little given to writing poetry 
and edits a paper in Boston, I think. 
He is an abolitionist. 

" I do not approve of slavery but do 
not see a way clear to abolish it accord- 
ing to the Constitution, at present. 
Should a proper method be brought be- 
fore our people I would vote for it. 
Still our old Pompey and Carsar, and 
Chloe and Phyllis, have always seemed 
happy, and when they became free 
would not leave my grandfather's house 
except to come to my father's or to his 
brothers' homes. 1 think I have told 

you how Pomp went with my uncle 
Jock when he was young, to carry sup- 
plies and money to my grandfather who 
was with his regiment at Valley Forge. 
When grandfather first marched his 
men before General Washington (after 
some troops or their officers had not 
been behaving well) the general in- 
quired who they were. Grandfather 
heard him, and said — you have heard 
that he was a quick man and hasty of 
tongue — ' It's a regiment of Yankees, by 
God, Sir, from Rockingham County, and 
they never yet turned their backs to a 

Uncle Jock (he was but seventeen 
when he died) went with two horses 
safely across to the Hudson and down 
to Valley Forge, with many dollars hid- 
den about his luggage, which money 
was a great help to the troops. It was 
his father's money, and the latter paid 
his men often from his own purse. 

"April 30. I took a deed from 
brother Hampton, of the farm and 
buildings formerly owned by Mark 
French, near my father's, for five hun- 
dred dollars. But I do not mean to 
carry you there to live, dearest Eleanor. 
Oh, if you could be as anxious to teach 
one pupil in good ways as you are to 
instruct those children at the Corners 

in A B C and algebra ! 

"On Monday, June 11, 1832, I left 
home, in company with cousin Roger, 
for Saratoga Springs, New York. We 
went on his account; stopped at Con- 
cord for that night ; had a very pleasant 
journey up, passed through a number 
of pleasant towns and villages, crossed 
the Connecticut, Green mountains, and 
the Hudson, reaching Saratoga Springs 
Saturday, June 16, in the morning, hav- 
ing ridden about one hundred and 
eighty miles. Saratoga is quite a pleas- 
ant village, with several good houses. 



ind is in the vicinity of eighteen or 
twenty springs, which are the making 

of the place. We found, perhaps, two 
hundred visitors this season ; not so 
many as usual, on account of the cold- 
ness of the weather, and of that alarm- 
ing disease, the cholera, existing at 
New York, Albany, and Montreal. YVe 
boarded at Montgomery Hall, kept by 
Augustus McKinney, paying 52.50 a 
week. We liked the landlady well ; 
we saw many curiosities and strangers, 
and formed many acquaintances. We 
had a ride on the railway from Saratoga 
to Ballston Spa, about six miles in 
thirty-live minutes, the first railroad we 
have ever seen. 

"July 17. We have been at the 
Springs four weeks and three days, and 
leave here to-day, Tuesday. Slow rid- 
ing, but pleasant, in spite of the heat. 
On Saturday we enter Lowell, Mass., a 
fair, growing place, where we stay three 
days, seeing the few sights and attend- 
ing meetings. Leaving there Tuesday, 
the 24th, we ride to N., rinding our 
friends well, that night. 

'•On Thursday I go home, and find 
that I have come two hundred and 
twenty-five miles from Saratoga to E. 
We think our health much improved by 
our six and a half weeks of absence, 
mine being very good and Roger look- 
ing better, fie will be married soon to 
General Stark's grand-daughter, a deli- 
cate and lovely girl ; too good for him, 
as you, my beloved, are too good for 
me. But I do love you so much. 

"August 8. I attended a dinner 
given to Hon. Isaac Mill, United States 
senator. A quite respectable party, and 
many very good sentiments were ex- 
pressed. Hon. Matthew Harvey pre- 
sided, and Mr. Hill gave an excellent 

u A large number of requests having 

been handed in to the general confer- 
ence for me to be set apart to the work 
of the ministry, a day of ordination 
was appointed, and the services took 
place Feb. 6, 1S33 — a very solemn day 
to me. Oh, how sweet is the service of 
God ! Lord, keep me humble, and 
prepare me for the work." 

Without doubt the young man felt 
the " high-headedness " of his family to 
be in danger of over-riding at times the 
state of humility which beseemed his 
cloth. That the natural Adam was 
alive, one may be sure from this : 

" On Monday I went to my father's 
at E. finding him in some trouble. The 
previous Sabbath at midnight his build- 
ings were set on fire by some malicious 
person. The fire was discovered by 
Aunt Jane who was awakened by her 
dog. Three large barns were burned, 
one large stable, and two sheds. There 
is no doubt that they were set on fire 
by some very bad, depraved and un- 
feeling person or persons. Oh, may they 
be brought to justice and have their just 

Miss Eleanor after six years of faith- 
ful court, consented to be married on 
Jan. 13, 1836, when she should be 
twenty-three years old. 

On the 4th of that month Parson Roy- 
al, who had built a house at N., where 
he was preaching for three hundred dol- 
lars a year — a high salary for those days 
and people — and making out his living 
by his property, wrote in a diary, — 

"Breakfast at Mrs. Xewmarch's ; 
pray, and have some good talk. Dine 
at Dr. Joe's, do some business, leave 
with him Xo. 59 certificate of B. C. 
stock, and go to Concord where I pay 
for gloves .S3, for cravat i.oo, frock 
coat and trousers made (5.50 per yd.) 
30.50 ; for horse and carriage and toll 
2.75. postage .12;.; ; total £35. 20; J." 



On the 23d he writes in his pocket 
diary, — 

"An interesting day to me. I am no 
longer single, but in a different state, the 
happiest of married men. O Lord, help 
me to be useful and faithful ; may I 
have wisdom from above. We have 
prayers, and I leave with my wife, my 

This single-hearted love was never a 
shade the less during the tifty-three 
years of this union. 

" He was so devoted to me,'' said his 
widow. "He loved me just as much 
when I was in agonies from neuralgia, 
and my head all tied up in red flannel, 
as when I was in fullest feather of 
health and dress. And he was a most 
manly person, too." 

An officer of many societies, a builder 
of churches which sprang to life under 
his magnetic energy, his little fortune 
went, faster than his salaries grew, for 
means of living, the educating of his 

children, and the thronging calls for 
benevolence, and he was always obliged 
to deny his natural taste*, but no priva- 
tion nor personal suffering was ever 
allowed to weigh down the fervent de- 
sire to do God's work, which at last 
was crowned by a beautiful passing to 
the eternal city. 

His patriotism gave his son and him- 
self to the fates of war, helping to aug- 
ment the force which made us a nation, 
beyond question. His health, like that 
of thousands of his comrades, was 
totally ruined by long army service: 
and years of idleness which depressed 
and impoverished him, forced from his 
patient lips the words. " It is so sweet to 
do the will of God : so hard to suffer it." 

Many servants of the church have 
been more notable, but none more 
loyal, than he in all whose life the ex- 
treme desire was " Help me, O Father. 
to win souls to thee, and to do my duty 


By Frank U'alcott Hutt. 

Like to an island coral-formed, 'mid seas. 
My hope from sheer abysses doth arise 
'Xeath the blue glamour of pacific skies ; 

And, borne upon the morning ministries 

Of warm, in-setting tide and gentle breeze. 

Rich soil and seed have come : and magic-wise, 
Brave-limbed palmetto groves in martial guise 

Raise to the sun their fronded pageantries. 

And to mine island in the middle sea 

Fair ships of blessed promise come, full fraught 
With songsters from another isle, more blest. 

That, breaking forth in sudden psalmistry. 

Have all my groves their wondrous sweetness taught 
And made my hope, indeed, an isle of rest. 



By Milo Benedict. 


I was lying on the grass in the shade 
of a large barn, and was looking up, 
when a swallow flew out of the barn and 
disappeared. I was much surprised, for 
I could see no opening through which 
the bird could have made his escape. 
There was a small knot-hole above the 
big door, but the bi^ door was closed, 
and the knot-hole did not appear large 
enough to admit a bird. I had a pair 
of field-glasses in my hand, and for the 
purpose of closer inspection I raised the 

While I was looking at the knot-hole 
and studying the grain of the wood 
around it, a swallow with outspread 
wings alighted and held himself firmly 
against the hole by his claws. He did 
not try to enter the hole, but turned his 
head and looked suspiciously at me, 
first over one shoulder, then over the 
other. He evidently was much alarmed 
at my appearance, and must have thought 
I possessed a formidable pair of great 
glassy eyes. He seemed an uncom- 
monly beautiful bird. His wings, tail, 
and back were a deep Prussian blue, 
and shone with a fine lustre, and when 
he twisted his neck I could see a little 
of his white throat. Indeed, he looked 
nearly as large as an eagle, and filled 
completely the field of vision offered by 
my glass. In a moment he flew away 
in a very troubled state of mind, I am 
sure, and soon he returned with his 

The two birds flew to the ridge-pole. 

and creeping close to the very end of it, 
they sat mute, and looked at me anx- 
iously, and then I heard a conversation, 
soft and mysterious. If they said any- 
thing, it must have been this : — 

i% I don't know what he is exactly, or 
what his treacherous plot maybe; but 
the little ones must be fed, and I '11 
stay right here and keep my eye on him 
while you skip off and grab that bug I 
left on the apple-tree, with one wing off; 
and if he stirs, or anything happens 
before you get back, I '11 holler to you, 
and then you go quick and call the 
other birds/' 

Away flew one of the birds, let us 
say Xo. i, while Xo. 2 kept its post at 
the end of the ridge-pole — and a very 
exposed and dangerous position it must 
have seemed to it. Its little head was 
continuously moving, while trying to 
keep an eye on me and to look out for 
the return of its mate at the same time. 
Considering its serious anxiety of mind, 
its movements appeared ridiculously 
coquettish. Xo. 1 returned with the 
bug in less than a quarter of a minute, 
and alighted on the ridge-pole to hear 
first what had happened during its 

•• Well, he has n't stirred yet," said 
Xo. 2. 4; You go quick with the bug 
and feed the children, and I '11 call you 
if he moves a finger. I guess he must 
be asleep." 

Down came the bird fluttering to the 
hole, clinging to the edge as before, 
and spreading out its wings. But like 



anybody in a state of nervous anxiety, 
it lost its self-possession, and let the 
bug fall out of its beak plumb to the 
ground. Back it flew to the side of its 
mate nonplussed and much excited. 

"What 4ft/ you let it fall for? That 
was silly !" 

" I couldn't help it. I thought I saw 
him move."' 

"Well, go back and catch another, 
and do hurry." 

While No. i was off in search of 
another morsel, Xo. 2 flew down to the 
hole and back to the ridge-pole several 
times in quick succession, probably just 
to see what I would do. The little 
birds in the nest (which consisted of a 
box inside nailed against the hole) now 
came to their little round door and ven- 
tured to look out. They had become 
hungry and noisy, and were bound to 
stick their heads out, in spite of warn- 
ings, as a more demonstrative protest 
against their neglect. 

When Xo. 1 returned with a mouth- 
ful of insects, it flew around many 
times before it could screw up courage 
enough to approach the nest. At last, 
when it did, the little birds celebrated 
the feast with a great noise, much, how- 
ever, to the dismay of the parent, for 
these words I heard delivered with 
great earnestness, — 

" Be still ! Be still ! You little 
dunces, all of you ! We shall all be 
killed here in a minute if you keep up 
that noise. I 'm feeding you now at the 
risk of my life. Here, Jimmy, take this 
quick, and do n't you make a sound. 
There 's a great monster King on the 
grass outside with great big eyes. 
Your father is up on the house watch- 
ing him. Xow be good children, or 
you never will get out of here with 
breath in your bodies." 

As I did not move, the bird became 

more satisfied that I intended no harm 
to them, and it was not a great while 
before they were circulating to and 
from the nest, feeding the little birds 
with their accustomed regularity. 


The next day I pushed open the huge 
barn door, just back of which hung a 
stout swing, rather inviting to one in 
pursuit of light exercise and recreation. 
I began to swing. One direction of the 
swing carried me out over the grass, 
where I had reclined the day before, and 
the opposite carried me up into the airy 
region of the barn. It was a delightful 
sensation thus to shoot out into the 
open sky and then back into the barn, 
and I was thinking of this, when sud- 
denly I became aware of a loud demon- 
stration above my head. '"Have I upset 
a hornets' nest, or what ?" I muttered to 
myself. I looked up and saw the birds 
looking down at me with fear and trem- 
bling. My reappearance seemed to 
them a crisis. 

" He 's coming for us ! " one shouted. 
" I knew he would ! He planned it yes- 
terday. Go for him ! "' Down came a 
swallow at my head, with something of 
the violence of an arrow. It was a 
direct shot at my eyes, and I uncon- 
sciously jerked back my head in self- 
defence. Xext, the two came together, 
with increased force. Every time I 
ascended skyward I met the swallows, 
and they made a harsh noise, like the 
grating of teeth. The excitement be- 
came greater and greater. The birds 
called to their aid a third swallow, then 
a fourth, then a fifth, then a sixth, and 
so on ; and before I knew it the air was 
swarming with swallows, all bent on 
driving me off. 

I began to feel in doubt of my safety. 
I had had no experience with the meth- 



<>ds of defence which an army of birds 
might employ. I used my hands to pro- 
tect my head, and made violent motions 
with my feet, with intent to frighten the 
birds, but without effect. They assem- 
bled in the air above the barn in a dense 
cloud, and, as if with preconcerted uni- 
formity of action, they dashed at my 
head, one following another in close 
succession. They all moved in one 
direction, notably from left to right, in 
order to avoid collision. It was like 
being under a cataract of birds. The 
rapid motion of the swing, however, to- 
gether with my desperate movements, 
no doubt saved me from losing an eye 
or two, or a lock of hair. 

There were no other birds engaged 
in the combat, though a number of 
king birds, robins, sparrows, and gold- 
finches collected along the fences and 
in the apple-trees to witness the scene. 
I think the robins would have fought in 
my interest if they had fought at all. 
Hut this may be a flattering assumption 
of my own. I enjoyed it all, as a novel 
spectacle and sensation, and when I 
walked out leisurely into the held every 
bird disappeared. 

It was surely no plan of mine to 

bring myself into enmity with these little 
feathered friends. The very thought 
of being despised by them was painful, 
and when I saw what I had done I rec- 
ognized that it would be difficult, if not 
impossible, to restore the friendly rela- 
tions I had just up^et so unintentionally. 
I knew not, in fact, how to improve the 
situation, and could not help feeling 
provoked at their stupid suspicion and 
misunderstand ing. 

The next day. while I was lying under 
some bushes far out in the field, with a 
book in my hand, a company of a dozen 
or more swallows swept down at me 
with great violence, making as loud a 
noise as they could. They remembered 
me, although I was far from their hab- 
itation, and wore an entire change of 
garment. The dav following I was 
similarly attacked while walking in the 
road, a few minutes' pace from the barn. 
In the afternoon of that day the little 
birds for whose lives so much anxiety 
had been expressed, became strong- 
enough to fly, and off they went, taking 
their good will with them, and not a 
member of the family has since been 
seen to pay a visit to the old home and 


By H. G. Blaisdell. 

The importance of a better knowl- 
edge of that class of music known as 
chamber music, is most painfully real- 
ized by teachers of advanced pupils at 
the present time, and those who have 
the most earnest wishes and interests 
of the cause at heart should make an 
effort to open the way to a more perfect 
appreciation and understanding of this 

most charming of music. It is a 
deplorable fact that not one quarter 
of the so-called or self-styled music 
teachers of to-day know what class of 
music comes under the head of cham- 
ber music. 

This existing fact precludes all just 
attempts at criticism, either with stu- 
dents or public, and without air/ fur- 

i6 4 


ther attempts at an exposure of ignor- 
ance and lack of ambition on the part 
of our teachers and leaders, we will 
attempt to analyze this branch of the 
art and show in a moderate way the 
great importance of its serious and 
extended study. 

"Chamber music is the name applied 
to all that class of music which is 
especially fitted for performance in a 
room, as distinguished from such con- 
cert, dramatic, or ecclesiastical music, 
as require many performers and spaces 
for large volumes of sound." 

It was recognized as a special depart- 
ment of the art as early as the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century, com- 
prising generally pieces for a single 
voice with accompaniment for a single 
instrument. By degrees the character 
of this music changed, becoming more 
extensive and better fitted for a larger 
number of performers, until now the 
name is generally applied to instrumen- 
tal music for single instruments or solo 
instruments in combinations. 

. Passing by the earliest forms of cham- 
ber music, which consisted mainly of 
dance tunes arranged in suites, we will 
begin with the sonata form, which was 
first developed by Haydn, perfected 
by Mozart, and enriched and altered by 
Beethoven, which is the pith and sub- 
stance of all chamber music. 

The sonata in its first form was writ- 
ten for the piano alone, although a few 
of the earliest writers produced sonatas 
for the piano-forte and violin, which are 
still performed by virtuosi. 

The great value, as a study for stu- 
dents as well as masters of these instru- 
ments, of the sonata for a sure and true 
method for the development of a broad 
musical character and perfect ensemble 
playing, can never be estimated, and if 

frequent performance of this music, 
the musical intelligence of the country 
would show a marked improvement and 
the appreciation of the symphony would 
be enhanced and made more clear and 
less confusing and laborious. 

The next step upward and onward is 
the trio. The most common and effec- 
tive is that written for piano, violin, and 
cello. This usually is a composition 
with three or more movements, and the 
rich contrasts and colors of the cello tone 
to that of the other instruments afford 
the student a rare opportunity for study, 
and are a delight to the more proficient. 
Our next move onward opens up a 
most delightful study and pastime : 
The quartette, either for violin, piano, 
cello, and viola, or of various other 
combinations including the piano, or 
that most perfect of combinations 
known as the string quartette. Of the 
latter there is no end to the works of 
the masters, both ancient and modern, 
andjhere is no perfection obtainable so 
pure and delightful as that of a string 
quartette. From a pianissimo which 
is so transparent and like a whisper 
from the lips of angels, one can be 
carried to a crescendo, which lifts the 
emotions like a flame fanned by a sud- 
den breeze. The story of life, from 
childhood's laughing heart to the door 
of the beautiful beyond, may be told 
with no uncertain meaning, and yet 
how little the world realizes all this, as 
opportunities are so limited and teach- 
ers so indifferent. 

Graves says that Beethoven in his 
later vears regarded the string quartette 
as one of the most perfect means of 
expressing his deepest musical thoughts, 
and he left some of the greatest treas- 
ures of all music in that form. 

We might 5:0 on and mention the 

the home circle was graced by a more quintettes, septettes, and octettes, of the 



masters, but their performance is of grammes of recitals by pupils of teach- 
rare occurrence, and while they may ers throughout the country; when the 
come under the head of chamber music, true value of attending a performance 
vet they occupy a position almost be- of sonatas, trios, and quartettes is ap- 
tween the proper forms of chamber predated, and when the public can with 
music and the grand orchestra. pleasure realize the beauties of pure 
It will be a source of great delight to tone, beautiful harmonies, and demand 
the musical world when we may find such, rather than cheap variations on 
more of this class of music on the pro- popular melodies. 

> S ■ > . - \ 

m . ■' : : ■ : : .- ' - J^L 

K* i • r :" -^s Cc r^c ♦...-.- 

#3 m - ;/ • 

:;■■ ; ■ imp. 



ml.-.-, r^ m . ....... ll i 

A Birds-Eye Yiew o' Littleton. 


By George II. Moses. 

The ubiquitous Abenaki first overran abundant and more or less hostile evi- 
the territory where the town of Littleton dence through the whole stretch of 
now stands, but he early gave way Ammonoosuc and Connecticut country 
before the advance of civilization is rep- when the local speculation of the Seven- 
resented by the adventurous Glines bro- teen- Sixties seized upon Governor Ben- 
thers. General John Stark, and the ning Wentworth and his little circle of 
Rogers Rangers, though he was still in official, clerical, and personal friends at 






Concord & Montreal Railroad Station. 


Portsmouth. The history of that marvel 
lous operation in real estate has never 
yet been fully told ; but during its run it 
involved the manipulation of the terri- 


E . 

Moses A. Oow. 

: ^ 


tory of two states, and out of it grew 
difficulties which at one time assumed 
the measures of civil strife and which 

were abated only by the interference of 
the federal goveri ment and the interpo- 
sition of the strorg arm of our first pres- 
ident himself. But the Vermont Con- 
troversy, as this difficulty has now come 
to be known, has no extended place in 
my narrative— which concerns only one 
of the sixteen townships involved in the 
controversy and that a town which took 
but small part, if any, in the attempts to 
set up the state of New Connecticut. 

The free use of the vice-regal power 
with which Benning Wentworth called 
so many towns into existence was at- 
tended, naturally enough, by some error. 
and in granting Chiswick (now become 
Littleton) the new town was laid down 
upon the large part of Concord (now 
Lisbon). The governor was honest. 
however, if speculative, and he compen- 
sated for his error by giving the gran- 
tees another tract a little farther up the 
river. The name of Chiswick was re- 
tained, but the charter itself fell by rea- 






son of non-compliance with its provi- children he quit his home in Orford, 
sions, and in 1770 the town was re- carrying all his worldly goods upon the 
granted under the name of Apthorp. back of one horse, lie occupied two 
The personnel of the grantees differed in days on the journey, and pissed a night 
the two charters. Chiswick was granted . 

to inhabitants of Groton, Connecticut, 
for the most part. Among them was 
James Avery, who had joined with him 
twelve of the same name and a consid- 
erable number of uncles and cousins, 
and thus controlled the franchise which 
he disposed of to Colonel Moses Little 
of Newbury, Massachusetts, and his 
associates, and they secured the rechar- 
tering of the town, giving to Colonel 
John Hurd of Haverhill 10,000 acres 
of their new property for his '-influ- 
ence " in their behalf. Colonel Hurd, 
it is evident, was the first member of 
the •• third house " from Grafton county. 
The proprietors of Apthorp were 
more energetic than the grantees of at Bath where he left the horse. At 
Chiswick had been, and in April, 1770, nightfall on the second day. the eleventh 
they persuaded Nathan Caswell, the of April, he reached his new home 
first settler, to make the hazard of new where he found a barn which was as 
fortunes in the Ammonoosuc wilderness, much as the Chiswick promoters had 
This venturesome spirit was well suited done toward founding their city. Here 
for his task, and with his wife and four were unmistakable si^ns of the recent 

Francs A. Eastrran. 

-T'" z "-\'-"-T ' 




' ' ' 1 " * •* 

!—K* rrr . . . rn .« £ 










;>- : 


1 v - 



Mam Street. 



"" ~h± 








• -'V ■- ■. s t \ X ■ 


[ "-•-"■ 

I - ■,-..;■..,.-. ...... 

Bank Elock. 

the United States at Sherbrooke, Can- 
ada, and lately secretary of the New 
Hampshire Democratic state commit- 
tee, "few scenes have transpired in 
border life of more thrilling interest 
than that which took place during the 
first night of the settlement of Ap- 
thorp. The barn stood in the midst 
of a magnificent grove of stately pines ; 
a little further up, on rising ground, 
the birch, oak, and maple mingled 
their leafless branches. The solemn 
stillness of the night was broken only 
by nature's voice; no a.\e was struck, 
no fire kindled ; quietly the mother 
arranged the bed for her voung bovs, 
and then sought repose, but it came 
not ; anxiously she watched the restful 
slumber of her children, fearing they 
might make an outcry that would reach 
the ears of the enemy. The husband, 

gun in hand, guarded the open door. 

When morning dawned another son had 

presence of Indians, but there was no 
alternative to spending the night there. 

" P'ew scenes have transpired in bor- been added to the family of this brave 
der life," writes Mr. James R. Jackson, couple. In honor of the town the first 
the historian of the town, now consul of white child born within its limits was 

v - . . . 


-. - 





Oak Hill Ho-jse. 



; . Im 




■ - - . 

• - 
- : 




1 1 


Thayer's Hotel 

given the name of Apthorp." Morn- 
ing revealed increased evidence of 
the recent presence of Indians, and it 
was decided to join the settlers within 
the fort at Lisbon. Accordingly a tree 
was felled, a dug-out was hastily fash- 

£a* «K 

• . 

A . 


ry L. Tra, 

ioned, and the family took passage for 
Salmon Hole. A few days later Cas- 
well returned to Apthorp and found the 
hut burned to the ground by the 

Indians. The savages had evidently 
left the neighborhood, so Caswell re- 
placed the barn with a cabin and the 
family made their home in it until the 
threatening attitude of the St. Francis 
Indians during the Revolution drove 
them to the fort at Northumberland for 
a time. 

Other settlers came slowly ; the War 
for Independence doubtless retarding 
the growth of the town, though it had a 
compensatory effect in nullifying what- 
ever conditions of settlement were 
attached to the charter of 1770. 

At the close of the war the commu- 
nity was a mere handful, and in 17S4 
there were but eight families and twelve 
voters in the town. There were enough, 
however, for another operation in real 
estate, and for the third and last time 
the town underwent territorial change. 

In 17S3 Tristram Dalton and Nathan- 
iel Tracy purchased from John Hurd 
the 10,000 acres of Apthorp soil which 
measured the value of his " influence," 
and with the 6,000 acres which they had 
before obtained from the Messrs. Little, 




- . 

m ■ 



• ■ 




Residence of O C. Hitch. 

they desired the erection of a new town. 
Their desires were fulfilled, and in 
i 7 S 4 , the 
towns of Dal- 
ton and Lit- 
tleton, named 
in honor of 
their princi- 
pal proprie- 
tors, succeed- 
ed to Chis- 
wick and Ap- 
thorp. T h e 
actual separa- 
tion was some months in advance of it 
legislative sanction, and thv 
birthday is celebrated earlier 
than the records justify. 

Littleton was much more 
prosperous than either of its 
predecessors. The close of 
the Revolution brought set- 
tlers in considerable num- 
bers, though the cry of 
"cheap land" which led them 
hither was later attractive 
enough to carry many of 
them still further along and 
even into Canada. Littleton 
was prosperous, but there 


1 &* -x .,' 



m li U J 

iflp a 

-M ■■ ■.. JL id Sczz~v 

. . -. f 


Residence of B 

town s 

was no boom ; and indeed 
the condition of the settlers 
was not altogether one of 
unalloyed bliss, their fertile 
lands making up almost the 
sum total of their blessings. 
Their own account of their 
' situation was anything but 
blithesome, and the condi- 
tion of affairs in 17SS. as 
viewed from the standpoint 
of Captain Peleg Williams, 
was set forth in that worthy's 
petition to the legislature in 
which he averred that the 
town had been settled eighteen years, 
and that the owners of the land had 

'• that t h e y 
wood make a 
good Rode 
throw said 
Town erect 
and keep in 
good repair a 
grest mill and 
saw mill in 
said To w n 
and that they 

»7. Ktlburn. 

wood Soon 
have the Town settled with such a num- 
ber of Setelers as to make it Convenient 

Residence of Col. C/fjs Eastman 


for your petitioners.*' The knowledge 
of his wrongs here seized upon the 

captain and he wanned" to his sub- 
ject. "All of which thay have neg- 
lected and thare is now in Town but 
nine families and the Country road 



■ < 


Benj. W. Kiiburn. 

through the same is twelve miles and"] is 
verey wet hilly and Stony, your Peti- 
tioners Cannot git at any mill Short~of 
twelve or fifteen mildes and if a Scarce 
time of grinden must wait for the 
Inhabnie* of the Town to which the mill 






Hon. Cj js Ev,:rr:in 

Oscar C. Hatcn. 

belongs to have thare grist ground first 
besides we have the aforesaid road 
to travel through without our horses 
being Shod as thare is no Blacksmith 
neigher than a mill your Petitioners are 
not only few in number but poor and 



Judg« B. W. Bonr.ey. 

must remain so except the aforesaid 
Difficulties Can be removed." 

This petition was signed by seven 
other settlers besides Captain Williams, 
and was but little more lugubrious than 
a former communication to the general 


\ ■■.-»*; ■■•■ 

/ A 

■ j 

Cn.s.'. ick Inr.. 

court in which he alone petitioned for shire and its relations to contiguous and 

assistance, and informed the legislators neighboring communities in Vermont, 
that their petitioners had fallen upon " Situated as Littleton is on the bor- 

such grievous lines that they " cannot ders of Vermont,'" wrote a former resi- 

live in said town nor move out of the dent 1 of the town in discussing one 

same, except your honors will Interpose phase of this subject, " possessing a 

in our behalf.'' thoroughfare from its boundaries, east 

Their honors interposed and enabled and west, over which the thrift of a 

the settlers to brins about the fulfill- lar^e section of that state was trans- 

ment of the proprietors' first promise — ported every recurring winter in long 

to build a road, — and the next year the lines of pod teim* to Portland and 

proprietors themselves kept , , , 

faith in the second agreement ^ 
and induced a miller to move g£ 

into town. This first road was 

. . . . • 
followed bv many more and ■ -v--*» 

to the first mill were added . *^*^«5*;'. 

others, so that when the new - ;- ; 

•-- '. ■< •' 


century opened Littleton pre- 
sented the beginnings of the 
flourishing town which it soon 
became. The development 
of Littleton was material!}- 
aided in a commercial sense 
by reason of the relations 

which the town sustained to ' . . ". . 

other localities in New Hamp- R«$id»nc« of Hon. Georg. a Biogttam. 

1 Mr. F.J . Eastman of Northficld. 



'ortsmouth, its fame as a ; \ i ; 

topping place, its boundless v 

esources of pine and water- * I \ j 

power, became themes of con- 
versation in many a Vermont 
farm-house. Staging and mail 
routes naturally followed the 
track of this, developing com- 
merce and communication ~*-j- 
between St. Tohnsburv, Dan- 
ville, and Montpelier, and 
the prosperity of which all 
this gave promise became an 
accomplished fact." 

In those clays the indus- ' — 
tries of country villages were 
less pretentious than now and were 
much more diversified. 



Residence of Ch£ 


than that afforded by the seizure of the 
cleared and burned land for cultivation. 
When the budding manufacturing of Later, improved roads afforded a mar- 
Littleton was but scarcely begun it em- ket, and by means of the saw-mill yet 
braced as many industries as the town another item of profit was taken from 
does now, though the output of a week the wooded intervales and uplands, 
now will put to shame a year's product Following these came a tannery, and 
then. The early industries were kept thus industry and enterprise branched 
close to nature, and the first enterprise out. so that from a summary of the 
of the settlers found vent in the estab- town's manufactures compiled by Mr. 
lishing of potasheries, by means of D. C. Remich on the occasion of the 
which the necessary destruction of the centennial celebration in 1SS4, it ap- 
forest was made to yield another result pears that no less than twenty-five dis- 


■ ; i • 




' ■ 


Residence c' rtm. E:_;ar A drill 




A b 


tinct branch- 
es of indus- 
try have had 
a foothold 

" Littl eton 

is not, strict- 
ly speaking," 
s a y s Mr. 
Remich, "and 
never was a 
ing town ; that 
is to say, the 
business and 
prosperity of 
the town do 

not depend, and never have, upon its 
manufacturing interests alone. Be- 
cause of its situation it has been a 
commercial center of importance, and 
it has large and valuable agricultural 
resources. For these reasons it has 
not been materially affected by depres- 
sions in any particular branch of indus- 
try. Owing to the division of capital 
and business the progress of the town 
has been much more rapid and continu- 
ous than it otherwise would have been. 


■ v 

- - ■ -^ 

» - .1 

and there has 
been no long 
a n d serious 
depression in 
its manufact- 



-^ ; 

Kilbsjm Stereoscopic View Factory. 



f . 

ests such as 

have affected 
other commu- 
nities, be- 
cause if one 
man failed 
there were 
others arising 
from its com- 
mercial, pro- 
fessional, or 
agricultural classes ready to step into 
his shoes and prosecute the business, 
or start something else in its place 
equally beneficial to the community."' 

And. Mr. Remich might have added, 
the town has been fullv as keen in fol- 



Li7iie (Ki.ourn) Rerr.Lh. 

Daniel C 

lowing the development of its moral 
nature as its commercial or industrial 
advantages. Littleton was incorporated 
with none of the old-time, royal-charter 
requirements looking toward the est 
lishment of schools ami the settling of a 



Henry F. Green. 

minister ; and, as we have already seen, 
the first settlers were in no condition to 
lend any considerable financial favor to 
either proposition, yet they began to 
pay appropriate attention to both as 
soon as their means allowed, and in 
1 79 1 the town voted to hire preaching 
for two months and also to raise sixteen 
bushels of wheat toward the support of 
schools, three districts being formed the 
next year. This was a small beginning. 

but it was faithfully followed up, and in 
1S11, Moses Little, one of the original 


:ave two acres of land in 

the centre of the town for a meeting- 
house site, and the town voted $200 
toward the enterprise. In the same 
year in which the town voted to pay 


Ira Parker. 

$200 toward building the church, an- 
other vote was taken under that head 
which was much more important and 
significant, September 11, 1S11 ; it was 

.. - - 


... ... 

Ira Parker Glo^e Works. 

i 7 6 


"Voted, That each denomination of of New Hampshire was in a tunnoi: 

Christians shall have a right to occupy over the issues of religious toleration, 

the meeting-house in proportion to the and the Toleration Act was not finally 

money they pay for building and repair- made law until 1S19. Its principles 









.... , . 







' ^ 

Hon. Janres W. Rer 

ing the same, so far that in that propor- were put in force at Littleton eight 

tion each denomination have a right to years earlier, and in the struggle to give 

put what preacher they please into the to the state what she had voted herself 

pulpit, and each person shall have a the town was instrumental in that in 

. -> 



Hor.. A. S. Batcnel.if. 

right to choose to which denomination 
he will be considered as belon^ins:." 



I . . 

£ Mr-'^mX •- - 

Hon. William H. M.tcnell. 

five successive elections the Rev 


Young, a Methodist preacher at Lisbon, 

At the time when the town of Little- was sent from this, district 

:o t 


ton took this significant action the state senate, and in that body he used his 



powers solely to secure the passage of a noted one. One of the earliest teach- 

the Toleration Act. Had ever}' town ers in Littleton was Miss Melinda Ran- 

been as wise as this one the standing kin 1 who began here her consecrated 

order would have met with fewer re- lite-work at the age of fourteen: later 

proaches, political strife would have carrying the humanizing influences of 

been lessened, and the judiciary of the religion and education into Mexico, 

time would have received and doubtless bein<r the first missionary to visit that 

Hon. Harry Bingham 

K ■■-*■ 
g. r . 

Hon. Edward F. B r.gnarr.. Hon. George A. B.r-.gnar 

merited less censure than it was their 
lot to undergo. 

The sixteen bushels of wheat which 
were voted in aid of the first schools in 
Littleton proved wonderfully productive 
seed and have brought forth much more 
than an hundred fold. To the educa- 
tional interests of the town have been 
devoted the energies of many of the 
foremost citizens, and among the officers 
and teachers have been numbered many 

country. Mrs. L. M. Wilson, at one 
time superintendent of schools of the 
city of Des Moines, la., and now at the 
head of an important school for young 
ladies in Chicago, was also a teacher in 
the public schools of this, her native 
place, and here doubtless it was that 
she received the inspiration of the career 
which her profession afforded her. Mrs. 
E. M. Walton, a distinguished educator 
of the Pacific Coast, and a writer of no 

1 See Granite Monthly f'.'i Aj>ri', 1S91. 





in the neighboring town of 
Fran con ia. 

Another editorial son of 
Littleton is Colonel Francis 
A. Eastman, who published 
the first paper in town, the 
AmmotlOOSUC Reporter, from 
that graduating to metropol- 
itan editorial rooms and 
finally appearing in Chicago 
as an editor of the Chicago 
Times and as projector of the 


e cf Ira Parker. 


. _.. J 

fl precursor of the present Ju- 
te r-Oeeau. In politic.^, as 


mean gifts, a native of Littleton, also 
saw service as a teacher here ; and so 
did the Flon. William Heyward and 
Samuel B. Page, Esq., both destined 
later to rise to eminence in the law, a 
kindred profession. A high school was 
organized here in 1S68, two years after 
a union school district was formed. The 
Rev. Charles E. Harrington, D. D., was 

well, he was prominent and 
served in both branches of 
the Illinois legislature. President Grant's 
first appointment was that of Francis A. 
Eastman to be postmaster of Chicago. 
.After these diversions in politics he re- 
turned to journalism, and prosperous 
sheets at Utica, X. Y., and at Los An- 
geles, Cal., attest that he has not lost 
his enthusiasm or ability. 

In religious journalism the Rev. Xel- 

the first principal, and his successors son E. Cobleigh, D. D., LL. D., won 

have been men of consecrated zeal and 
ability. The higher schools of the 
town are contained in the high school 
building which was built in 186S, a 
handsome and commodious structure, 
its tower containing a clock, the gift 
of Moses A. Dow, a Littleton boy. 

Moses A. Dow was one of a nota- 
ble group of natives of Littleton who 
achieved high succes^> in journalistic 
ranks. He was born here in 1S10 and 
learned the printer's trade. Before he 
was thirty he had established nine 
periodicals, all of which were failures ; 
but when he was forty he founded the 
Waver ly Magazi '//<", which was at first 
a failure, but which later proved to be 
a stupendous success, netting Mr. Dow 
a fortune, a portion of his wealth going 
to the foundation of Dow Academy 

He was born in Little- 

■_ I 

• _ ■ 

- ' 



Residence of Henry l. Tifton. 




ton November 24. 1814, and 
prepared for the ministry of 

the Methodist church. From 
the pulpit he went to the pro" 
fessor's chair and thence to 
the presidency of a college. 
From here he went to the 
editorial desk of Zions Her- 
ald and for three years was 
a brilliant and effective news- 
paper worker. He then was 
called to a college presi- 
dency in Tennessee and after 
five years of teaching he re- : 
turned to journalism as ed- 
itor of the Methodist Advocate at Atlan- 
ta, Georgia, and here he died in harness. 




. . 




i 'III 

: , 1 




Res ; dence of Hon. Harry Bingham. 

also engaged in the ministerial profession 
earlier in life. A brother of his, George 

In his denomination Dr. Cobleigh was E. Pingree, was also at one time en- 

held in the highest esteem, and in the 
General Conference of 1S72 he received 
the vote of the southern delegates on 
every ballot for a bishop. 

Rev. Enoch Merrill Pingree is another 
member of this group, he rising to the 
editorial function through the pulpit, 
having been a Universalist preacher of 
power and promise before turning his 

gaged in editorial work in Illinois. 

To make an even half dozen, as a 
hustling huckster would put it. we will 
mention Edwin Azro Charlton, author 
of a more or less famous volume, "New 
Hampshire As It Is," and now editor of 
the BrodJiead (Wisconsin) Independent. 

The readers of this magazine will be 
interested to note that Mr. Henry H. 

4 . <-• . 

5- -;~ry- 


attention to the denominational press to Metcalf, the founder of The Granite 
which he was a decided ornament. His Monthly, began his newspaper work in 
last work was on the Star in the West, Littleton, forsaking the law to en^a^e in 
published at Cincinnati, where he had the work of establishing the White Moun- 
tain Republic^ a sheet which 
gained for its editor the most 
favorable consideration, the 
excellence of his work leading 
him into fields of wider use- 
fulness and greater favor, his 
editorial positions including 
the managing editorship of 
the Manchester Union and the 
People and Patriot. Mr. Met- 
calf's journalistic service has 
been long, important, and in- 
fluential, and the people of 
UUeton have not lost mem- 
Residue of wt». j B.110-. ory of his early and credita- 



! I 





Daniel J. Strain in his Studio. 

ble endeavors among them. Xor has 
he forgotten the town where he was 
first encouraged in the career which has 
been so nobly pursued by him, the town, 

high record of journalism in Littleton. 
The world of letters also recognizes 
another native of Littleton who has had 
an exceptional career. Frye W. Giles, 

be it added, from among whose daughters after beginning a prosperous mercantile 

and business life here, early in the fifties 
removed to Kansas. He was one of a 

he chose his wife. 



jf^ '.' 


R. J; 

The Republic- journal is the present 
successor of the Republic, and with the 
Littleton Courier it amply sustains the 

party who * ; pitched " on the present site 
of Topeka, and assisted in the con- 
struction of the first building in that 
city. It was a rude cabin, but the 
founders were building better than they 
knew. A picture of this served for the 
frontispiece of the history of the city, 
and Frye W. Giles, who rocked the 
cradle of the capital of Kansas, became 
the historian of the place. 

Two recent contributions to religious 
literature have been made by natives of 
Littleton. "The Wonderful Counsel- 
lor," published in 1S92, is a compilation 
of and commentary on all the recorded 
sayings of the Lord Jesus by Rev. Henry 
B. Mead, M. A., and "Royal Help for 

Loval Livin: 

compilation by 

Martha Wallace Richardson, brought 



out in 1893. Mrs. Richardson is a 
graduate of the female college at Tilton, 
residing at Lisbon, and Mr. Mead is a 
clergyman of the Congregational order 
residing in Connecticut and prominent 
in the work of the Society of Christian 

Here, too, we should mention David 
Goodall, whose letters and historical 
reminiscences were published since his 
death, revealing a refined scholarship 
and rare descriptive powers. 

Xor is this the only group of notables 
which this town affords, and what is 
noticeable here is that both sexes share 
in the honors which have come to Little- 
ton natives. Miss Rankin, Mrs. Wilson, 
and Mrs. Walton have been named, and 
to them should be joined Mrs. Royal M. 
Cole, who with her husband found con- 
genial work in the missionary field in 
Eastern Turkey, where their labors for 

a score of years or more have been most 

Mrs. Adaline Wallace Chadbourne is 

Col. Be-.^amin H. Corning. 

a native of Littleton who won repute 
as one of the foremost workers anions: 


SI i 



Asm ,- 


■1 Parker's CjCumher Rancn. 



the ranks of 
army nurses 
during the 
late unpleas- 
antness, her 
ardor for the 
cause draw- 
ing her into 
the work ear- 
ly in the war 
and continu- 
ing her in la- 
borious a n d 
positions un- 
til after the 
close of hos- 
tilities. The 
it is satisfac- 
tory to note, 



High Sen 

recognized Mrs. Chad- 
bourne's worth, before her decease, by a 
substantial pension. 


This is but a beginning:. In 

£s3 . L 




> K 

rs «- - - . 

School— South Sde. 

profession, in 
all mercantile 

pursuits, the 
sons of the 
town or those 
who studied 
or began their 
work here 
overrun the 
high places. 
In the law is 
found Benja- 
m in West 
Bonney, a 
member of 
the supreme 
court of Xew 
York, who 
was born here 
and who add- 
ed to his other honors a position among 
the trustees of Dartmouth College. 
Judge Bonney was in the height of his 
career when he died in 1S6S. 

The first lawyer in town was Joseph 
E. Dow, who was the father of Moses 
A. Dow, already recalled as a publisher 
and philanthropist. Mr. Dow was fol- 
lowed soon by others, and among them 
may be named the late Chief-Justice 
Henry A. Bellows, who began practice 
in Littleton and afterward removed to 
Concord whence he went upon the 
bench; the Hon. William Burns, who 
began here that brilliant legal career 
which lasted so many years ; and the 
Rands, Edward D. and Charles W., who 
had an office here as well as at Lisbon 
until the partnership was broken by the 
elevation of the first-named to the bench. 
Here that famous family of brothers, 
the Binghams, Harry, George, and 
Edward, began their legal work. Here 
the first of them rose to the head of his 
profession in the state and yet holds 
the position ; here the second went 


>S 3 





..•.*>». - A3i 

Mills of the Littleton Lumber Compan, 

twice to the highest bench in the state, 
and here he now is associated in active 
practice with his son ; and from here 
the third went west where awaited him 
a seat on the circuit bench of Ohio, 

Qharles C Smitn, President B?a-d of Trace. 

whence he was called to be chief-justice 
of the supreme court of the District of 

It was here that Judge E. P. Green of 
Akron, Ohio, a member of the circuit 
court of that state, studied : it was here 

also that Clinton Rowell, a prominent 
member of the St. Louis bar, first 
delved for legal honors. From the 
same stock is sprung the Hon. Jonathan 
Rowell, a member of congress from an 
Illinois district, though the latters con- 
nection with the town is but a family 

From old Priest Goodall. a retired 
clergyman, who was one of the first set- 
tlers here, and was for a long period one 

KUr.r/ H. Metcalt. 

i8 4 



1 1 ! 


.v ■ - ' ; - 



^. - >«53rtrt 

Littleton Public Library. 

1 . $f 


of the most prominent men in the poli 
tics and business affairs of the town, 
and the organizer of the first church, 
— from him were descended several 
able members of the legal profession, 
notably Ira Goodall of the old Bath 
firm of Woods & Goodall, and that 
latter-day saint, General Philip Car- 
penter, of New York city. 

From a flourishing practice in Lit- 
tleton it was that the Hon. Edgar Al- | 
drich was called to preside over the ;[-. 
New Hampshire house of represent- 
atives in 1S85, and less than six years 
later he was commissioned to sit upon 
the United States bench for this dis- 
trict where he has won the golden 
opinions of his associates and the bar. 

These men have had worthy sue- | 
cessors, and among the present ac 
tive practitioners of the town may 
be named the Hon. Albert S. Batch- 
ellor, who adds to the engrossing du- 
ties laid upon him by a numerous 
clientage the fascinating labor of ed- ■ 
iting the state papers, a task for which 
his fine, discriminating historical 
scholarship, his rare tact, his unri- 

valled patience, and his unfailing good 
sense have given him unusual qualifi- 
cations. He is associated with that 
Nestor of the bar, the Hon. Harry 
Bingham, whose is by far the ablest 
legal mind now at the bar of New 
Hampshire, whose great powers have 
been felt in all the causes cehbres of a 
half century, whose political leader- 
ship has been the admiration of a 
series of campaigns, and whose mark 
is found upon the statute books for a 
half century. Added to these in the 
same firm is the Hon. William H. 
Mitchell, now solicitor of the county 
and a former member of the state sen- 
ate, who supplements the attainments 
of his colleagues with knowledge no 
less accurate and valuable. 

- " 




The Hon. James W. Remick, a mem- 
ber of the local bar, is likewise to be 
noted as having recently served a term 
as I'nited States attorney for this dis- 
trict, an office in which he made an 

Cnaries M. Tuttle, A. M., M. D. 

honorable record and won the favor 
of the public. 

The Littleton physicians of the last 
generation have nearly all completed 
their life work. Dr. Adams Moore, the 
most scholarly of them all, was a leading 
physician of his day and was well 
known in literature. He was the first 
town historian, and at his decease left 
good work on that subject only partially 
developed. Dr. Charles M. Tuttle was 
one of the boldest and most skilful 
all-round practitioners in northern Xew 
Hampshire. Dr. Bugbee had a wide 
reputation in conservative surgery, and 
Dr. Watson was an authority in many 
difficult lines of practice. Dr. William 
Burns, in the harness more than sixty 
years, the founder of a library intended 
to bear his name, and the principal 
patron and promoter of Burns Lodge 
of Free Masons, genial, benevolent, 
and progressive, was the worthy patri- 
arch of the profession. 

Dr. Sanger, lately president of the 
Homeopathic State association, is now 
the senior in years and practice. Of 
the regular school Dr. Moffett, a veteran 
of the war, lately surgeon of the Third 
Regiment of the Xew Hampshire 
National Guard, is the dean, and Dr. 
Page, Dr. McGregor, Dr. Beattie, Dr. 
Abbott, and Dr. Page, Jr., all are men 
who do honor to their calling. 

The old church, too, has had its share 
in the notable array which a study of 
Littleton check-lists would evolve and 
the gospel has been of quite equal glory, 
honor, and immortality with the law. 
Drury Fairbank was the first settled 
pastor in the town. Priest Fairbank was 
a character. His theology was of the 
most pronounced type, and it was doubt- 
less owing to his influence that the 
church for some years was styled by the 
irreverent "the ironworks." Priest Fair- 
bank is reported to have been a noisy 
preacher. At any rate an old worthy of 



Col. Henry L. Tiiton. 

the town one day met the parson and 
jrravelv informed him that his (the 
parishioner's; wife thought Priest Fair- 
bank one of the bc^t men in the world. 
"And so do I," he added, "but I'd 





■ - • 

i ill 

G'ange Hall. 

rather hear a new saw mill than listen to 
you preach." 

Priest Fairbank ministered to this 

ization was not perfected earlier than a 
half century ago. Vet in that time its 
pulpit has been filled with man}- very 
able men, among them being Rev. Sul- 
livan Holman. the first pastor ; Rev. S. 
K. Quimby, afterward president of the 
seminary at Tilton ; Rev. Dudley P. 
Leavitt, D. ])., one of the most distin- 
guished pulpiteers in his denomination ; 
Rev. John Currier, that valiant old war- 
rior of the church who served the house 
of representatives as chaplain during the 
memorable session of 1S74: and Rev. 
M. V. B. Knox. D. D., now president of 
Wahpetan College. Dakota;. Rev. J. E. 
Robins, a native of Littleton, was for 
some years presiding elder of his dis- 
trict, and is reckoned as among the 
most worthy divines in Xew Hampshire. 
Since the establishment of a Free 
Baptist church here prosperity has 
attended it. Its ministers have all been 
faithful and respected men. The Rev. 
Granville C. Waterman, once a Littleton 

t * 

r 1 I 



a i 

7f ■ " - . 

people for sixteen years and was fol- pastor, now of Providence, R. I., is a 

lowed by two brothers, Evarts G. and leader in the denomination. He has 

Isaac R. Worcester, the first dying 

soon after his installation and the 

latter filling the pulpit for three 

years. After resigning his charge 

here Dr. Isaac R. Worcester became 

engaged in the work of the American 

Board and was a district secretary of 

the organization for two years ; and 

was then for thirty years editor of 

the Missionary Herald. 

Among other preachers of the Con- 
gregational order here was the Rev. 
George A. Gates, D. D., now presi- 
dent of Iowa State University, a 
somewhat peculiar feature of his 
ministry here being that he was re- 
fused installation because of his ad- 
vanced theological views. 

The Methodist church wa» early 
in evidence here, though its organ- Gnmre Bioci 



been a delegate to the General Confer- Xothingism he returned to Democratic 

ence and is prominent in educational allegiance, became a Free Baptist 

.ind missionary undertakings of the minister, and forever eschewed politics, 

denomination. He was interested in agriculture, and 

The Rev. Francis 11. Lyford, who died was a specialist in horticulture. He 

recently, passed through a checkered wrote much on agricultural matters, was 

career. He was, like many other dis- an active patron of husbandry, 

tinguished New Hampshire men, a »ft and delivered the address on 

Barn stead boy. Early he developed a 
marked proficiency in military affairs 

Agriculture " at the 

The New Tc-vn Hall. 
Howard e-" Austin, Architects, Brockton, Mass. 

and was an authority on matters of 
discipline and tactics in the old militia 
establishment. He went west and was 
a lieutenant of Missouri volunteers in 
the army operating under Sterling Price 
against the Mormons. Returning to 
New Hampshire, he participated in the 
uprising of the American party, and was 
one of its leaders, being prominently 
mentioned for congressional and guber- 
natorial honors. He held the offices of 
city clerk of Manchester and railroad 
commissioner. In the passing of Know 

Littleton centennial celebration, being 
then pastor of the Free IJaptist church 

From the Episcopal chancel here as 
second rector of All Saints church, the Rt. 
Rev. Anson R.Graves, D. I)., now bishop 
of the Diocese of the Platte, ministered 
to a small but earnest flock who have 
numbered among their pastors some of 
the most devoted men in orders, notably 
the Rev. Lucius Waterman, D. D., who 
has but now resigned his charge in 
order to carry his gospel to a mission 



field in the youngest of the cities of the 

The Catholics, Advents, and Uni- 
tarians are well established here, the 
latter having reorganized after an interim 


*&T' - ' 

Hon. Henry A. Bellows. 

of more than thirty years since the days 
when Henry A. Bellows was the chief 
supporter of their first efforts, and 
through the liberality of General Cruft 
of Bethlehem an attractive house of 
worship now gives a sense of permanency 
to their undertaking. 

Before passing from the subject of 
the local church and clergy, it should be 
noted that two men who have since 
become distinguished were immigrants, 
first locating in Littleton and after some 
years among her people passing to pro- 
fessional and public life. These were 
Rev. Daniel Wise, D. D., widely known 
as a writer, both in his own name and 
under the nom tie plume of Lawrence 
Lancewood, Esq., and Francis Forrester, 
Esq., and Rev. Hugh Montgomery, the 
most aggressive temperance advocate in 
the Methodist ministry. The former 
was once editor of Z ion's Herald and 
many other periodicals, and his books 
have had an aggregate sale of more 

than half a million copies. Mr. Mont- 
gomery while a Littleton farm laborer, 
as was the case with Dr. Wise when a 
Littleton school-master, pushed into the 
higher branches of academic study, and 
here both made their first attempts in 
ministerial work. Mr. Montgomery, in 
his autobiography, devotes an interesting 
chapter to reminiscences of his early 
experience in this town. If not sons 
these men may well be regarded as 
adopted sons of Littleton. 

The Rankins were a prominent and 
numerous family in the early history of 
the town, but no representative of the 
name remains on the old sod. They 
were Scotch Presbyterians, originally 
immigrating from Glasgow. The most 
distinguished living descendant of the 
pioneer is the Rev. Jeremiah E. Rankin, 
D. D., LL. D., president of Howard 
University in Washington. Though 
born in Thornton, he recognizes his 



Adams Moce, A. M., M D. 

sonship to Littleton in substantial ways 
and was the orator at her centennial. 

All these church and school forces 
did not spring up at once, as my narra- 
tive may imply. They came along in 
turn and kept company with other 



development. For example, the Meth- and made it possible to grow cucumbers 

odist church and the railroad secured in January upon the snow-clad hills of 

foothold here about simultaneously. Littleton at a profit. 
What the church has done for the town But one of its chief labors here was 

is not easy to measure.- Likewise it is with men, for it added a new profession 

dimcult to say what the railroad has 
wrought in the community. 

The iron horse had hard work to 

to men's opportunities, and among 
those who were led into railroading 
here are Horace E. Chamberlin, now 

'- . . . 






<1 . ■■:; 






Cathohc Cnurch and Parsonage. 


i J ' 

- - 

reach here. Litigation and liens marked 
almost every length of rail. But once 
here the wonder has been how ever the 
town existed without it. It completely 
revolutionized life in Littleton. It put an 
end to the dailv sta^e.-. lumbering through 
the town and with them the old stage 
tavern passed away also — to be suc- 
ceeded by handsome, modern summer 
resorts. It brought a market nearer, 

superintendent of a division of the Bos- 
ton & Maine railroad, who was an early 
station-agent at Littleton : and VV. R. 
Brackett, now high in otTice with the 
same corporation, who was a telegraph 
operator here when the railroad was 
young in this community. 

Colonel B. H. Corning, once super- 
intendent of the White Mountain r. til- 
road and later with the Boston, Con- 



Congregational Cnurch. 

With the advent of the railroad the 
Littleton of to-day came rapidly into 
view, though the simplification of indus- 
try which to-day presents itself was a 
matter of some years' growth. Littleton 
to-day is almost an industrial anomaly. 
It has but three genuine products — 
gloves, lumber, and stereoscopic views — 
and in these Ira Parker, Charles Eaton, 
and B. W. Kilburn are the leading 
spirits. With these three industries, 
and in such hands, Littleton need never 
worry. Integrity and sagacity, com- 
bined with a superiority of product 
which cannot be decried, have placed 
these industries in Littleton beyond 
fear of severe depression and collapse. 

These do not, of course, sum up the 
employment of the nearly four thousand 
people who live in Littleton. There are 
the usual small enterprises which abound 
in New England, a bobbin mill, a carriage 
shop, a soap factory, a saw-mill, and a 
set of mill-stones, and behind all these 

cord & Montreal, in a like capacity, 
had much to do with railroading in Lit- 
tleton and indeed in the whole north 
country. Since retiring from railroad 
life he has made his home here, and 
devotes his activities to the conduct of 
large business interests and the dis- 
charge of numerous trusts. 

In this connection it must be recalled 
that the late Sylvester Marsh, projector, 
inventor, and builder of the Mount 
Washington railroad, was residing in 
Littleton when his famous mechanism 
was perfected and the road was built. 

In the kindred work of telegraphy 
Littleton's most promising son is Fred 
O. Nourse, general traffic chief of the 
Western L'nion Telegraph Co., at New 
York, his first dallying with the subtle 
rluid having been in the local telegraph 
office at Littleton. 






• ■>■ 


Rev. Goo'ge A. Gj*»s, D. D. 

is the agricultural interest, which here 
attains huge dimensions. 

Littleton is a beautiful town. On its 
hillsides, rising from the business street, 
cluster the homes of its citizens, all of 


9 1 

them comfortable, many of them hand- 
some and luxurious. Towering above 
these stands the school-house, and 
beyond that three summer hotels of 
note, the Oak Hill House, the Chiswick 
- - 

Rt. Re*. Anson R. Graves, D. 0. 

Inn, and The Maples, open their hospi- 
table doors. On the heights, too, stands 
the Grand View. Another, the Mountain 
View, is lower down and on the street 
itself stands Thayer's, a model hostelry 
now in the second generation of a family 
of bonifaces, for " Dad '* has gone to his 
long home, which, if it is as good as that 
which he offered to the travelling public 
for forty years, is a "glad fruition.'' 

Two bvgone stage taverns also orna- 
ment the street, one of them, after a 
continuous life of usefulness as a hotel 
since 1827, now about to be given over 
as a tenement house, following the fate 
of the other, the Old Granite, which has 
long since been wedded to the idols of 
four room fiats, a mighty fall since the 
days when Harriet Martineau stopped 
there and was read a lesson in manners 
by the landlord's daughter who also 
waited upon the table. 

With its seven churches, its fine busi- 
ness blocks, its solid banks, the monu- 

ment to the labors and sagacity of sev- 
eral solid local financiers and the suc- 
cessors to Colonel 11. L. Tilton's private 
banking house, its public library, its 
new town building, its annual session of 
a United States court, its fine passenger 
station, its excellent water-supply, its 
electric lights, and its growing sewerage 
system, the Littleton of to-day takes a 
place in the front rank of New England 

And these are merely some of the 
physical evidences of the community's 
worth. The aesthetic evidences are 
equally imposing. Art and music have 
received special attention here. There 
is a local development worthy of note. 

Daniel J. Strain, who was born here, 
now stands at the head of portrait 
painters in Xew England, though his 
facile brush has brought him into promi- 
nence in other branches of art. and 
"the line" of more than one exhibition 
of the first rank has been adorned with 
his work, while on the walls of the 
Paris salon his canvases have made 


Fr< 1 Eapt st Cnurch. 

9 2 




\ f i i i 

! B 11 II 


I 111 


JT* Tr~ 


Methodist Church. 

frequent appearance, sometimes with 

Geo. A. Clark is a master in his line 
of commercial drawing, and is the reli- 
able artist of the Rand-Avery Company 
of Boston. He was born here in the 
sixties, and his career is before him. 

Mrs. Ellen B. Farr has made a success 
of painting in fruit and flowers, and has 
a s:ood market for her work. In amateur 
lines George H. Tilton, Stella B. Farr, 
Lillian Sanger. Mrs. Flora Hatch, and 
Mrs. Louise Aldrich have very good 
products of their own skill. 

Here Weisman of Fran con i a has his 
best customers, and Edward Hill's gems 
of mountain scenery are on the walls of 
many Littleton drawing rooms. From 
Littleton Richard Taft sent Johnson's 
"Old Man of the Mountain" as a gift 

-, to the state, and his widow has 
j here a valuable collection of paint- 
ings of mountain subjects which 
; the Tafts have gathered in later 
i years. 

The works of the masters of 
i modern painting are numerous in 
B. \Y. Kilburn's collection, and 
( many struggling painters have had 
his timely help to place them on 
vantage ground in their profes- 
& The historv of the Littleton 
3 Musical Association is unique. It 
| has existed a quarter of a century. 
| and has never failed to hold a 
| successful annual winter conven- 
I tion. It is strong financially and 
a permanent institution. Xo sim- 
ilar instance of musical persist- 
ence is on record in this state. 

Martha Dana Shepard has been 
the pianist of this convention for 
twenty-five consecutive years, and 
Carl Zerrahn is its patron saint. 
Another flourishing musical or- 
ganization is the Saranac Band, now 
under the direction of Mr. George H. 
Wilder, a composer and performer of 
high repute. 


Rev. J. E. Rar 

■D. D. LL. 0. 



Advent Church. 

In this connection one will notice the 
extensive system of parks which this 
town can cite, as physical and aesthetic 
evidences of its merit. With a lib- 
eral expenditure of town's money two 
parks have been inaugurated, 
one of them supplemented by 

them the Grand Army of the 
Republic taking a prominent 
place, by reason of the braver}' 

of Littleton soldiers, if for 
nothing else, among the de- 
fenders of their country from 
here being Major Kvarts W. 
Farr, the first volunteer from 
the town, who left an arm on 
the battlefield and who after- 
ward in the strifes of civil life- 
yielded up his existence 
through the exhaustion of a 
| campaign which had just tri- 
: umphantly re-elected him to 
congress. And Captain Will- 
iam Adams Moore, another of 
Littleton's boys in blue, belongs to the 
world by reason of his immortal gal- 
lantry on the bloody and impassable 
heights of Fredericksburg when the col- 
ors of his regiment were rescued only 

the lavish generosity of Mr. 
B. W. Kilburn who has made 
of "The Dells," an adjoining 
tract, one of the garden spots 
of the earth. To these will 
be added Riverside Park, the 
property of Colonel H. L. Til- 
ton, which is, however, open 
to the public free, and Par- 
ker Mountain where an ad- 
mission fee gives access to 
an observatory of wide range. 
Upon the slope of this moun- 
tain are Mr. Ira Parker's ex- 
tensive greenhouses, whence 
" Saranac cukes" go in mid- 
winter to the tables of metro- 
politan gourmets. 

Nor have I yet told the 
whole. To aid in enlivening 
existence here i^ a full quota 
of secret societies, amonz 


. ~..^— «»„. 





Uri - .j' jo Cnjrcn. 



after a rampart of fallen 
heroes had been tumbled at 
the foot of the staff. 

Through the town flows 
the Ammonoosuc, and its 
western boundary is the 
mighty Connecticut. 1 
watched the Ammonoosuc 
once as 1 stood on a Lit- 
tleton hillside, and I thought 
of its tiny source, its Strug- 
gles and dashes, its leaps 
and bounds, as it sped away J ' >- 
seaward. I saw its placid 
flow between its narrow 
banks as it entered the intervale along 
which Littleton lies. And to me they 
seemed alike, the town and the river, 
obscure at first, struggling over rough 


^X) ' 

Congregationalist Parsonage. 

roads to their goal ; but at the last 
peacefully, tranquilly moving on, full of 
power and life, a vital influence through 
the whole land. 



. 1 


* ~ 

The Dells 

By George Bancroft Griffith. 

Like sunshine-bound harvest sheaves, 
Joy is in every soul that breathes ; 
With others its reflecting ray 
Share, and with thee 't will longer stay. 


By Sarah M. Bailey 

In the northwestern part of Hills- 
borough stands a typical New England 
homestead, built of brick, a wide- 
spread, rambling home. Upon this 
farm, which lies at the foot of Stow's 
mountain, Cornelius Cooledge was born 
Oct. ir, 1828. His parents were Lem- 
uel and Lucy Keyes Cooledge. The 
family cradle had clone its duty by eight 
little ones before he came to occupy it 
and be lulled to sleep by the busy, hard- 
working mother. 

At that time there was no road lead- 
ing past the house, and it was no unusual 
sight to see this mother take an infant 
upon a horse and go through lane and 
pasture ''across lots "to the "Baird" 
road, letting down the bars as she went, 
thence to the neighbors or the store. 

As he was the last to enter this fam- 
ily of children, so he was the last to 
leave the old homestead, where he had 
spent nearly all the sixty-seven years of 
his life, and where he died, June 6, 
1894. He was buried beside his chil- 
dren upon the hilltop in the East Wash- 
ington cemetery, June 10. His brother 
Masons from Harmony lodge were in 
attendance, also many members of the 
Masonic fraternity from the adjoining 
towns. Over his grave they performed 
the rites of Masonic burial, so dear to 
his heart. 

He was widely known, and the day 
following his death a leading editor paid 
this tribute to his memory: "He has 
gone, a statesman, a patriot. An hon- 
est man has left us. His compeers and 
personal friends, whom he counted by 
scores and hundreds, will not forget his 

loving, noble example. He was a good 
man, and his memory will long be 
cherished by a host of friends all over 
our grand and good old state, which he 
loved so well, and which in return was 
proud to do him honor. He was lib- 
eral-minded, sympathetic, and generous 

r " ; ■ 







Hon. Cornelius Cooledge. 

to a fault, ready at all times to perform 
a friendly act. and with no desire to 
parade the circumstance. He seemed 
to enjoy doing right because it was 
risrht. During his career he was en- 
trusted with large business and financial 
interests, and the breath of suspicion 
never rested upon any of his private or 
public acts. 

" He was of commanding appearance. 
a robust person, of almost giant propor- 
tions. In him were happily combined 
strict integrity, great executive ability, 
sound judgment, and a cheerful dispcsi 
tion. In every sense of the word he 



was an honest, large-hearted, affable 
man, who made friends wherever he 

While Mr. Cooledge possessed a 
strong will, his heart was tender and 
his affections strong and deep, lasting 
through the storms and sunshine that 
come to us all in this life. The hearty. 
cordial grasp of his big hand has spoken 
louder than words could have done of 
sympathy and helpfulness to many a 
sorrow-laden heart. Xo one appealed 
to his heart or his purse in vain ; so 
long as any one needed his assistance, 
he gave it unsparingly. 

When a mere child the present 
homestead was built by his father (the 
old home stood just across the road), 
and in the living room a huge fireplace 
was built. Its deep, clean sides and 
roomy proportions suggested " play- 
house " to the childish mind of Corne- 
lius, and while the carpenters were busy 
in another room he gathered about him 
bits of board, brick, long, curling, shin- 
ing shavings, and retiring into this cav- 
ernous retreat was enjoying his new 
play-house with a true pleasure, almost 
unknown to children of the present day, 
when the harsh tones of the head car- 
penter bade him " Get out of that and 
go home," while the rough hands tore 
down his cob house of sticks, pulled 
his silvery shavings from their fastenings. 
and scattered his kingdom, where he 
was reigning so peacefully, broadcast. 
"I can never tell," said he, " how those 
words and actions cut me to the heart. 
I pity myself when I think how my 
child heart ached, and how sorrowfully I 
obeyed his command and went across 
the road to tell mother. They were the 
first harsh words I remember, and I 
never forgot them through all these 
sixty years. I think the remembrance 
of that uncalled-for harshness has 

served to make me more considerate of 
a child's feelings all my life." 

Through the early years of his life he 
stayed upon the farm, attending district 
school in winter and assisting about the 
farm work in summer and fall. The 
same routine that blesses many a lad's 
life, — they think it dull and unimpor- 
tant, yet it often forms the fust rounds 
of the ladder upon which in later years 
they mount to heights such as in child- 
hood they never dreamed existed. 

Give a child the freedom of the hill- 
side pasture, the garden, the meadow, 
and the barn; teach them kindness to 
all things ; teach them that God is seen 
in every blossoming ilower and tiny 
grass blade, that they can come close 
to the giver of all good, living close to 
nature, and you have given them a bet- 
ter foundation for a noble life than any 
city or village streets afford. Ask our 
business men throughout the country if 
their life is not the richer for these 
childhood memories. 

When sixteen years old Mr. Cooledge 
went into business in Boston, thence to 
Clinton, Mass., in a store, where he re- 
mained until 1S49. He had now- 
reached his twenty-first birthday, and 
being as the term goes, a free man, be- 
gan to think upon the future and to 
map out his work. It was in this year 
that the excitement over the discovery 
of gold mines in California was creating 
such a fever in the minds of young and 
old throughout the country. Young men 
full of ambition and eager for fame or 
wealth felt that the surest way to these 
lay across the continent. 

The fever swept like wildfire through 
the Eastern states, attacking young 
men with a fervor that was irresistible ; 
they closed their eyes and ears to the 
attractions and affections of home sur- 
roundings, buckled cm their armor, and 



were off for that far away, almost un- wards opened a trading post at Mur- 

known land. California was a great way derer's liar, on the North fork of the 
otT in 1S49, at least it must have seemed American river. For six years he con- 
so before transportation across the con- tinued his labors as an earnest, patient 
tinent was made as easy as now. miner, a prudent, thrifty business man, 
Mr. Cooledge sailed from Loston Jan. and gained not only a fine property but 
1 1 th, in the good barque Oxford, going much valuable information from his 
by the way of Cape Horn ; he arrived varied experiences. In company with 


; - 

:t&&u '**?■•. -^ - - 

..... ...... 

Tne Coo-edge H.onrestead. 

in San Francisco August 21 of that 
memorable year, after a protracted voy- 
age of 222 days from port to port. On 
the voyage he made friends with others 
outward, goldward bound like himself. 
Some of these friendships lasted through 
life, and within the last few years they 
have partaken of each others' hospital- 
ity, never wearying of relating those 
early days of hardship and exposure. 
The first nugget of gold Mother Farth 
gave into his eager hands was dug at 
Mormon island, and is still treasured 
to-day by one who loves him. 

In the fall of his first year in that 
wild country Mr. Cooledge began busi- 
ness in Sacramento, and shortly after- 

others he undertook the immense task 
of turning the course of a branch of the 
river at Murderer's Bar, for the purpose 
of mining in the bed of the river. 
Money was needed, and so confident 
were these men of the success of their 
undertaking and so sanguine of the re- 
suits that a good share of their hard 
earned money found its way into the 

The work was successfully accom- 
plished, the river bed was ready for the 
miner's spade that was to bring to the 
light of day the treasures supposed to 
be hidden beneath the river bed. and to 
these young men a greater wealth. 
When lo ! a great freshet carried away 

9 8 


the dam, taking their hopes, their hard 
earnings, and their brilliant expectations 
in a torrent of rushing waters away to 
the ocean. The work of months, the 
earnings of years,, alike were swept 
away. Nothing daunted these brave 
young men grasped their spades and 
began again, Mr. Cooledge with the 
rest, and in time he returned to New 
England not the rich man he once had 
been, but with purses of gold that 
spoke well for his energy. He came at 
once to his native state, where he has 
since resided. 

When the association known as the 
"California Pioneers of New England" 
was formed Mr. Cooledge joined it. and 
as the years went by he became more 
and more constant at their annual fes- 
tival, feeling that the members were 
each year growing less. 

At the foot of Lovell's mountain, in 
East Washington, nestled a cottage 
home, beneath a wide-spread elm ; beside 
it, singing and dancing over rocks and 
through mosses, ran, aye, and still runs, 
singing the same old song, a noisy, 
gleesome brook. In this cottage, and 
beside this babbling brook, beneath the 
shadow of this mountain, Sarah X. 
Jones was born. W T ith her brother and 
sisters she played beside this rushing 
stream through infancy, childhood, and 
youth, until its musical voice seemed a 
part of their being. When the time 
came for leaving the home nest, which 
had sheltered them so happily, all ex- 
cept Sarah went west, to return on 
occasional visits to be welcomed by the 
old music (the thought of which had 
caused some homesick hours), and to 
rest again upon the broad, flat stones 
and play in the water, as in days gone 
by. They told their children stories of 
this wonderful brook, until they, too, 
loved its merry music. 

The old home has passed into other 
hands : the family are scattered : yet 
the brook seems saying, — 

44 For men may come and men may go, 
But I go on for ever." 

In July, 1855, Mr. Cooledge claimed 
Sarah X. Jones as his bride. They 
began life together under the same roof 
where he died. Thus their book of life 
was opened, and upon its pages have 
been traced much of joy and much of 
pain. Two sons and a daughter came 
to bless their home, and grew to man- 
hood and womanhood. Bright fires 
have burned in the brick fireplace in 
the living room, with a generous "back 
log ' ? and a " forestick " that has warmed 
many a benumbed hand. Many chil- 
dren have played about its warmth, or 
in the sunshine resting upon the broad 
door-stone. The great, strong arm of 
'•Uncle Neelus " has carried many a 
child, and upon his broad breast they 
have rested in safety. His own chil- 
dren were joined by the nieces and 
nephews in their love for him. As 
youth and maiden they found the same 
kind welcome. As the years rolled by 
which took them into active life as men 
and women, they never ceased to love 
the home among the mountains, and 
were always sure of a warm spot in his 
heart and at his hospitable board. The 
eldest son went west, into business; the 
daughter married, and found a home in 
Colorado: the youngest son, Paul J. 
Cooledge, who was known to many who 
read this sketch, formed business re- 
lations in Poston, that he might be near 
his parents in their old age. In 18S5 
the eldest son died, and in just five 
years to a day the youngest son was laid 
beside his brother, in the narrow home 
in the hillside cemetery. Between them 
lay their sister, brought back from her 
Colorado home to rest in her native 



gate. Heavy indeed fell the blow upon 
(be white-haired parents. 

Cornelius Cooledge was a staunch 
Democrat, having the courage of his 
convictions, and never seeking shelter 
when the contest grew fierce. He was 
ever found in the front ranks of his 
party, doing good work. To him a 
bribe would have been an insult: his 
political principles were founded upon 
a rock, and no wind, from whichever 
quarter it blew, could shake him. The 
people of his state and town knew and 
appreciated his worth, his executive 
ability, and sound judgment. This 
was proved by the positions of trust 
which he was called by them to hold. 
He was elected moderator of town 
meeting for seventeen years. He rep- 
resented his town in the legislature in 
1864 -'65 : was a member of the state 
senate, iS82- , S_i; delegate to the con- 
stitutional convention in 1S76. For 
eleven years he was found a faithful 
selectman, and it was not until the 
political sentiment of the town changed 
that he missed reelection. To him fell 
the task of settling many estates, and 
his advice was constantlv being sought 
in legal matters. 

He owned a large farm under a good 
state of cultivation ; progressive, he 
was ever ready to try new methods of 

farming, and made the needs of the 
land for the various crops a careful 
study. Out upon the hill pastures he 
herded large quantities of young cattle, 
which, when sold, yielded him a good 
income. The products of his sugar or- 
chard have been tested a thousand miles 
from the maple grove on the hillside. 

I11 this progressive age, when men of 
note and men who never attain promi- 
nence are crowding forward toward 
their highest aim in life, either in busi- 
ness, political positions, literary fame, 
or pleasure, it is very remarkable how 
this quiet, unpretending man, without 
any effort upon his part, became 
known throughout his native state as a 
large-hearted, clear-headed man of busi- 
ness, a statesman of no little note in the 
state of his birth. 

That he held no position of trust in 
higher places, that he was not found in 
broader fields, was in no way due to 
lack of ability, but that his quiet life 
upon the farm had more attraction than 
the crowded, hurrying world : for him 
the heart of the woods held more treas- 
ures than the heart of the city. The 
mountains all about him were his 
friends, and his broad chest inhaled 
their pure air with all the pride of a 
nobleman. Truly he has been called 
one of nature's noblemen. 


By Ida G. Adams. 

Life lies behind. 
The portals of the unseen country stand ajar ; 
We wait the summons, which is sure to come. 
With keenest sense of what we really are. 

The battle 's o'er. 
With waning strength we lay our weapons down : 
Our scars are many, and our wounds are sore, 
Vet have we failed to gain the victor's crown. 

2 00 


We " might have been — " 
Ah, what we might have been, God only knows ! 
We might have been the heroes we are not, 
We might have conquered all our earthly foes. 

Our fate is sealed. 
As we are now so pass we surely on ; 
The tide of time for us is at its ebb, 

Our chances both for good and ill are gone. 

Our book is closed. 
Its pages written o'er are hid from sight ; — 
Too late for changes or erasures now, 

Too late one last redeeming line to write ! 

This is the end. 
We say " Good-bye, To-day," and greet the morrow 
With hope, that, spite of failure and of sin, 
Joy may be ours at last as well as sorrow. 



By Jonas Lie. 

[Translated from the Norwegian by Hon. Samuel C. Eastman.] 


The captain had had a genuine drive 
in the service ever since summer, when 
he and the lieutenant visited the store- 
house for the tents, at the same time 
with the arsenal and the guns in the 
levying districts. Then the military ex- 
ercises, and finally now the meeting 
of the commissioners of conscription. 
There had been tolerable lively goings- 
on at the inn in the principal parish the 
last V.' ; or tii'-. venings with the army 
doctor, the solicitor Sebelow, tall Bueh- 
the sheriff's officer, and the 

:sult was splendid in so far 
as j$iat, instead of the bay horse, he was 

now driving home with a fine three- or 
four-years-old in the cariole, with a 
white star on the forehead and white 
stockings that almost promised to be a 
match for Svarten if — if — it was not a 

It had just now, when the old beggar- 
woman rose up from the ditch by the 
wayside, shown something in the eyes 
and ears which it certainly had con- 
cealed during all the three days of the 
session. He had at last even shot over 
its head to test him, without so much as 
the horse giving a start. 

It would be too mean, after the doc- 
tor and First Lieutenant Dunsack had 


n unanimously of I ■ ■ ipinion Ocverstad 

is he about the beast, and he, besides, here? Hieii j tine." 

id given the I >rse-dealer twenty-five Tl an ill-concealed ami 

dollars to boot. ment on the countei 

But now he trotted off with the cari- standing about. They guessed 

e very steadily and finely. The little the captain was at. It was the m . 

inclination to break into a canter was was speaking to. 

only unmannerliness and a little 1 of colt- "There is not any cow for sale th 

ish bad habits which stuck to him still, going to calve in the fall, I supp >se ': ' 

and would disappear by driving. There might be, they thought. 

Great-Ola lias not had a steadier "Hold my horse a little while, I 

horse in the stall by the side of Svarten, vor, while 1 go and talk a little with the 

nevertheless — bailiff about it." 

"You shall be an old horse in my barn ; There was a crowd of people in the 

do yon understand, you young Svarten? house, and the captain was greeted by 

shall go to the city in pairs with your one knot after another of noisy talking 

uncle— in the city carriage for Inger folk, men and women, lads and gi 

"There now, you beast— of a — dog among whom the brandy bottle was dili- 

[swip — swish — swip— swish], I shall gently circulating, until he got into the 

teach you to drop your bad habits, I room where the sale was going on. 

shall. There sat Bardon in the crowded, 

"Whoa!" he thundered. "There! steaming room, calling over and over 

there ! " again, with his well known, strong. 

There was a whole train of gav fel- husky voice, threatening with the ham- 

lows who were standing, talking, shout- mer, .giving utterance to a joke, finally 

ing, and drinking in the road outside threatening for the last, last time, until 

of the gate to the Bergset farm. with the law's blows he nailed the bid 

At the sight of the captain's well- firmly forever down on the top of the 

known form they made way for him, table. They made way for the captain 

greeting him politely. 'I lie)- knew that as he came. 

he had been far away, and the men, who "Are you also so crazy to allow your 

had gone to the mustering, had just re- wife to go to the auction, Martin 

turned to the farms round about, yester- Kvale?" he said, joking to an impor- 

day and today. taut fellow with silver buttons on his 

"True- isn't it, Ilalvor Hejen ? a coat, as he passed by. 

lively colt — still, rather young.'' Out on the gallery stood the hand- 

" Maybe, captain. Fine, if he isn't some Guro Granlien with a crowd of 

skittish," replied the one spoken to. other young girls. 

" What is going on here — auction by "Oh, Guro!" he said, chucking her 

Ole Bergset ? " under the chin, " that Bersvend Vaage 

"Yes; that Bardon, the bailiff, is has come home from the drill. He was 

busy with the hammer in the room in in a brown study and wholly lost his 

there." wits, the fellow, and so ! \>.\<\ to put 

"So, so, Solfest Staale!" he said, him in the dungeon: you are tool 

winking to a young man, "do you be- on him, Guro." lie nodded to the 

lieve there is anything in that Laes snickering girls. 


Guro looked with groat, staring eyes 
at the captain. How could he know 

The captain knew the district in and 
out, forwards and backwards, as he 
expressed it. He had an inconceivably 
keen scent for contemplated farm trades, 
weddings, betrothals, and anything of 
that kind that concerns young people. 
Guro Granlien was not the first girl who 
opened her eyes wide on that account. 
He got a great deal out of his live 
subalterns, but by no means the least 
was to be found in his own always alert 
interest in these things. 

And when, to-day, he made the little 
turn-up to the place of the auction, the 
reason was far less the " autumn cow," 
than his lively curiosity for the new 
things that might have happened during 
his long absence. 

Therefore it was not at all unwelcome 
to him when the widow came out and 
invited him into the " other room," 
where he must at least have a drop of 
ale before he left the farm. 

He was curious to get her on the con- 
fessional as to the possibility of a new 
marriage, and also had the satisfaction, 
after a half hour's confidential chat, of 
having won from her confidence the 
whole of the real and true condition of 
her thoughts about herself and the 

No one cheated him any longer about 
that affair, — the widow of J'ergset was 
to retain undivided possession of the 
estate of the deceased and — not marry. 
But she was anxious not to let it come 
out; she wanted to be courted, of 
course, — as a good match in the dis- 
trict, naturally. 

The captain understood it very well : 
it was sly. 

Something must also be said about 
something else at last, and so Randi, in 

the spirit of what had been 
added, — 

"And the sheriff, who is going to 
marry again." 


''They say he is a constant visitor at 
the house of Scharfenberg, the solicitor. 
Very likely it is the youngest daughter, 
eh ? " 

" Do n't know. Good by, Randi." 

He went quickly, so that his spur.-, 
rattled, and his sable flapped under his 
coat, down to his horse without looking 
to the right or left or speaking to any 
one. He pressed his shako more firmly 
down on his forehead before he got into 
the cariole. 

"Thanks, Halver. Give me the reins. 
There your " 

He gave the young Svarten, thai 
began with some capers, a taste of the 
whip, and off he went with tight rein; 
at full trot, so that the fence posts flew 
like drum sticks past his eyes. 

In the quiet, hazy autumn day the 
cattle here and there were out on the 

A pig provoked him by obstinately 
running before the cariole. 

11 There, take care to get your stump; 
out of the way !" 

It ended with a little cut on it; 

" See there ! there is a beast of a cow 
lying in the middle of the road," he 
broke out with his lips firmly pressee 

"Well, if you won't get up, then yoi 
are welcome to stay ! If you please— 
I am stupid also, drive on." 

The bitterness took full possession o 
him, and he would have firmly allowec 
the wheel to go over the animal's back 
if the latter had not risen tip quickly a: 
the last moment, so near that the cap 
tain's cariole was half raised up, whih 



ir grazed and was within an ace of 
being upset. 

••H"m, h'm," he mumbled, somewhat 
brought to his senses as he looked 
ick upon the object of his missed re- 

" So, so — off, I say. you black 
knacker — if you once peep back again 
s n that way I will kill you ! Ha, ho, ha ! 
If you run, you will still find a hill, my 
good friend." 

lie had had a tremendous headache 
.ill day; but it was not that which an- 
noyed him — that he knew. 

And when he came home, where they 
were expecting father to-day in great 
suspense after his long absence, he was 
black in the face. 

'•There, Ola! curry the horse— dry 
him with a wisp of straw tirst — take 
good care of him — put a blanket on his 
back ; do you hear ? I only drove the 
fellow a little towards the hill." 

Great-Ola looked at the captain and 
nod Jed his head confidently as he led 
the horse and carriage away from the 
stairs ; there was surely something ; the 
captain had got cheated again with this 
new nag. 

" Good day, Ma — good day ! " and he 
kissed her hastily. " Yes, I am quite 

He took off his cloak and shako. 
"Oh, can't you let Marit take the trunk 
and the travelling bag so that they 
need n't stand there on the steps any 
longer ? " 

"Oh, yes; it has been tiresome 
enough," as he evaded rather coldly 
Thinka's attentions. " Put the sabre 
on the peg, and carry the bag up to my 

He himself went first up to the office 
to look at the mail, and then down to 
the stable to see how Great-Ola had 
treated Svarten. 

There was something the matter with 
father ; that was clear ! 

Ma's face, anxiously disturbed, fol- 
lowed him here and there in the door- 
ways, and Thinka glided in and out 
without breaking the silence. 

When he came in the supper table 
was spread — herring salad, decorated 
with red beets and slices of hard boiled 
eggs, and a glass of brandy by the side 
of it — and then half salted sour trout 
and a good bottle of beer. 

Father was possibly not quite insen- 
sible, but extremely reticent. You could 
absolutely get only words of one sylla- 
ble in answer to the most ingeniously 
conceived questions ! 

' ; The sheriff is going to marry again, 
they say ; it is absolutely certain ! " he 
let fall at last, as the first agreeable 
news he knew from the outer world ; 
" Scharfenberg's youngest." 

The remark was followed by deep 
silence even if a gleam of perfect con- 
tentment glided over Thinka's face and 
she busied herself with eating. They 
both felt that his ill humor came from 

"That man can say that he is lucky 
with his daughters, — Bine just in a par- 
sonage, and now Andrea the sheriff's 
wife ! Perhaps you can get a position 
there, Thinka, when you need it some 
day, as governess for the children, or 
housekeeper ; she won't be obliged to 
do more in the house than just what 
she pleases, she can afford it." 

Thinka, blushing to the roots of her 
hair, kept her eyes on her plate. 

"Yes, yes, Ma, as you make your bed 
you must lie in it in this world." 

No more was said before Thinka 
cleared off the table, when ma apolo- 
getically exclaimed, — 

" Poor Thinka !" 

The captain turned towards her on 



the floor with his fingers in the ami- 
holes of his vest and blinked indig- 
nantly at her. 

"Do you know! After the parasol 
and the one attention after the other 
which he has taken the pains to show 
all summer, if she could have shown 
the man a bit of thanks and friendli- 
ness other than she has — it would not 
have gone so at all, if I had been at 
home I" — it began to get something- 
near a peal of thunder- — " But I think 
it is a flock of geese that I have here 
in the house, and not grown-up women 
who look out a little for themselves. 
Andrea Scharfenberg did n't let her- 
self be asked twice, not she !" he said ? 
walking out again when Thinka came 
in ; he did not care if she did hear it. 

Ma gazed somewhat thought- 

fully at him, while in the days which 
followed they petted and coddled him 
in every way, to make father a little 
brighter. And Thinka in the midst of 
her quiet carefulness cast her eyes 
down voluntarily, when he groaned and 
panted in this way. 

He did not go out any farther than 
to look after the young Svarten. 

This horse had fever in one hoof 
to-day after the new shoeing. It was 
a nail which had been driven in too 
far by that blockhead of a smith. It 
must come out. 

The captain stood silently looking on 
in his favorite position, with his arms 
on the lower half of the stable door, 
while Great-Ola, with the hind leg of 
the young Svarten over his leg was 
performing the operation of extraction 
with the smith tongs. The animal was 
good natured and did not so much as 
move his leg. 

"O-o-ola" came hoarsely, half 

Great-Ola looked up. 

" Good Lord !" if the captain did • 
sink slowly down, while he still he) 
the stable door, right on the dung ! 

Ola looked a moment irresoluteh 
his master, dropping the horse's ;", , • 
Then he took the stable pail and - 
tered some water into his face until 
once more manifested a little life . 

lie then held the pail to his mouth. 

"Drink, drink, captain! Don't bt 
afraid. It is only the result of all th.r. 
drilling and pleasuring. It is just as ;•. 
is when one has kept up a wedding fes- 
tivity too long— my brother !" 

" Help me out, Ola ! There, let me 
lean on you gently, gently. Ah, it does 
one good to breathe — breathe " as he 

" Xow it 's over, I believe. V'es, 
entirely over, nothing more than a half 
fainting spell. 

"Just go with me a little bit, Ola, as 
a matter of precaution. 

"H'm, h'm, that goes well enough. 
Yes, yes, I have no doubt it is the 
irregular-like life the whole of the 

" Go and call my wife. Say I am 
up in the chamber. I can manage the 
stairs bravely." 

There was no little fright. 

This time it was the captain who was 
at ease and turned it off, and ma who 
without authority sent a messenger otT. 
If the army surgeon was not at home, 
then he must go to the district doctor. 

When the army surgeon, Rist, came. 
and had received at the door ma- 
anxious explanations that Jaeger had a 
slight shock, for the calming of the 
house he delivered a humorous lecture. 

It was wholly a question of deg 
The man who drank only so much th i* 
he stammered, suffered from paralytic 
palsy of the tongue — and in this wa} 


every blessed man that he knew was a 

paralytic patient. This was only a 
congestion not uncommon among full 
blooded people. 

Jaeger himself was in fact so far 
over it that he demanded the toddy 
tray in the evening — true enough, only 
an extremely light dose for his part ! 
But cock and bull stories from the 
encampment and about Svarten in the 
clouds of smoke, and with constant 
renewals of the thin essence till half 
past one in the morning. 

— There was a roaring in the 

stove on one of the following forenoons, 
while the captain sat in his office chair, 
and wrote so that his quill pen sputtered. 

As usual at this time of the year, 
after his long absence, there was a 
great multitude of things to be disposed 
of. Thea's Norwegian grammar was 
lying on the green table by the door; 
she had just finished reading, and 
was heard humming outside on the 

There was a noise on the stairs, and 
ma showing some one the way up "that 
way — to the captain." 

There was a knocking at the door. 

" Good day, my man ! Well ? " 

It was an express from the sheriff — 
in Sunday dress — with a letter. It was 
to be given to the captain himself. 

"What? Is there to be an answer? 
Well, well ? Yes, go down to the 
kitchen and get a little something to 
eat and a dram." 

" H'm, h'm," he mumbled and threw 
the letter written on letter paper and 
fastened with a seal down on his desk, 
while in the mean time, he took a turn 
up and down the floor. " Notice of the 
betrothal I suppose, — or, perhaps, an 
invitation to the wedding." 

Opening it he read it standing up — 
eagerly running it over hastily — a cursed 

long introduction ! — over that-over 
that -quite to the third page. 
"Well, there it conies! " 
He struck the back of his hand in 
which he held the letter with a resound- 
ing shout into the other, and then seated 
himself — 

"Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes? " 
He snapped his fingers, once, twice, 
three times, in a brown study, scratched 
his head behind his ear and then slyly 
up under his wig. 

"No, we shall see, — we shall see! " 
"And that nonsense about Scharfen- 


He rushed to the door and 

jerked it open ; but bethought himself 
and walked on tiptoe to the stairs. 

"Who is there in the hall — you, 
Thea ? " 

The little square-built, brown-eyed 
Thea flew up the stairs. 

"Tell ma to come up," he said nod- 

Thea looked up at her father: there 
was something out of the ordinary 
course about him. 

When ma came in he walked about 
with the letter behind his back, clearing 
his throat. There was the suitable 
predominant seriousness about him 
which the situation demanded. 

" I have got a letter, Ma, — from the 
sheriff! — Read! — or shall I read? " 

He stood leaning against the desk, 
and went through its three pages, 
period by period, with great moderation, 
till he came to the point, then he hurled 
it out so that it buzzed in the air, and 
hu^ired ma wildly. 

" Well, well ! — what do you say, ma ? 
Take a trip when we want to go down 
to our son-in-law ! " 

He rubbed his hands. 

'•It was a real surprise, ma, — h'm, 
h'm," he began, again clearing his 
throat. " It is best that we ask Thinka 



to come up and tell her the contents — 
do n't you think ? " 

" V-es," said ma huskily, having 
turned to the door ; she could see no 
help or escape for her any more, 
poor girl ! 

The captain walked up and down in 
the office waiting. He had the high- 
spirited, dignified, paternal expression 
which is completely absorbed in the 
importance of the moment. 

But where was she gone to? 

She could not be found. They had 
hunted for her over the whole house. 

But the captain was not passionate 

"Well, then, don't you see her?" 
he mildly asked two or three times out 
of the door. 

At last Thea found her up in the 
garret. She had taken refuge up there 
and hid herself, when she saw the 
express and heard that it was from the 
sheriff, in anticipation of the contents. 
And now she was sitting with her head 
on her arms and her apron over her 

'She had not been crying; she had 
been seized with a sort of panic: she 
felt an irresistible impulse to hide her- 
self away somewhere and shut her eyes, 
so that it would be really dark and she 
would not be obliged to think. 

She looked a little foolish when she 
went down with Thea to her father and 
mother in the office. 

"Thinka," said the captain, when she 
came in, " we have received an impor- 
tant letter for your future to-day from 
the sheriff. I suppose it is superfluous 
to say — after all the attention you have 
allowed him to show you during the 
year — what it is about, and that your 
mother and I regard it as the greatest 
good fortune that could fall to your lot, 
and to ours also. 

" Read the letter and consider it 


"Sit down and read it child." 

Thinka read ; but it did not seem 
as if she got far; her head shook 
dumbly the whole time without her 
knowing it. 

" Ybu understand very well, it is not 
for any youthful love, fancy, and any 
such exalted nonsense that he asks of 
you. It is, if you fill an honored posi- 
tion with him that you are asked, and 
if you give the good will and care for 
him, which he could naturally expect 
of a wife." 

There was no answer to be got, 
except a weak groan down into her 

The captain's face began to grow 

But ma whispered with a blaze of 
lightning in her eyes, " You see plainly. 
she cannot think. Jaeger." 

" Do n't you think as I do, father," 
she said aloud: "that it is best we let 
Thinka take the letter so that she can 
consider it till to-morrow ? it is such a 

" Of course, if Thinka prefers it," came 
from the captain, who was greatly of- 
fended, after them, as ma went with 
her, shutting her up in her chamber. 

She had her cry out under the 

down-quilt during the whole afternoon. 

In the twilight ma went up and sat 
down beside her. 

" No place to turn to, you see. when 
one will not be a poor, unprovided-for 
member of a family. Sew, sew your 
eyes out of your head, till at last one 
lies in a corner of some one's house. 
Such an honorable proposal would seem 
to many people to be a great thing.'' 

"Alas ! Alas, mother ! " articulated 
Thinka very weakly. 

"God knows, child, that if 1 saw any 



other way out I should show it to you, 
even if 1 should have to hold my fingers 
in the fire in order to do it."' 

Thinka slipped her hand on to her 
mother's thin hand and sobbed gently 
into her pillow. 

"Your father is no longer very strong 
— does not bear many mental excite- 
ments, — so that the outlook is dark 
enough. The attack when he came 
home last." 

When ma went out, sigh followed 
sigh in the darkness. 

Late in the evening ma sat and held 
her daughter's head so that she could 
get some sleep, she kept so continually 
waking up. 

And now when Thinka finally slept, 
without these sudden starts any longer, — 
quietly and peacefully, with light, young 
head regularly breathing on the pillow, — 
ma went out with the candle. The 
worst was over. 

If the captain was in an exalted 

mood after having seen from the office 
window Aslak, who went an express 
messenger to the sheriff, vanishing 
through the gate, then in certain ways 
he was doubly set up in the kingdom 
of hope by a little fragment of a letter 
from Inger-Johanna, dated Tilderoed : 

We are full of business, packing up and 
moving to the city, therefore the letter will 
be short this time. 

There have been guests here to the very 
last, solitude suits neither uncle nor aunt, and 
so they had said " welcome to Tilderoed*' so 
long that we had one long visit after another 
all through the summer — in perfect rusticity, 
it was said. But I believe indeed they did 
not go away again without feeling that aunt 
preserves style in it. With perfect freedom 
for every one especially, and collations both 

in the garden house and on the veranda, 
there is, after all. greater opportunity to show 
what little wit they have, which- made the 
guests give something and be at their best. 
People don't easily sink down to the level 
ot everv-day life where aunt is concerned ; 
she flatters me that we are alike in that 

And I don't know how it is, I feel now 
that I am almost as much attracted by soci- 
ety as formerly by balls. There is even an 
entirely different use for the bit of reason 
one may have, and may be a complete influ- 
ential circle of usefulness : aunt has opened 
my eyes to that this summer. When we 
read of these brilliant French salons, where 
the woman was the soul, we get an impres- 
sion that here is an entire province for her. 
And to be able to live and work in the world 
has possessed me, since I was little and 
mourned so that I was not a boy who could 
come to be something. 

I had got so far, dear parents, when 
Miss Jourgensen came for me to go down 
into the garden to aunt. The mail had 
come from the office in the city, and on the 
table in a package lay a flat, red morocco 
leather box and a letter to me. 

It was a gold band to wear in my hair, 
with a yellow topaz in it, and in the letter 
there was only, " To complete the portrait, 

Of course aunt must try it on me at 
once — take down my hair, and call in uncle. 
Roennow's taste was wonderfully ingenious 
when it concerned me. she declared. 

Oh, yes ! it is becoming. 

But with the letter and all the fantasti- 
cal over-valuation, there is that which makes 
me feel that the gold band pinches my neck. 
Gratitude is a tiresome virtue. 

Aunt lays so many plans for our society 
life next winter, and is rejoicing that Roen- 
now may possibly come for another trip. 

For my part I must say I do n't really 
know : I both want it and don't want it. 



By Col. y. U r . Robinson. 

The first electric telegraph line insti- 
tuted in this or any country was con- 
structed by Samuel F. B. Morse and 
Alfred Vail, between Washington and 
Baltimore, in 1S44, although Morse 
had, as many as twelve years before 
that time, conceived the idea of trans- 
mitting intelligence over a metallic con- 
ductor by electricity. In 1S35, Mr. 
Morse was appointed to the professor- 
ship of the literature of the arts and 
design in the Xew York City university, 
where from time to time he continued 
to experiment with electrical apparatus. 
Early in the year 1S37, in the privacy 
of his apartments in the university. Prof. 
Morse constructed a rude, but neverthe- 
less operative experimental model, ex- 
emplifying the principle of the record- 
ing telegraph, and took his colleague, 
Prof. Leonard D. Gale, a man of fine 
talents, into his confidence. Morse 
himself possessed but moderate me- 
chanical skill, while his very limited 
means prevented him from employing 
trained workmen to put his inventions 
into more permanent shape. 

In September of that year Alfred 
Vail, a talented young man, who had 
graduated from the university a year 
previous, saw the apparatus for the first 
time, and notwithstanding the crude 
and imperfect character of the machin- 
ery in which the invention was em- 
bodied, the results were such as conclu- 
sively to demonstrate to him the possi- 
bility of recording signals at a consid- 
erable distance by the instantaneous 
action of electricity. The exhibitions 
produced a profound impression upon 

the mind of young Vail. By the finan 
cial assistance of his father, Judge 
Stephen Vail, proprietor of the exten- 
sive Speedwell Iron Works at Morris- 
town, N. J., Alfred was enabled to enter 
into co-partnership with Morse to per- 
fect the latter's invention. He was to 
receive one fourth of the income result- 
ing from the scheme, and he at once 
went to work to perfect the appliances 
by his superior mechanical skill. It 
seems providential that Judge Vail's 
interest was enlisted in the enterprise, 
as it was at his works that the shaft of 
the Savannah, the first steamship which 
crossed the Atlantic ocean, was forged. 
and here were manufactured the tiers, 
axles, and cranks of the first American 

Y'oung Vail fitted up a shop, employ- 
ing a skilful young mechanic and in- 
ventor by the name of William Baxter, 
the designer of the Baxter engine, to 
assist him, and went bravely to work to 
improve and construct various appli- 
ances appertaining to the coming won- 
der of the world. The mechanical diffi- 
culties of the undertaking can scarcely 
be comprehended by an electrician of 
the present day, who finds every con- 
ceivable material and appliance in the 
market ready to his hand. Insulated 
wire was then unknown in the market, 
the best substitute obtainable being 
milliners' wire, such as was used to give 
outline to the skyscraper bonnets of the 
day. It was a copper wire that it might 
be made to take and retain any form 
that the deft ringers of the artist ci<.»e 
to give it, and was found to serve suffi- 



nently well as a conductor, although 
the insulation of the cotton covering 
was somewhat imperfect ; however, it 
was the best obtainable, and the entire 
New York market was drained for the 
experiments. Professor Gale, as well 
as Prof. Joseph Henry, aided the enter- 
prise very much by their experiments and 
discoveries. Professor Henry, as long 



?«£l -i I 





X*>*P* r 

', . 







■ ■ 


Samijei F. B. Morse. 

ago as 1832, while connected with the 
Albany academy, actually constructed 
and operated an electro-magnetic sig- 
nalling apparatus which was as truly 
an electric telegraph as that of to-day. 
Alfred Vail and his assistant, William 
Baxter, continued to work on month 
after month and year after year, much 
of the time under very discouraging 
circumstances, until the final triumphal 
completion of the undertaking, and the 
first line was built fifty years ago this 

Professor Morse all the while was 

devoting his best energies toward final 
and complete success by enlisting the 
support of financiers, members of con- 
gress, and other leading men in this 
country and in Europe. It will be 
remembered that the period was one of 
great financial depression and distress. 
Morse's plan of operating the instru- 
ments was what was known as the 
''numerical/' and not the alphabetical. 
According to his plan a specially pre- 
pared dictionary was required in which 
every word in the English language was 
represented by an arbitrary number. 
Vail, and not Morse, was the inventor 
of what is known as the ' : Morse alpha- 
bet," composed of dots, dashes, and 
spaces, which has entered into the uni- 
versal telegraphic language of the world. 
Vail also invented the steel-pointed 
lever and grooved roller of the register, 
by which the embossed writing is made. 
It is interesting to look back and con- 
trast the prevalent ignorance and mis- 
conceptions of that day with the pres- 
ent realization. No one could be made 
to believe that an electric telegraph, 
even if practicable, was either necessary 
or desirable. The more intelligent ad- 
mitted that it might, perhaps, prove an 
interesting toy. 

The wonderful line was gradually ex- 
tended from Baltimore in the direction 
of New York, and in January, 1846, 
was completed to Fort Lee on the New 
Jersey shore of the Hudson river. 
There was then no means of crossing 
the river, and the terminal station was 
located on the grounds of John J. 
Audubon, the famous naturalist. After 
the inauguration of President James K. 
Polk a business office was permanently 
established at Washington, and although 
the city was filled with people brought 
there by the advent of a new president, 
the income of the Washington office was 

2 I O 


very small. On the first day it was 
practically nothing ; on the second day 
it was sixty cents ; on the third day it 
was one dollar and thirty-two cents, and 
on the fourth day it was one dollar and 
four cents. The apparatus used on the 
first experimental line, although efficient 
in its operation, would now be con- 
sidered as unnecessarily bulky and 
heavy. The receiving relay weighed 
185 pounds, and it required two strong 
men to handle it easily. At the pres- 
ent day an equally efficient magnet need 
not weigh more than four ounces, and 
may be carried in the vest pocket. 

It began to be discovered that it was 
possible to interpret the telegraph sig- 
nals by the sound of the armiture lever. 
I remember well that stringent orders 
were issued against taking commercial 
or paid business by the ear. Still the 
boys — there were no young ladies oper- 
ating then — continued to converse by 
sound, as it is called. In vain did 
the proprietors and managers of the 
telegraph lines strive to prohibit this 
unauthorized method of receiving com- 
munications : even threats of instant 
dismissal were unavailing to prevent the 
practice from being carried on when- 
ever it could be done without detection. 
Professor Morse himself, who had from 
the beginning regarded the production 
of a permanent record as the corner- 
stone of his invention, was most uncom- 
promising in opposition to the acoustic 
method ; but the objectionable practice 
nevertheless continued to extend itself. 
Experience ultimately demonstrated the 
economy and the accuracy resulting 
from the unauthorized innovation. The 
recording instruments passed into dis- 
use on one line after another, and 
were replaced by the modern sounder, 
a device consisting simply of an electro- 
magnet, a vibrating armature, and a re- 

tracting spring. At the present day the 
register is seldom seen, except in the 
hands of inexperienced operators who 
have not yet learned to interpret the 
unwritten language of the sounder with 
that facility which comes only from 
long practice. Though a large majority 
of the best operators now-a-days learn 
only to read by sound, many of them 
having never seen a register, a few 
words of advice right here may be of 
much benefit to intending learners. 
Only those possessing the organ of time 
fairly developed in their brain, can ever 
make first-class operators ; they need 
not, however, necessarily be educated 

Fifty years have passed since the first 
line was put into successful operation, 
and many improvements have been 
made to, and modifications made from, 
the original inventions. Ingenious and 
beautiful systems have been brought 
out by which communications may be 
printed in Roman letters, and even in 
the facsimile of the hand-writing of the 
author. Nevertheless it is as certain as 
anything future can be that the one 
simple essential type of telegraph ap- 
paratus is destined to outlast all others, 
and forever be in general use through- 
out the civilized world — that is, the 
acoustic semaphore, or sounder. 

The most prominent inventors, im- 
provers, and promoters of the telegraph 
in this country after Morse and Vail 
were Moses G. Farmer, Cyrus VV. Field, 
and Thomas A. Edison. About 1850. 
Mr. Farmer conferred a lasting blessing 
upon humanity in urban communities by 
inventing the fire alarm telegraph ; in 
1870 he brought out in connection with 
Joseph B. Stearns, what is known as the 
duplex system, by which two communi- 
cations can be sent at the same time 
over the same wire. In 1S74. Mr. Fdi- 


son, in connection with Geo. 15. Pres- ed to the writer by the veteran inventor 

cott, invented the quadruplex system. thirty years ago. It shows the decora- 

The half-tone picture published for tions conferred upon him by kings and 

the first time herewith, is from a fine emperors, which he esteemed very 

photograph of ProfessoF Morse present- highly. 

By Myra B. Lord. 

A crown of curly golden hair, 

And laughing eyes so blue, 
A mouth the angels made to kiss — 

That 's Kenneth, aged two, 

With dimpled hands that mischief seek 
Throughout the livelong day, 

And feet too soft and white, I ween, 
To tread life's toilsome way. 

At night a tired little boy, 
Who climbs up on my knee 

And lays his head upon my breast — 
No care or fear knows he. 

A precious trust by night and day — 
Would you not love him, too, 

Had you a bonny blue-eyed lad 
Like Kenneth, aged two? 


Conducted by Fred Gaiuiug, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

From Report of United States Commissioner of Education, Dr. IV. T. //arris, i89o-'9i. 

Need of a uniform course of study. — very little system as respects the work 

State Superintendent Richard Edwards, they undertook to do. In many the 

of Illinois, speaking of the course of change from the administration of one 

study recently adopted for that state: teacher to that of another was accom- 

The need for something like this course panied by an entire breaking up of the 

of study was very apparent. Many pupil's record and standing. The new 

schools appeared to be conducted with teacher, on entering upon his duties at 



the beginning of the term, had no means 
of determining the attainments already 
made by the pupil whom he was to 
teach. They were, therefore, classified 
at haphazard. As a result, much time 
was lost ; many pupils going over the 
same subject several times, and others 
undertaking work for which they were 
not prepared. There was a lack of 
continuity in their progress. These 
evils the course of study, if wisely and 
faithfully carried out, will overcome, the 
teacher at the close of every term being 
able to indicate precisely the amount 
accomplished by each pupil and the 
point which each has reached in his 
progress. The new teacher will only 
need to examine the results thus indi- 
cated by his predecessor. Of course 
some sort of record of the pupils' attain- 
ments must be made in order that this 
result may be secured. But the means 
of making such a record are abundant. 
Several forms have been prepared by 
publishers for this purpose. 

A longer school term practicable.— 
Superintendent A. S. Draper, of New 
York: As a result of the statutes in- 
creasing the minimum length of the 
school year from 28 to 32 weeks, the 
average length of the country schools 
has increased from 33.4 weeks in 1889 
to 35.7 weeks in 1890. 

It will be recalled by all persons 
familiar with our school affairs in recent 
years that there was considerable doubt 
expressed, in the legislature and out of 
it, as to the wisdom of the increase in 
the length of the school year at the 
time it was made. It is with much sat- 
isfaction, in view of such expressed 
doubts, that I am able to make this 
gratifying showing, and to assure the 
legislature that less difficulty has been 
experienced during the last year in ex- 
acting thirty-two weeks of school in the 

rural districts than was experienced i : 
preceding years in exacting but twentj 
eight. In view of the results, it is v.- 
to consider whether or not, in a ver\ 
little time, the school year in the rural 
districts might not be safely lengthened, 
so as to afford as much schooling to 
the children in the sparsely settled dis- 
tricts of the state as is gained by the 
children in the cities. I have long en- 
tertained the belief that it is entirely 
practicable to maintain schools in the 
rural districts for thirty-eight or fort} 
weeks in the year, and that we cannot 
hope to attain results equal to those 
secured in the cities without doing so. 
Nothing is of more consequence to the 
school interests of the rural districts of 
this state than that the old idea that 
there should be a winter school for one 
class of pupils and a summer school for 
another class of pupils shall be aban- 
doned, and that all pupils up to the age 
of thirteen or fourteen shall have the ad- 
vantage of the schools for the entire year, 
deducting only reasonable vacations. 

Grading in country schools. — W. T. 
Harris : In my opinion there is no worse 
evil in the country schools than the 
classification of pupils which is attempt- 
ed in many states under the supposition 
that what has proved a good thing in 
the very large schools of cities would be 
beneficial if partially adopted in the 
small schools of the rural districts. 
Hence, while most cities classify by 
grades of a year's work in the case of 
pupils advanced into the third and sub- 
sequent years' work, and by half-years 
in the work of the lowest primary divi- 
sions, the superintendent of the county 
or state thinks that he has done a r ;rr.\: 
thing if he has introduced classification 
into his rural districts to such an extent 
as to have three or foui grades whett 
there are ten grades in the city. 




The important thing to be regarded 
in the matter of grading is the intervals 
between classes. If the intervals are a 
year, as in the grammar school, whose 
pupils are aged from u to 13, then it 
is clear that each class contains differ- 
ences in qualification which may be as 
great as one year's study would produce, 
lu the lowest classes of the primary 
grades there would be differences of a 
half year. This means that in each 
class where the teacher set the lessons 
for the capacities of the best pupils, 
those lessons were too hard for the least 
advanced pupils. On the other hand, 
in the classes where the teacher adapted 
the lessons to the capacity of the least 
advanced pupils, the best ones would 
not have enough to do, but would ac- 
quire listless habits. If the lessons 
were set for the average of the class, 
there would be cases of too much work 
for the poorest and of too little for the 
most advanced. Now, it has been 
shown (and one may easily verify the 
fact) that a year's interval is too great 
between classes of the age under 14, and 
a half year too great for pupils of 6, 7, 
or 8 years. The growth of the mind is 
too rapid at those early periods to keep 
pupils in the same class for a year with- 
out detriment to the pupils in the two 
extremes of the class ; for the best get 
listless or indolent, losing interest in 
their work, while the slow minds get 
discouraged because they are dragged 
along after brilliant rivals and lose their 
self-respect. This is a dreadful result, 
as it actually exists in many a school 
famous for its grading. 

Now, when the rural schools attempt 
to secure some of the benefits of the 
graded system — and these benefits are 
gain in time for recitations and the 
mutual help that pupils of the same 
grade give one another by showing 

different points of view of the lesson — 
the rural schools make a system of two, 
three, or four grades instead of ten, and 
suppose that they have really secured 
some of the good which the city schools 
obtain. This is, however, only a super- 

If an interval of one year is too 
great, it is evident that an interval of 
two or three years is far worse. The 
entire course of study is eight or nine 
years in the so called district school. 
Four grades give intervals of two years, 
and three grades give intervals of about 
three years. The most advanced pupils 
in each class are likely to be two years 
or more in advance in scholastic prepar- 
ation beyond the lowest of their class- 
mates. These advanced ones are kept 
"marking time," while the teacher is 
laboring with the struggling dullards of 
the bottom of the class. These are per- 
haps not dullards, except because they 
have the misfortune to be placed in a 
class with pupils far in advance of 

But it is supposed by some teachers 
that it is possible to conduct a class of 
this kind in such a manner that the ad- 
vanced pupils have enough to do while 
the less advanced do not have too 
much. When this problem is well 
solved it will be found that the teacher 
has arrived at individual instruction, or 
has made a minute sub-classification 
within each nominal grade. 

In the ungraded school there prevails 
individual instruction with little or no 
attempt to bring together pupils in their 
work. The numerous recitations which 
this involves give the teacher only a 
brief time for each. Five minutes for a 
grammar lesson do not admit of the dis- 


cussion of the grounds and reasons, or 
of anything fundamental, and the 
teacher is liable to resort to requiring 



only memory work, as that alone can be 
tested in the least time. 

But in the ungraded school there is a 
chance for the bright and industrious 
pupil to make good progress by aid of 
a good text-book without much aid from 
the teacher. I do not consider the evils 
of the unoraded school to be so great 
as those of the partially graded schools 
such as are found in Iowa, Missouri, 
Illinois, Massachusetts, and in nearly 
all of the Northern states. They are 
stiflers of talent in most cases. Where 
the teacher is very conscientious and 
thorough the school bears heavy on the 
slow pupils, and produces discourag- 
ment and the loss of self-respect. 

What is the remedy for this waste of 
the best pupils by keeping them mark- 
ing time until they lose all interest in 
their work ? What is the remedy for 
this waste of time of the slow intellects 
by discouragment ? 

I think that the answer to this may 
be found in the adoption of some form 
of the Lancasterian or monitorial 
system — using it sparingly and under 
careful supervision. The more advanced 
pupils may be set to instruct the back- 
ward ones to a certain limited degree. 
However, this must not be attempted 
except by teachers who are skilful and 
full of resources. Otherwise the pro- 
cess or method will fall into the same 
ruts that the old-time system fell into. 
We do not wish to restore the "pupil- 
teacher system," nor see a too extensive 
use of the monitorial system ; but in- 
vention has not been exerted on this 
line. There is unlimited opportunity 
for devices which shall employ the 
bright pupils in making easy steps for 
the backward pupils and in testing their 
progress. We have- seen the evils of 
the Lancasterian system in filling the 
ranks with poor teachers. The modi- 

fied Lancasterian system, which I be- 
lieve useful in ungraded schools, and to 
take the place of the mischievous sys- 
tem of partial grading in many village 
schools, demands, before all, that the 
teacher shall be better than the ordi- 
nary. The mere routine teacher will 
not serve the purpose ; nor have we any 
use for the apprentice teacher or the 
half-cultured teacher of any kind. 

I hope that good teachers will be 
found who will brave public prejudice 
and make experiments along this line. 

The graded system of rural sehools of 
New jersey. — Abstract of a paper read 
before the National Educational associ- 
ation, department of superintendence, 
at Boston, February 23, 1S93, by Addi- 
son B. Poland, state superintendent of 
public instruction, New Jersey : New 
Jersey enjoys the distinction of being 
the first state to attempt a systematic 
grading of rural schools. The experi- 
ment was first tried in Camden county, 
N. J., in the year 1872, where it has 
continued in operation without interrup- 
tion for twenty-one years. 

The essential features of the New 
Jersey system of grading rural schools 
are the following : 

1. It is a county and not a state sys- 
tem. Under the New Jersey school law 
county superintendents have the power, 
by and with the approval of trustees, to 
prescribe a uniform course of study for 
their respective counties. For this rea- 
son, among others, a uniform state sys- 
tem has never been adopted. It is 
doubtful whether state uniformity in 
grading rural schools is anv more desir- 
able or neces-ary than state uniformity 
in grading city schools. The latter, so 
far as we know, has never been at- 
tempted. " 

2. It prescribes a uniform course of 
study, consisting in general of five 


trades. These cover the whole primary 
and grammar school period of the best 
city schools, together with the first two 
years of the ordinary high school course. 
The smaller number of grades (five 
only) is considered the fundamental and 
saving feature of the system, since it 
can be adapted to all classes of schools, 
— rural, village, and city — without in- 
terfering at all with local school pro- 
grammes. It affords opportunity for 
whatever sub-grades are needed to suit 
the local conditions or exigencies of any 
district. It enables frequent re-classi- 
fication of pupils, while reducing at the 
same time the number of daily recita- 

3. It provides for uniform county ex- 
aminations. These are held once a year. 
The questions are prepared by the 
county superintendent. Examinations 
are conducted by the regular class 
teacher. The papers of the highest two 
or three grades, after being marked by 
the principal or class teacher, are sent 
to the superintendent or his board of 
examiners for review. Certificates are 
awarded on completion of each grade. 
The diploma of the advanced or high 
school course admits to the state nor- 
mal school, and to several colleges, 
without a reexamination. 

4. It demands certain permanent 
records. These greatly facilitate the 
re-classification of a school by a new 
teacher. They enable pupils removing 
from one district to another to be more 
easily classified. 

The principal evils that the system 
under discussion aims to reach and 
correct are the following : 

i. The short and irregular attendance 
of pupils in rural schools. This evil is 
overcome in a great measure by the 
interest aroused. The examinations, 
records, certificates, and diplomas fur- 

nish the additional incentives that are 
needed to create this interest. 

2. The mistakes of untrained and 
inexperienced teachers in classifying 
their schools. These are largely re- 
duced under the operatic of this system. 
Teachers become familiar with the 
county system, and on going into a new- 
school recognize immediately its appro- 
priate classification. 

3. The large number of daily recita- 
tions. Although not the primary object, 
still it has the effect of reducing some- 
what the number of classes. It estab- 
lishes certain focal points towards 
which the work of all classes converges. 

4. The lack of esprit de cops. This 
is one of the chief evils of the ungraded 
schools. Under this system it is no 
longer felt. Each district regards itself 
as a component part of a larger system. 
Pupils become interested to sustain the 
reputation of their respective schools. 

In conclusion, Mr. Poland said that 
the conditions which prevail in the rural 
districts are so unlike those prevailing 
in cities that any a priori judgment 
based on a knowledge of the latter 
alone should be closely scrutinized. 
He fully agreed with Dr. Harris and 
others, who, in their public utterances 
have deprecated any action that would 
tend to engraft the hard-and-fast city 
system of grading upon the rural schools 
of the country. 

He claimed, moreover, that the New 
Jersey system, by its adaptability to all 
local conditions, would facilitate, rather 
than otherwise, the frequent re-classifi- 
cation of pupils. 

Two views of the present status of 
rural schools compared with t/iepast.— - 
C. C. Rounds, principal State Normal 
School, Plymouth, X. H.: The problem 
of the rural school, as distinguished 
from that of the city and the village 

2 l6 


school, remains essentially the same as 
fifty years ago, in large sections of our 
country. While important changes and 
improvements have been made in cen- 
ters of population and wealth, the rural 
school, very generally, is lacking still in 
the essential conditions of success : a 
fit school plant (house, apparatus, 
library), a well planned course of study, 
qualified teachers, an adequate length 
of school year, regular attendance, and 
efficient supervision. 

While thus lacking, many towns tax 
themselves for schools at a rate far 
greater than do cities and towns in 
which all these conditions are supplied, 
and yet cannot raise by taxation a sum 
sufficient for their educational needs 
without danger of driving away all 
movable capital. This lack is itself a 
cause of increasing difficulty, from the 
steady diminution of population and 
resources by the drifting away of the 
more intelligent families in search of 
better educational facilities for their 
children. The rural school has slight 
representation in educational congresses, 
and in school reports, mainly statistical, 
there is rarely a presentation of the bare 
facts regarding them. 

Hon. Andrew S. Draper, state super- 
intendent of New York : I by no means 
take the gloomy view of the rural school 
problem presented by the last speaker. 
Of course, there are obstacles in the 
way of educational progress in the coun- 
try districts, but no greater obstacles 
than are to be found in the cities. It is 
no more difficult to overcome poverty in 
the country than it is to withstand the 
influences of politics in the cities. Take 
the position that the school system is a 
state system, and that the populous 
centres must help the outlying districts 
not only as to methods but as to means 
as well, and there will be progress in 

the country. As a matter of fact, there 
has been great progress among the rural 
schools in recent years. The buildings 
have been improved, and the teaching 

force strengthened. Indeed, the teach- 
ing force in the country schools is fully 
up to that in the cities as a rule. A 
photograph of the teachers in any rural 
county of this state would compare in 
appearance very favorably with a simi- 
lar representation of a company of 
teachers in the cities. 

It seems to me that there is no occa- 
sion for the grave apprehension about 
the future of the rural schools. Under 
all the circumstances, they are improv- 
ing as rapidly as the city schools. 

Make the outlving districts large 
enough to bring together a considerable 
number of children in the same school ; 
if necessary, provide for earning chil- 
dren to a good central school, rather 
than carrying a poor school to the doors 
of the children ; make the supervisors- 
district smaller, and provide supervision 
which is efficient ; regulate the licens- 
ing of teachers so as to protect the 
country schools against the imposition 
of bad work ; arrange a course of pro- 
cedure and systematize the work ; insist 
upon houses that are suitable for schools, 
and upon appliances that are necessary 
for efficient school work, and results 
will be obtained in the rural districts 
which will be fully up to the results 
attained in the cities. 

The treatment of the rural school prob- 
lem by Massachusetts. — Hon. George H. 
Martin, agent Massachusetts board of 
education : Massachusetts has attacked 
the rural school problem from three 
sides — the side of teaching, the side of 
organization, and the side of supervision. 

Most of the rural schools in Massa- 
chusetts are in poor towns which have 
been depleted by the set of population 



toward the manufacturing and railroad 
centres. These towns, too, have suffered 
most from the disintegrating influence of 
the ancient school-district system. The 
state has come to these towns with direct 
financial aid from its school fund. At 
various times the mode of apportioning 
the income of this fund has been changed 
in the interest of the poorer towns, in- 
creasing their grant, and withdrawing 
the aid from the more wealthy munici- 
palities, Now, no towns having a valu- 
ation in excess of £3,000,000 receive any 
grant. The lower the valuation the 
larger the state grant. With the help 
thus afforded, the towns can afford to 
employ better teachers and to maintain 
their schools for a longer term. 

The second means of improvement is 
by union and consolidation of schools. 
A state law authorizes towns to appro- 
priate money for the transportation of 
children. This privilege is generously 
used by many towns, some spending 
several thousand dollars in transporta- 
tion. Small schools are being united, 
and the plan of bringing all the children 
of a town to a central school is growing 
in favor. Several towns have adopted 
it with success. 

By this arrangement the children en- 
joy the advantages of graded schools, in 
commodious and well equipped build- 
ings. There is found to be better at- 
tendance, better teaching, better disci- 
pline, and easier supervision. It is the 
most democratic of school systems, giv- 
ing to all the children of the town equal 
school privileges. 

The third and most important work 
for the improvement of the rural schools 
is in securing skilled supervision. By a 
law passed in 1SS8 towns having a valu- 
ation not exceeding 52,500,000 may 
unite for the employment of a superin- 
tendent of schools. In this union dis- 

trict there must be not less than 30 nor 
more than 50 schools. The district is 
formed by vote of the towns, and the 
superintendent is chosen in joint con- 
vention of the school committees of the 
towns. This leaves the schools wholly 
in the hands of the people, and meets 
any possible criticism of the system as 
centralizing in its tendency. To these 
districts the state gives direct aid for 
carrying on their work. The district 
must raise at least $750 for salary of 
superintendent. To this the state by 
grant from the treasury adds $500, mak- 
ing a minimum salary of $1,250, and 
$500 more to be used in paying the 
wages of teachers. The conditions of 
the gift are such that the towns may not 
reduce their own appropriations. This 
bonus has acted as a strong incentive 
to the towns, and 117 of them have 
been brought together into union dis- 

The demand has brought into the 
work a large number of young men, 
practical teachers, many of them with 
normal school or college training. 

They are steadily elevating the rural 
schools, not only through their influence 
with teachers, but by arousing public 
sentiment to a more healthy interest in 
the schools. 

Xow, 200 of the 351 towns and cities 
of the state, containing 77 per cent, of 
the schools and 84 per cent, of the chil- 
dren, are under supervision which is as 
truly professional as that of the cities 
has been. 

Thus, tentatively, in three ways Mas- 
sachusetts is trying to solve her rural 
school problem. 

T/ic first requisite for rural schools. — 
State Supt. O. E. Wells. Wisconsin : The 
first requisite is closer and more intelli- 
gent supervision. No one will question 
this who has seen the revolution made 



by a capable superintendent even in one 
brief term. It is often said. "As is the 
teacher, so is the school.'' With equal 
propriety may it be said, "As is the 
superintendent, so are the teachers, and 
consequently the schools." The effi- 
cient superintendent does his most 
effective work not by means of legal 
enactments, but by tactful leadership. 
His gentlemanly bearing, his scholarly 
habits, his prudent counsel, his industry 
and enthusiasm create conditions and 
direct efforts in ways that laws can 
never reach. In order that this influ- 
ence may be at its maximum the super- 
intendent districts should be limited in 
extent. Seventy-five schools will afford 
ample scope for the best available talent. 
If the usual terms could be lengthened, 
and the salary increased to an equality 
with that paid to the principals of the 
city schools, the position would attract 
and hold capable men. 

Women as supervisors of rural schools. — 
Henry Barnard : I believe in the well ed- 
ucated female as a supervisor of schools. 
At my suggestion a lady took charge of 
the schools of a district in Rhode Island, 
and accomplished wonderful results. She 
went to work with the mothers, invited 

them to go with her, and thus impressed 
upon them the conditions. Improve- 
ments were suggested, apparatus, etc., 
with good results. At the end of the 
second year all the children of the dis- 
trict were gathered together, and an 
entertainment given. The performances 
would compare favorably with those of 

Women as teachers in ungraded schools. 
— State Supt. Henry Raab, Illinois: 
While I like to see women teach in cer- 
tain departments of graded schools, I 
think it unwise both for directors to 
employ and for women to accept places 
in ungraded schools. While I believe 
that women, when they possess the 
scholarship and the necessary training, 
can instruct as well as men, I doubt 
whether they can properly govern a 
school or exert the proper educational 
influence over large boys and girls. We 
cannot close our eyes to this condition 
of things. There are certain things 
which women, because of their sex, can- 
not do and should not be made to do. 
I, for one, have always considered it 
cruel to place an innocent girl all by 
herself in a country school, there to 
watch over the large bovs. 



Edward Dow was born in Leamington, Vt., July 11, 1820, and died in Concord, 
July 31. He had resided in Concord for fifty years, and, as an architect, was 
widely known. Among his best known buildings are the state prison in Concord 
and Xesmith hall at Durham. In the War of the Rebellion he was lieutenant of 
a company in the New Hampshire battalion, Second Regiment U. S. Sharpshoot- 
ers. Pie had been a member of the city council and of the house of represen- 
tatives; was prominent as a Freemason, and a past officer of the Grand Council 
of New Hampshire. 



John C. Gault was born in Hooksett, and died in Chicago, August 10, aged 6^ 
years. He began his career in the Concord Railroad freight office at Manchester, 

and was successively traffic manager of the Central Vermont, superintendent of 
the Chicago <$: Northwestern, assistant general manager of the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul, general manager of the Chicago, Wabash & St. Louis, and finally 
general manager of the Cincinnati Southern, covering thousands of miles in the 
South and Southwest. He was a prominent Mason. He leaves a family. 


Thomas Clark was born in Acworth, December 4, 1821, and died in Cambridge- 
port, Mass., August n. He was educated at Norwich academy, and taught 
school successfully for several years. In 1S57 he engaged in business in 
Cleveland, Ohio, as commission merchant. He served in the War of the Rebel- 
lion as major of the Fifteenth Ohio volunteer infantry and lieutenant-colonel ot 
the Twenty-Ninth Ohio volunteers, and was taken prisoner at the battle of Port 
Republic. He was a member of W. PL Smart Post, G. A. R., Cambridgeport. 
He leaves a widow, son, and daughter. 


William H. Berry was born in Pittsfield, and died in Manchester, August 12, 
aged 61 years. He was educated at Pembroke academy, and entered mercantile 
life. He was treasurer of the Pittsfield Savings Bank ; then he became bank com- 
missioner, and while filling the latter important office was appointed assistant sec- 
retary- of the New Hampshire Fire Insurance Company, which latter position he 
held until his death. He was several times elected to the house of representatives 
from Pittsfield and Manchester, and was an able and influential legislator. He 
is survived by a widow, two sons, and a daughter. 


Jeremiah Prescott was born in Hampton Falls, and died in Arlington, Mass., 
August 17. He became a conductor on the Eastern railroad in 1844; a little 
later, master of transportation for the road in Boston, and in September, 1854, 
superintendent, the third from the charter of the road, holding the position twenty 
years lacking only three days. Shortly after the completion of the Hoosac tun- 
nel, in 1875, he was appointed general manager by the state, and filled the posi- 
tion for four years with signal success. 


Elisha P. Jennett was born in Lebanon, and died in Montpelier, Vt M August 19. 
aged 93 years. He went to Montpelier when quite young, and at the time of his 
death he was the oldest citizen in the town. He was a member of the firms of 
Hubbard & Jennett and Jennett & Howes, and was very wealth)-. He was one of 
the promoters of the Central Vermont railroad, also one of the organizers of the 
old Bank of Montpelier, being a director of the bank for more than fifty years. 
He was elected state treasurer in 1S46, and a presidential elector in 1S72. 



Luther Emerson was born in Salem, and died in Haverhill, Mass., August 26, 
aged 78 years. He had been connected with the public schools of Haverhill fur 
a half century- -thirty years as a teacher, and twenty years as a member of the 
board of education. Me leaves a widow and two daughters. 


Mrs. Celia Thaxter, daughter of Thomas B. Laighton. was born in Portsmouth. 
June 29, 1836, and died at her home on the Isles of Shoals. August 26. Her life 
from childhood had been mostly spent upon rock-bound Appledore. She was 
married at the age of sixteen to Levi Lincoln Thaxter, a lawyer of YVatertown, 
Mass. Her verse is known and admired wherever the English language is read. 
Half a dozen collections of her poems have been published. 


James X. Lauder was born in Top>ham, Vt., in 183S, and died in Concord. 
August 28. He entered the employment of the Northern railroad in 1S53, and 
from 1S65 to 1SS1 was its master mechanic. In 1SS2 he was appointed superin- 
tendent of rolling stock of the Mexican Central railroad, and on January 1, 1SS4. 
took a similar position with the Old Colony railroad, continuing in the same with 
its lessors, the Xew York, X'ew Haven & Hartford, until his death. In 1S93 he 
served as a member of the board of judges in the department of transportation 
exhibits at the World's Fair. In 1SS2 and 1S83 he was president of the Amer- 
ican Railway Master Mechanics' Association. 


YYinfield S. Moody was born in Unity, October 23. 1S15, and died in Xorwalk, 
Conn., August 30. He went to Xew York in 1S35, and was engaged in the tea 
business until 1S61, when he retired from active business. He moved to X'or- 
walk in 1S65, and was president of the X"orwalk Mills and the Fairfield County 
Savings Bank; a director in the Xational Bank of X'orwalk ; chairman of the 
board of water commissioners for many years. He married, in 1S54, the only 
daughter of Amos Perkins, of Unity, who survives, with three sons. 




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^sfcjasnssHBBHBE' • 

XTbc Granite flbonthty, 

OCTOBER, 1894. 


KKARSARGK (Illustrated). Noah Davis. ....... 

NATURE'S ROSE-CALI,. Virginia C. Hollis. ....... 

OUR NORTHERN BOUNDARY (Illustrated). Hon. Edgar Aldrich. 


THE ANNEXATION OF NDRONGA. Edwin W. Sanborn. ..... 

WEBSTER'S NEW HAMPSHIRE HOME. George Bancroft Griffith . 

PETER AND PELEG. C. C. Lord. ......... 

HOW CAN YOU EVER FIND ME? Edward A. Jenks. ..... 

THE FAMILY AT GILJH {Translated from the Norwegian of Jonas Lie). Hon. Samuel C 
Eastman. ............ 


Spelling. ............ 

An Educational Cref.d .......... 









Entered at the post-office at Concord, N. H., as second-class matter. 

Illustrated and Printed by Republican Press Association. 

2MMIL €M3«IOfl?o' 




f* A I L £ O FOP TEN C -7 .V T S 






A lawyer friend told me recently that he dreamt he died an<1 
at his funeral the minister preached from the text: " Which is 
better, to be a lawyer, or to get eternal salvation 5 " This sug- 
gests the possibility of attending one's own funeral. Why not 
Can you be sure that the spirit will be so far away that even th 
minister's words of eulogy can only fall on mortal ears?" WouM 
it not seem strange to hear the words, "a kind husband ami 
loving father," and know that through your neglect to prot 
them with life insurance your wife and young children wer< 
destitute? Before it is too late, examine the plans of the 


And then insure for such an amount as you can afford. 

Nicholas FROST, General Agent for n. H.. 

Chase Block, Concord- 


mmw, <$■■''■ 

;/ V&k "it > 

•% ^ m mL 

The Granite Monthly 

Vol. XVII. OCTOBER, 1S94. No, 

By Noah Davis. 

To the Editor of The Granite Monthly: 

Sir: — In a late number of The Granite Monthly a history of the warship Kear- 
surge was published. Her construction at Portsmouth, N. H., of timber selected from 
the heights of Mount Kearsarge — the best that could be found in the country; her being 
named after the mountain; her services in the war, and her grand battle with, and victory 
over, the piratical Alabama : and, finally, her destruction upon the Reef of Roncador, were 
vividly portrayed. On reading that story, which stirred my New Hampshire blood, the 
following lines were written by me under its inspiring influence. If they are deemed worthy 
of publication in The Granite Monthly, you are at liberty to use them in that way. 

New York, Sept. 17, 1S94. 

I hear in thy mountains, New Hampshire,. a cry, 

Like a mother's, bereft of her mightiest son. 
From the heights of Kearsarge its strong echoes flv 

Till they break on the dome of thy proud Washington. 

The child of thy loins, Kearsarge, is no more, 
To whom thou didst yield thy beautiful crown ; 

She dies on the rocks of the tierce Roncador 
And fate ends her deeds in immortal renown. 

Ah, well she repaid thee for forest and name ! 

When battling the foe in far distant lands : 
She made them rich gems on the bosom of fame 

As deathless as glory while history stands. 

Hath Old Ocean no rights in the ship, and her fame, 
That on his broad bosom hath, battled for God ? 

May he not command that her glorious name 
Be wed with his own in eternal reward ? 

2 2 2 


Must he see her perish by age and decay. — 
Dismantled, perchance to rot on the shore ? 

No ! rather by far, in his own mighty sway 

Sweep her on to the fate of thy rocks, Roncador. 

Now the mountain her monument ever shall stand, 
Holding" her name in the blue of its sky ; 

While the storms of the reef roar back to the land 
Their anthem of deeds that never can die. 

[The Honorable Noah Davis is a native of New Hampshire, having been born in 
Haverhill on the ioth of September, 1818, but his parents 
removed, in 1S25. to Albion, Xew York, where he became a 
lawyer in 1841 and began practice, afterwards becoming a res- 
ident of Buffalo. He sat upon the Xew York supreme bench 
in 1857, and was twice elected to the office of judge. In 1868, 
he was elected to the national house of representatives, and 
served from March 4. 1S69, until July 20, 1870, when he be- 
came United States district attorney at Xew York city under 
President Grant. In 1S72 he resigned as district attorney, 
being again elected a justice of the state supreme court, of 
which, in 1874, he became the presiding justice. Stokes, for 
the murder of James Fisk, and William M. Tweed, for his 
many crimes, were tried and convicted before him. In 18S7 
he resigned as judge, and resumed law practice, in which, in 
New York city, he still continues at a ripe old age. 
The intellectual faculties of Judge Davis are of the highest order. He is a learned, just, 
and courageous jurist. He has ever been active in Republican politics when not upon the 
bench, and has been a power among his fellows in every relation of life. He is a son ot 
New Hampshire whose character and attainments her citizens may always contemplate with 
pride and pleasure. — Editor The Granite Monthly.] 


L>y Virginia C. Hollis. 

When the imprisoned soul within its narrow space 
Yearneth for wider range, with never-failing grace 
Nature extends her arms. " Come unto me.'* she cries : 
"Behold my hills, their grand repose; my wide, far-reaching .^kic>. 

"Look far away from Self — 't is Self your bondage makes! 
Ponder the wonders of my fields till recognition wakes 
Of the Almighty Power which hath these marvels planned. 
Whose will the deeps of ocean stirs, and rocks the solid land. 


"Walk in my forest shade far from the city's din : 

Resting within my leafy glades, drink all the incense in 

Of singing bird and murmuring breeze and gently rippling stream. 

Till consciousness of Self shall come but as a simple dream." 

Oh, there is much' in life which we pass idly by 

That would promote our upward growth if with a watchful eye 

We sought for, in our walks, and gleaned with thankfulness 

The rose from thorns, the wheat from tares, designed our lives to bless. 

By Edgar Aldrich. 

[This paper was prepared as the annual oration of the New Hampshire Historical Society, and was delivered 
before the society at an adjourned annual meeting held in the senate chamber at Concord. September 12, 1894. 
The importance of the subject-matter of the oration, the high philosophical character of Judge Aldrich's treat- 
ment of the theme, and the vivid clearness of his narrative made the paper highly desirable for publication in 
The Granite Monthly, and the manuscript was solicited from its distinguished author for that purpose. 
The full title of the paper is. — "Our Northern Boundary. The Provisional Government of the Indian Stream 
Territory, iSj2-'35 — New Hampshire's military occupation of the territory north of the 45th degree of north 
latitude and west of the Connecticut river and lakes, in aid of civil authorities of the state and as against 
Canada, iS35-'5 ( :>.'' 

The maps adorning the text winch show the respective claims of the parties to the dispute are fac similes of 
the original maps which were submitted to the King of the Netherlands to aid him in arbitrating the dispute 
under the convention of 1S27. The portraits are made from paintings in the possession of the state of New 
Hampshire and from likenesses loaned by the families of the persons portrayed. — Editor The Granite 

Over the golden entrance to one of 
the noblest structures of the World's 
Fair at Chicago in 1S93, — the structure 
which contained exhibits of the means 

abridge distance have done most for 

The nations of the world recognizing 
the necessity of intercourse among the 

devised for the transfer of people and people, and trade and commerce among 
goods of commerce quickly and cheaply themselves and other nations, have ever 
from one section of our country to an- contended for rights of navigation upon 
other and from one part of the world to the seas, and for mastery of the lakes 
another,- — was prominently displayed the and rivers. The march of early civili- 
great truth and incentive idea which zation was across the oceans and up 
has obtained in all civilized countries the great water ways. Before the intro- 
from the earliest times, clothed by the duct ion of railroads, the nations looked 
language of Bacon in the following to the natural waters and artificial canals 
words: "There be those things which as the only means for shortening dis- 
make a nation great and prosperous, — a tance, and as the only highways render- 
fertile soil, busy workshops, and easy ing travel and commerce less difficult 
conveyance for men and goods from than the slow and cumbersome move- 
place to place," as well as the same merits over the earth. Free intercourse 
idea expressed by Macaulay in the fol- among the people, free interchange of 
lowing language: "Of all inventions, thought, and enlarged and liberal com- 
the alphabet and the printing-press merce are necessities of civilizati 
alone excepted, those inventions which indeed, such conditions were recognized 



as necessarily incident to existence 
among the ruder nations before enlight- 
ened government was much known. 
The short, swift streams leading from 
the Babylonian country to the Mediter- 
ranean, thousands of years before the 
Christian era, became highways to float 
the heavy cedars of Lebanon to the 
ocean, to be worked into crafts whereby 
the seas should be better known and 

Carthage holding maritime suprem- 
acy, and having among her people the 
most courageous seamen in all the 
world, throttled and seriously staggered 
Rome, which had gained the greatest 
power and supremacy perhaps of any 
nation on the land, and Rome, quickly 
learning the lesson from necessity and 
adopting the Carthaginian vessels as 
models, constructed powerful navies, 
and in turn overwhelmed and crushed 
Carthage. In the present day Russia, 
through diplomacy and through exhibi- 
tions of warlike power, is ever pushing 
for an outlet to the seas. 

All nations adopting this maritime 
policy as a necessity have broadened it 
so as to protect so far as may be the 
lakes and rivers within their borders, 
and to secure free and open access to 
the rivers and lakes which become the 
boundaries between themselves and 
other countries. 

The Treaty of Peace, concluded at 
Paris in September, 17S3, describes a 
line between this country and Great Brit- 
ain, which from a point where the foity- 
fifth degree of north latitude "strikes the 
River Iroquois or Cataraquy ; " runs 
westerly "thence along the middle of 
said river into Lake Ontario, through 
.the middle of said lake until it strikes 
the -communication by water between 
that lake and Lake Erie; thence along 
the middle of said communication into 

Lake Erie, through the middle of said 
lake until it arrives at the water com- 
munication between that lake and Lake 
Huron ; thence along the middle of said 
water communication into the Lake 
Huron; thence through the middle of 
said lake to the water communication 
between that lake and Lake Superior; 
thence through Lake Superior north- 
ward of the Isles Royal and Phelipeaux, 
to the Long Lake ; thence through the 
middle of said Long Lake, and the water 
communication between it and the Lake 
of the Woods, to the said Lake of the 
Woods; thence through the said lake to 
the most north-western point thereof, 
and from thence on a due west course 
to the River Mississippi ; thence by a 
line to be drawn along the middle of 
the said River Mississippi until it shall 
intersect the northernmost part of the 
thirty-first degree of North latitude," 
thus securing to our country free occu- 
pation of one half of the Great Lakes 
and rivers with all the resultant military 
advantage, as well as economic and 
commercial equality with Canada. If 
we had time and space, it would be 
interesting to inquire why in going east- 
erly from the forty-fifth degree of north 
latitude the boundary line should have 
abruptly left the St. Lawrence, running 
thence to the waters of the Connecticut 
river and the Highlands and the St. 
Croix river to Nova Scotia, leaving the 
St. Lawrence to broaden and flow on to 
the ocean exclusively within His Maj- 
esty's possessions. 

Previous to the treaty between the 
French and Great Britain in 1763, 
whereby the latter acquired Canada, 
New England and Nova Scotia, .i> 
well, extended to the southerly >h<>re of 
the St. Lawrence river. In October of 
the same year, a royal proclamation 
establishing the Province of Quebec, 


- - 5 

extended the province southerly includ- 
ing the valley south of the St. Law- 
rence, making the Highlands which 
separated the rivers running to the 
north or north-east into the St. Law- 
rence from those running to the south 
and south-east, the southerly boundary 
of such province. 

A map on which these highlands 
were set out was made by John 
Mitchell under the direction of the 
Lords Commissioners of Trade and 
Plantations in 1775. It is quite rea- 
sonable to suppose that this map or a 
copy thereof, was before the treaty 
making powers of 17S3, and that the 
Highlands established as the southerly 
boundary of the Province of Quebec 
by the royal proclamation of October 7, 
1763, were intended to be adopted as 
the northerly line of Massachusetts, 
which then included Maine, and that 
running on such highlands the boundary 
was to come from thence to the north- 
westernmost head of Connecticut river. 

While we do not complain and can 
not hope to change what seems to be 
an unnatural and arbitrary boundary, 
no American can trace the line through 
these great inland seas down the St. 
Lawrence, through wonderful Niagara 
to the forty-fifth parallel, thence through 
the unbroken wilderness towards the 
Atlantic ocean, leaving to the far 
north the lower portion of the St. 
Lawrence, the noblest river of the con- 
tinent, without a feeling of sadness. 
But when we consider that the great 
minds which created and upheld the 
American Revolution, recognizing the 
importance of the St. Lawrence as a 
boundary, sent, without success, their 
most important and influential states- 
men as emissaries or commissioners 
to create in what were known as the 
French provinces a sentiment which 

should promote cooperation with the 
American colonies, and if not that to 
persuade them to remain neutral during 
the struggle, we must treat it as conclu- 
sively established that there was no 
sentiment in the provinces or any suf- 
ficient reason to justify a demand on 
the part of the American treaty-making 
power in making a claim that the 
boundary should be thrown to the St. 

Franklin, Chase, Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton, all leading congressmen, the 
latter of whom being by special resolu- 
tion of congress hi solicited to engage 
his brother, an ex-Jesuit, to accompany 
the delegation and exert his influence 
as a priestly Republican upon the 
Catholic clergy," visited these prov- 
inces early in 1775 for the purpose of 
making known to them the means of 
assuring their own independence. 

Garneau, in his history of Canada, 
says that " while Franklin was working 
his way as a civil diplomatist. Father 
Carroll visited a number of the clergy 
in Montreal and the country places ; 
his success with them was vet less 
than that of Franklin with the laity." 
This mission failing, the colonies were 
left to make the struggle alone, and 
having established their independence, 
it could hardly be expected that Knox 
and Lincoln, John Adams, Franklin and 
Jay, having to do with the treaty, could, 
with any show of reason, insist upon 
including the territory of the lower St. 
Lawrence. We must, therefore, not 
cast reproach upon these great actors, 
but praise and revere them for the 
great results which they accomplished. 
We must also credit them with mental 
reservation and hope in this respect, 
from the fact that in November, 1777, 
when the Articles of Confederation 
were drafted, it was expressl) provided 



ifes \ 

\ {/ 


-KP X 

A Section of official Map \ shownra H>- t : 

bring the N-h^B^Z/i^^Tt^t "f^ £ l " i: '" ^ "" °~' »** * 

l ntted states m conformity with the Treaty , 1 Peace • i . -s ;. 

f m 



by Article XI that " Canada acceeding 

to this confederation, and joining in 
the measures of the United States, 
shall be admitted into and entitled to 
all the advantages of this union ; but 
no other colony shall be admitted into 
the same, unless such admission be 
agreed to by nine states.'' 

The north-eastern boundary of the 
state of Maine was in dispute and in 
controversy, which involved preparation 
for war a little later than the time of 
the Indian Stream incident to which 
this address is to be directed. 

The treaty of 17S3, which is known 
as the Treaty of Peace, described that 
part of the boundary of the United 
States known as the north-eastern 
boundary as " from the northwest 
an^rle of Nova Scotia, viz., that ans:le 
which is formed by a line drawn due 
north from the source of St. Croix river 
to the Highlands : along the said High- 
lands which divide those rivers that 
empty themselves into the River St. 
Lawrence, from those which fall into 
the Atlantic Ocean, to the north-west- 
ernmost head of Connecticut river: 
thence down along the middle of that 
river, to the forty-fifth degree of North 
latitude ; from thence, by a line due 
west on said latitude, until it strikes the 
River Iroquois or Cataraquy; etc." 

The boundary which we now speak 
of as the north-eastern boundary of 
Maine became at an early day subject 
to dispute, first as to the river St. Croix, 
then as to which tributary was the source 
of that river, then as to the islands in 
Passamaquoddy bay. then as to the 
north-western angle of Nova Scotia and 
the highlands that divide the rivers that 
fall into the Atlantic ocean from those 
^hich empty themselves into the St. 

without giving much time to what is 

known as the Maine dispute, and pa-s- 
ing the controversy as to the river St. 
Croix and all disputes as to the inter- 
mediate calls, it would seem plain that 
the highlands between the St. Lawrence 
and the St. John's river were plainly 
intended by the treaty, — and in view of 
the fact that the government of the 
United States had, as early as 1S03, so 
far recognized the great national policy 
of extending its borders to the oceans 
and rivers as to procure the colony or 
province of Louisiana together with all 
the islands belonging to such province, 
and in 1S19 all the territory belonging 
to Spain east of the Mississippi, known 
as East and West Florida, with adjacent 
islands, — it is not easy to appreciate the 
argument which induced Mr. Webster to 
relinquish the boundary known as the 
Highlands between the rivers which 
empty themselves into the St. Lawrence 
from those which flow into the Atlantic 
ocean, and to adopt the St. John's river 
as the north-eastern limit of the United 
States and the state of Maine. This 
provision of the treaty made in 1S42 
was the subject of severe attack in the 
United States senate, led by that bold, 
energetic, aggressive, and truly American 
statesman, Thomas fl. Denton, senator 
from Missouri, and has been the subject 
of much discussion among the loyal 
sons of Maine. 

Gov. Israel Washburn. Jr., who pre- 
pared and read before the Maine His- 
torical society at Portland, in 1S79, an 
able and exhaustive paper on the north- 
eastern boundary began his address by 
saving, " I shall read you, this morning, 
a chapter of concessions, submissions, 
:\nd humiliations by which the otherwise- 
fair record of American diplomacy has 
been dimmed and stained." He spoke 
of the Webster-Ashburton treaty as a 
work of which the indulgent criticism of 



^ecHon of Official Map A ^ owingt . e .orth^e, Bou„d ary Line of Xe. H^ 

Treaty of Peace of 1783. 


2 9 

the most friendly commentator might be 
borrowed from Sheridan, who, speaking 
of another convention, said, ; ' It was 
one of which, although some were glad, 
nobody was proud." 

While we may properly refer to this 
severe criticism upon America's great- 
est statesman, and concede that it is 
directed to a concession which is not 
easily understood, we must not omit to 
call attention to what was claimed to be 
the establishment of important rights in 
the channels of the St. Lawrence 
secured through Art. 7 of what is known 
as the Webster-Ashburton treaty, wherein 
it is provided that the channels in the 
river St. Lawrence on both sides of the 
Long Sault islands and of Larnhart 
island, as well as the channels in the 
rivers Detroit and St. Clair on both 
sides of the islands, etc., shall be equally 
free and open to the ships, vessels, and 
boats of both parties. 

We must also remind the historians of 
Maine that if their state through these 
negotiations lost a little through Lord 
Ashburton's diplomacy, that Webster, at 
least, held his own in respect to the 
boundary upon the Connecticut waters 
which was the northern boundary of 
New Hampshire. 

We must also recall that at this time 
our boundaries were ill-defined and little 
understood, except where they were 
formed by the gulf, the ocean, and the 
river St. Lawrence, and that this contro- 
versy extended to the north-west, and 
that the treaty was a compromise in 
which each party at various points 
yielded some part of their claim rather 
than push to the extremity of war. It 
must likewise be stated that Mr. Theo- 
dore Rosevelt in his life of Benton in 
the American Statesmen Series, does not 
accord Mr. Benton much general praise 
for his furious attack upon the boundary 

provision of the treaty of 1S42. He 
does, however, credit Mr. Benton with 
more defensible ground in respect to his 
attack on that part of the treaty which 
defined the north-eastern boundary of 

Referring again and more directly to 
that provision of the treaty of 1 7S3 
which was intended to establish the 
northern boundary of New Hampshire 
and of the United States on the waters 
of the Connecticut, we find that a line 
was adopted as the north-easterly bound- 
ary of the United States and of what 
was then Massachusetts, running " along 
the said Highlands which divide those 
rivers that empty themselves into the 
river St. Lawrence, from those which 
fall into the Atlantic ocean," and that 
the boundary described proceeded on 
such highlands " to the north-western- 
most head of Connecticut river; thence 
down along the middle of that river to 
the forty-fifth degree of north latitude." 

It may not be out of place to look 
somewhat to the information possessed 
by the treaty-making powers with re- 
spect to the wild and little known 
country between the settled portions 
of the colonies of Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire and the St. Lawrence, 
and to the motive which impelled Great 
Britain to insist upon breaking away 
from the St. Lawrence at the forty-fifth 
degree of north latitude, thus making 
a divergent line which would bring the 
boundary easterly to the Connecticut 

Generals Knox and Lincoln in their 
reports refer to Mitchell's map which 
was used by the commissioners while 
the treat}- was under consideration. 
There is also a reference to the same 
map in a letter from John Adams to 
Governor Cushing written from Auteuil, 
near Paris, October 25, 1784. This 



letter was written by Mr. Adams after 
the north-easterly bound of Massachu- 
setts was drawn into controversy, and 
while certain measures with respect 
thereto were pending- before the general 
court of Massachusetts, and in this let- 
ter Mr. Adams says: "We had before 
us, through the whole negotiation, sev- 
eral maps, but it was Mitchell's map 
upon which we marked out the whole 
of the boundary lines of the United 
States." Dr. Franklin says in a letter 
written to Mr. Jefferson in 1790, "I 
can assure you that I am perfectly 
clear in the remembrance that the map 
we used in tracing the boundary was 
brought to the treaty by the commis- 
sioners from England, and that it was 
the same as that published by Mitchell 
twenty years before." 

It appears by the affidavit. of Sur- 
veyor Mitchell, made October 9, 17S4, 
that he was an inhabitant of Chester 
in the state of New Hampshire, and 
that in 1764 he was employed by Fran- 
cis Bernard, Esq., governor of the prov- 
ince of Massachusetts Bay, to proceed, 
with Israel Jones as his deputy, and 
with Nathaniel Jones as commanding 
officer of a party of troops, and Cap- 
tain Fletcher as Indian interpreter, to 
the Bay of Passamaquoddy, and there 
assemble the Indians usually residing 
there, and from them to ascertain the 
river known as the St. Croix. It also 
appears that he made plans of the 
territory, giving prominence, quite likely, 
to the river St. Croix, which was the 
particular river to be ascertained and 
located. But it is quite reasonable to 
suppose that the plan reported contained 
not only the St. Croix but the other 
important rivers running down from 
the Highlands, and he being a Xew 
Hampshire man, that the Connecticut 
river was also indicated with its general 

course from the Highlands through 

It will be observed that all of the 
great rivers of the north-easterly portion 

of the Massachusetts colony, now Maine, 
such as the Penobscot, the Kennebec, 
and the Androscoggin, have their source 
in that territory and flow into the ocean 
within her own borders, the Andros- 
coggin flowing through Xew Hampshire 
for a short distance, while the Connecti- 
cut river, (lowing from the Highlands 
of the north to the ocean, divides 
New Hampshire from what is now Ver- 
mont, and Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut nearly in the middle. 

It is safe to assume that Great Britain, 
having in mind the governmental impor- 
tance of these great water ways, both in 
a military and a commercial sense, and 
looking to the great natural highways 
of the Massachusetts colony, and to 
the Connecticut river as a great inter- 
colonial highway, concluded that next 
in importance to holding the territory 
was the strategic and commercial advan- 
tage to result from the establishment 
of her boundaries on the head waters 
of the great rivers, which were then 
looked upon as the only ways or means 
for shortening distance, aiding commerce 
between the countries, and of facilitating 
military operations in case of war. 
Great Britain, recalling the then recent 
expedition of Arnold up the Kennebec, 
across the highlands that divide the 
Kennebec from the Chaudiere, and 
down that stream to the St. Lawrence 
and the resultant surprise at Quebec, 
preferred to hold these positions of 
military menace, and was not easily 
inclined to accord them to the United 

Mr. John Fiske in his book on the 
critical period of American history, 
speaking of the controversies under this 


2 5 ] 

treaty says, " Franklin's suggestion of a 
cession of Canada and Nova Scotia 
was abandoned without discussion," 
and that after agreeing where the 
boundary should go, that Oswald marked 
in red ink the line upon one of Mitch- 
ell's maps of North America to serve 
as a memorandum establishing the pre- 
cise meaning of the words used in the 
description, and that when it was dis- 
covered from later surveys that the 
language relating to the north-eastern 
portion of the boundary contained 
inaccuracies, it was found that the map 
used by Oswald was lost. 

I am not able to say with any cer- 
tainty just when the dispute arising 
upon the Connecticut waters began. It 
is probable, however, that the provision 
of the treaty describing the north-west- 
ernmost head of Connecticut river 
became a subject of discussion which 
rendered the boundary one of uncer- 
tainty before 1S00. The authorities of 
New Hampshire, with somewhat doubt- 
ful confidence, claiming Hall stream to 
to be the waters intended, while the 
authorities of Canada and Great Britain 
maintained with greater confidence, 
perhaps, that the main river running 
from what is now known as the third 
Connecticut lake through the second 
and first lake, and so on until it inter- 
sects the forty-fifth degree of north 
latitude, was the water called for by 
the treaty. This dispute involved about 
one twelfth of the territory of what is 
now the county of Coos. 

Emptying into the Connecticut river 
from the north, at a point about mid- 
way between the claims of the two par- 
ties, was a stream known as the Indian 
Stream, and the disputed tract soon 
became known as the ''Indian Stream 

The American view is supposed to 

have been based upon the fact that the 
waters of Hall stream were the must 
north-western waters of the Connecticut, 
while the Canadian and British view- 
was that the term north-western most 
should be read in connection with the 
other words which call for the head of 
Connecticut river, and that as the waters 
of Hall stream were not denominated 
as a river, and as the treaty described a 
course from the head of Connecticut 
river down its middle to the forty-fifth 
degree of north latitude, that their claim 
was established. 

A discussion of the reasonableness of 
the two claims with respect to the con- 
struction of this part of the treaty would 
not be useful for the reason that this 
paper is intended to present somewhat 
the history of the Indian Stream a'Yair, 
rather than to demonstrate which posi- 
tion was right as a matter of strict and 
original construction. 

I have not found in such research as 
I have been able to make documen- 
tary evidence which establishes with 
defmiteness whether the parties using 
the term "to the north-westernmost head 
of Connecticut River: thence down 
along the middle of that river to the 
forty-fifth degree of North latitude " 
actually intended to adopt Hall stream 
as the river in fact laid upon maps be- 
fore the treaty-making powers of 17S3, 
or the Connecticut river having its 
source in the Third Lake, which is fur- 
ther north and east than the waters of 
Hall stream; nor have I found sufficient 
data from which to trace the growth 
of the controversy prior to 1S14. 

It is perhaps sufficient, however, for 
the purposes of this paper u> note that 
the controversy had become so far inter- 
national, and the true bound .-<> fir con- 
sidered uncertain, that, at the c!o 
the war of 1S12, in the treaty known as 



the Treaty of Peace and Amity adopted 
at Ghent on the 24th day of December, 
1S14, it was recited in Article 5 that, 
11 whereas neither that point of the High- 
lands lying due north from the source 
of the River St. Croix, and designated 
in the former treaty of peace between 
the two Powers as the north-west angle 
of Nova Scotia, nor the north-western- 
most head of Connecticut River, has 
yet been ascertained; and whereas that 
part of the boundary line between the 
dominions of the two Powers which 
extends from the source of the River 
St. Croix directly north to the above 
mentioned north-west angle of Nova 
Scotia, thence along the said Highlands 
which divide those rivers that empty 
themselves into the River St. Lawrence 
from those which fall into the Atlantic 
Ocean to the north-westernmost head of 
Connecticut River, thence down along 
the middle of that river to the forty- 
fifth degree of North latitude; thence 
by line due west on said latitude until it 
strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy, 
has not yet been surveyed.'' Following 
this recital in the same article of the 
treaty, it is provided that commissioners 
shall be appointed for the purpose of 
ascertaining and making a map of the 
disputed territory, and that the bounda- 
ries ascertained and indicated thereon, 
particularizing the latitude and longi- 
tude of the north-west angle of Nova 
Scotia, the north-westernmost head of 
Connecticut river, and such other points 
of the boundary as the commissioners 
may deem proper, shall be considered 
as finally and conclusively fixing the 
bound. It is not understood, however^ 
that any work was done upon the ground 
by the commissioners under the treaty 
of 18 1 4 which threw any light upon the 
dispute as to the head waters of the 

According to Coolidge and Mans- 
field's brief but excellent account of the 
Indian Stream affair, published in their 
history and description of New England 
in 1S60, the settlement in the Indian 
Stream territory began about 1S10. 

The disputed territory included broad 
and fertile acres, and the settlement 
increased rapidly in view of the remote- 
ness of the region, many of the settlers 
being attracted by the broad meadows 
of Indian stream, some, perhaps, by the 
excitement incident to a controversy of 
this character, others prompted by a 
desire to maintain a boundary believed 
to be right, and others still wishing to 
avoid the burdens and responsibilities 
incident to regular government. So it 
may be assumed that this settlement 
in 1830 embraced a people possessed 
of courage, energy, and intelligence suf- 
ficient to maintain all the rights which 
to them belonged. 

The treaty-making powers, having 
proclaimed the uncertainty and dispute 
as to the bound upon the Connecticut 
waters, and the governments of the two 
countries remaining inactive in respect 
to ascertaining and establishing the true 
line, this frontier controversy became 
locally intense, and when we consider 
that it promoted military occupation of 
the disputed territory by the state of 
New Hampshire, and subsequent inter- 
national negotiations which saved to New 
Hampshire and the United States intact 
the valuable lakes and upper waters of 
this great interstate highway, the contro- 
versy is not without general interest. 

As the controversy progressed, some 
were loyal to New Hampshire, others 
tiring of the lame and ineffectual asser- 
tion of jurisdiction by New Hampshire, 
favored an independent government, 
while others stoutly maintained the Can- 
adian view. 



For their title, they relied mainly on 
that descending from Philip, chief of the 
St. Francis tribe, who, lingering upon 

the upper waters of the Connecticut in 
his old age, still insisted that all the 
lands between the Connecticut and the 
Ammonoosuc, the Peumpelussuck or 
Dead river, the Androscoggin, Umba- 
gog lakes with islands, extending north- 
erly into the St. Francis river region, 

sucksesors and all Indian tribes forever, 
also liberty of planting four bushels of 
corn and beans ; and this my trusty 
friend Thomas ('Thomas Fames of North- 
umberland) having given me security to 
furnish me and my squaw with provi- 
sions and suitable clothing which I have 
accepted in full. 1 have for myself, and 
in behalf of all Indians who hunted on 
or inhabited anv of the foregoing lands 


- " * 

- »- - 


- • 






' - • 


The Bounds 


and from thence on waters and carrying 
places to the Connecticut, belonged to 
him and his people. But yielding to 
what he believed to be the inevitable, he- 
released whatever rights he may have 
had forever " with the following condi- 
tions and reservations, namely, that I 
reserve free liberty to hunt all sorts of 
wild game on any of the fore-going ter- 
ritories, and taking fish in any of the 
waters thereof for myself, my heirs and 

or waters forever, quitclaimed and sold 
as aforesaid to them, the said Thomas. 
John, Johnathan, and Nathan as a good 
estate in feesimple, and do covenant 
with them that myself and my ancient 
fathers forever and at all times have 
been in possession of the above described 
premises, and that I haw a good right 
to and will warrant and defend." etc. 
This deed was executed on the 30th of 
June, 1796. 



Among the recitals in the early part 

of the deed is the following : " Know ye 
that I, Philip an Indian And native of 
America, now resident in upper Coos 
and chief thereof.", etc. It is signed 
Philip, Indian Chief, by his mark and 
seal ; by Molley Messell, by her mark 
and seal; and by Mooseleck Sussop, by 
her mark and seal, and was received and 
recorded in the Grafton county registry 
on the 2 2d of November. 1796, and a 
copy thereof is published in full in an 
appendix to the second edition of the 
Rev. Grant Powers's historical sketches 
of the discovery, settlement, and prog- 
ress of events in the Coos country. 

With this deed the St. Francis tribe 
yielded all their rights, except the right 
to plant a little corn and to fish and 
hunt, a few only lingering for that pur- 
pose. Metallak, the son of a chief, " the 
last of his race within our present bound- 
aries, the last hunter of the ancient Coo- 
ash-aukes," dying at Stevvartstown about 
1850, where in the little cemetery at 
West Stewartstown his ashes rest apart 
from his ancestors and the people he 
loved. The story of Metallak is inter- 
estingly and touchingly told by Col. 
Henry O. Kent in his paper on the 
resources, attractions, and traditions of 
the Coos country published in a recent 
history of Coos county. 

Contrary to the settlement of a similar 
question in Rhode Island, New Hamp- 
shire repudiated the Indian title. 

The legislature of 1824, upon the 
report of a committee, asserted its title 
to the Indian Stream territory, but pro- 
tected actual bona-fide settlers by what 
is known as the quieting act, which oper- 
ated to establish the title in the actual 
settlers with certain limitations as to 
quantity of land claimed, and in 1840 
Chief Justice Paiker in Bedel v. Loom is, 
11 New Hampshire 9, 15, affirmed this 

view as to the title of the state, adopt- 
ing the theory that in absence of subse- 
quent grant that the title referred back 
to the time of the separation of this 
country from Great Britain. 

At an early date .some of the settlers 
in this territory either claiming that it 
belonged to neither country, or that it 
belonged to the Dominion of Canada, 
resisted the process of the state of New 
Hampshire, and in 1S20 the legisla- 
ture of New Hampshire by resolution 
directed the attorney-general to pro- 
ceed against such parties as resisted 
her authorities. The destruction of 
the court records of Coos county by 
a recent fire removes all authentic and 
reliable information as to what was 
done under this resolution. Put the 
resolution itself is of historic impor- 
tance in this respect, that it signifies 
clearly the intention of New Hamp- 
shire to maintain her jurisdiction over 
the territory westerly and northerly to 
Hall stream. 

The British and American commis- 
sioners acting under the provisions of 
the treaty of 18 14, to which I have 
referred, made an attempt in 1S19, by 
joint action to ascertain and establish 
the boundary between Canada and 
New Hampshire, but failed to agree, 
the American commissioners insisting 
upon what was known as the Karnes 
survey and Hall's stream as the 
boundary intended by the treaty of 
1783, while the British commissioners 
contended for lines according to the 
British construction. 

In the convention of 1827 all con- 
troversies relating to the north-eastern 
boundary which, of course, included 
the boundary of Maine, as well as New 
Hampshire, were referred to the king 
of the Netherlands who adopted "the 
head of the Connecticut" as the waters 



intended by the original treaty, the 
effect of which would throw the dis- 
puted territory into Canada. This 
result was, of course, unsatisfactory 
to New Hampshire, and as the award 
in this respect as well as in respect to 
the Maine boundary was rejected by 
the United States, the question was 
left for further controversy. 

While it is true that whenever Xew 
Hampshire acted she consistently ad- 
hered to Hall's stream as the true 
boundary line, it must be conceded 
that her exercise of jurisdiction prior 
to 1834— '35 was inefiicient and ineffec- 
tual, and the people of the disputed 
territory being subjected to New 
Hampshire process, and to the asser- 
tion of jurisdiction, and to the service 
of process from the Canadian side, be- 
coming restless under the annoyances 
and uncertainties resulting from such 
conditions, determined to organize and 
establish a government of their own. 

It is stated in the history of Coos 
county, to which I have referred, and 
which was published in iSSS by W. 
A. Fergusson & Co. of Syracuse, that 
" it is evident from the names of the 
councillors of Indian Stream that up 
to this period many of the people had 
only intended to keep a neutral posi- 
tion, and really considered themselves 
under no jurisdiction, save that of their 
own laws until the boundary question 
should be decided, and they allotted 
to New Hampshire or Canada," and 
that the government of Indian Stream 
"was to prevent disorder and anarchy, 
not to cause it." 

Beyond question this government 
was designed as a provisional govern- 
ment, and at its inception was intended 
to be effectual only until such time as the 
international dispute should be settled. 

The original book of records of the 

Indian Stream government, now in my 

possession, and which I now pass to 
the New Hampshire Historical society 

for safe keeping, describes the govern- 
ment and the action of the various 
branches thereof under the constitu- 
tion of the Indian Stream territory 
adopted July 9, 1832. 

If it should be said after inspection 
that the form of government closely 
resembles the federal and state gov- 
ernments, it may be said in return 
that the federal and state governments 
embraced the ideas of government set 
forth by Aristotle of old, as the essen- 
tials of all governments possessing a 
proper division of powers. 

The preamble to the constitution sets 
forth that "whereas we, the inhabitants 
of the tract of land situated between 
Hall's Stream and the stream issuing 
from Lake Connecticut being the dis- 
puted tract of country near the head of 
Connecticut River which is claimed by 
the United States and Great Britain 
respectively, and generally known by the 
name of Indian Stream . . . are 
deprived of the protection of the laws of 
any government but that of our own until 
such time as the boundary line between 
the two governments shall be estab- 
lished, and the time in which that will 
take place is to us unknown, and whereas 
it is our ardent desire to live in peace, 
harmony and good order and consider- 
ing that these great and good objects 
cannot be fully enjoyed without some 
wholesome rules, regulations, or code of 
laws, and considering it the unalienable 
right of all people situated as we are 
wherever in the course of Providence 
their lot is cast and a privilege which 
they are in duty bound to improve to 
strive by all laudable means to take and 
adopt such measures as shall be best 
calculated to promote peace and good 




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Fac-siniile of the Preamble tu the Constitution of the Indian Stream Territory, adopted July g, i v j-. 



order in society among themselves 
while in their present state, as well as 
to prepare them for useful citizens 
should they hereafter become a constit- 
uent part of some other government, 
and whereas it has been the custom of 
the inhabitants of this place to meet 
from time to time and pass such votes 
and by-laws as they deem necessary for 
their regulation and support of order 
without annexing penalties to enforce 
them, and as the population and im- 
provements have considerably increased, 
and considering the great importance 
of making provision for the benefit of 
the rising generation, of adopting and 
enforcing laws on a more permanent 
basis for the support of schools and 
other public improvements and main- 
taining and supporting good order in 
society. And believing the time has 
now arrived when we must as a body 
politick make and enforce laws suffi- 
cient to protect and defend the differ- 
ent members of the community, and 
redress the grievances, and adjust the 
disputes and controversies, which occa- 
sionally arise among them, or they will 
assume the rights of individually redress- 
ing their own grievances and avenging 
their own injuries; . . . We believe 
that if the different members of society 
are permitted to become their own 
avengers, they would commit great injus- 
tice and become aggressors, that retalia- 
tion would produce fresh injuries and 
call into action the worst passions of 
the heart, which would throw our society 
into a state of anarchy and confusion 
which would destroy all the peace, hap- 
piness and pleasant prospects we have 
heretofore enjoyed. Therefore, we, the 
inhabitants of Indian Stream Territory 
being assembled in general meeting, and 
having considered our situation and cir- 
cumstances with all the impartiality and 

candor which we are capable of exer- 
cising, feel a full conviction that under 
present existing circumstances we can- 
not apply to any government for pro- 
tection with any probability of success. 
But by the agreement between the 
United States and Great Britain that 
neither party should exercise jurisdic- 
tion over the disputed territory we are 
left to our own resources for preserving 
order in society without any probabilitv 
of receiving any assistance from either 
government, or any change in our cir- 
cumstances till the boundary line is 
established. We, therefore, believe that 
while it is unknown to what government 
we owe allegiance, we possess full right, 
and imperative necessity requires, that 
we should adopt some form of govern- 
ment which will secure the rights, hap- 
piness and prosperity of the people who 
inhabit this territory, and feel confident 
by so doing we shall promote the inter- 
est and secure the approbation of the 
government to which we shall eventually 
belong, — Therefore, resolved that to 
preserve union amon^ ourselves, estab- 
lish justice, insure domestic tranquility, 
provide for our common security and 
defense, and secure the important bless- 
ings of civilized society, we do ordain 
and establish this constitution, and the 
principles of government therein con- 
tained for our future guide and direc- 
tion in forming and enforcing laws for 
the government of the territory of Ind- 
ian Stream.'' 

The preamble, which I have recited, 
establishes with sufficient historical cer- 
tainty that the inertness, if not the sus- 
pension of the claims of the two coun- 
tries, rendered some local government 
necessary, and that individual opinions 
with respect to the dispute between the 
two governments were wisely subor- 
dinated for the time bein.;. 



The purposes of this paper do not 
justify me in resorting to details which 
relate to the opinions of Individuals or 
factions which held and expressed views 
relating to this dispute. I must, there- 

Gov. Wiiliam Badger. 

fore, content myself with some general 
observations upon the more prominent 
events connected with the provisional 
government and to the action of the 
stronger governments pending hostili- 
ties and the negotiations, which led to 
peace and the final establishment of a 
boundary which included the Indian 
Stream country within the borders of 
New Hampshire and the United States. 

The constitution to which I have 
referred was divided into two parts; 
part i being a Bill of Rights, and to the 
13th Article I wish to call special 
attention, as it declares the right of 
independent local government in view 
of the conditions resulting from the 
inactive and unsettled policies of Great 
Britain and the L'nited States. 

This article declares that "man being 
originally formed by his Creator for 

society and social intercourse, and fr ; 
mutually aiding, assisting, and defend 
ing each other, and promoting their 
mutual welfare and happine . ' ' * all 

societies of men placed by circumstan< es 
of fortune without the jurisdiction or 

control of any other society or govern- 
ment have a right to unite together. 
and institute such government fur the 
regulation of their society as they deem 
most conducive to the general good, 
and where a large majority of the people 
so situated unite together and establish 
a government, the minority of right 
ought to submit to the majority and be 
controlled by them/' 

Part 2 of the constitution describes 
the form of government, the supreme 
legislative power to be vested in a 
council and assembly to meet on the 
2nd Monday in March of each year. 
and at such other times as the council 
might judge necessary, the legislative 
power to be ''styled the General Assem- 
bly of Indian Stream." It provides for 
the creation of courts in which the 
council should be the high court of 
error. It provides for the encourage- 
ment of literature and moral virtue, 
for the issuance of writs and other 
process, and contains all provisions 
necessary for putting the government 
in operation, as well as a provision for 
altering and amending the constitution, 
the latter provision declaring that "The 
speaker of the assembly shall, at every 
annual session when a quorum is 
present, put the question, is it neces- 
sary to alter or amend the constitution, 
and take the vote by yeas and nays by 
calling the names of every member.'* 
Upon the vote adopting the constitution 
there were fifty-six yeas and three 

It was also voted in the .same 
convention, and after the adoption of 




the constitution, that the council draft 
.\ set of rules for the government of 
the house when in session. 

The assembly passed an act to estab- 
lish courts of justice, an act to regulate 
the collection of debts, damages, and 
fines, an act regulating the fees of the 
sheriff and defining his duties, an act 
to provide for forming juries, an act to 
prevent selling spirituous liquors in or 
near the assembly room, an act to 
exempt certain property from attach- 
ment, an act for organizing the militia, 
acts providing for the assessment and 
collection of taxes, acts to support the 
government, and for making and 
repairing highways, an act regulating 
marriages, an act to prevent vexatious 
suits at law, an act for the punishment 
of assault, and battery, and murder, 
(attaching the death penalty to wilful 

Gen. Josepn Low. 

murder"), an act making provision for 
confinement of criminals, an act author- 
izing the sheriff to appoint deputies, an 
act to provide for laying out and discon. 
tinning public roads or highways. 

The government entered in negotia- 
tions with Maine authorities upon the 
subject of a contemplated road designed 
to open communications between the 
Indian Stream country and the state 
of Maine. 

Among the last acts recorded is an 
act to prevent unlawful service of 
process, an act for the punishment of 
perjury, an act for the protection of 
officers in their official duties, an act 
to compel witnesses to attend when 
summoned, and the last recorded, which 
was passed on the iSth of April, 1S35, 
provides for the extradition of persons 
charged with crime and escaping from 
other governments. 

All functions of this government, so 
formed and put in operation, were quite 
vigorously exercised, and for nearly 
three years the Indian Stream govern- 
ment, unique in circumstance and dem- 
ocratic in form, was altogether quite 

It would seem that in the latter part 
of '34 and the early part of '35 New 
Hampshire began to show a more vigor- 
ous activity in the assertion of her juris- 
diction than theretofore; and while the 
United States and Great Britain both 
claimed the territory, it is apparent that 
such powers were content with so shap- 
ing their policies as not to waive their 
rights, and not to precipitate active hos- 
tilities. It is also apparent that Now 
Hampshire, maintaining more vigorous- 
ly than the general government the 
American view, was still disposed, while 
negotiations were pending between the 
greater powers, to proceed cautiously, 
and content herself with declaratory 
acts, setting forth her unmistakable pur- 
pose of an ultimate vigorous insistance 
upon her right to exercise jurisdiction 
over this territory. 

During the decade prior to 1834, a 



Canadian magistrate, impressing his im- 
portance upon the Canadian settlers on 
the frontier, and insinuating his influ- 
ence among the settlers of the disputed 
territory, was the cause of much annoy- 
ance to the inhabitants of these locali- 
ties, the government of New Hampshire, 
the government of the United States, 
the general government of Lower Can- 
ada, and the government of Great Brit- 
ain as well. 

As a result of the disturbed and irri- 
tated conditions caused by the encroach- 
ments of this magistrate, the govern- 
ment of Xew Hampshire during the 
administration of Governor Badger, un- 
der the advice of George Sullivan as 
attorney-general, became more vigorous, 
and under the direction of John H. 
White, sheriff of Coos county, the state 
asserted its jurisdiction by the service 
of process upon the inhabitants within 
this territory. 

The government of Indian Stream 
having been rendered necessary by the 
failure of the contending powers to 
establish an effectual government, and 
having been established, it became the 
purpose of the inhabitants to stoutly 
exercise the right of self-government 
until the jurisdictional question should 
be definitely and finally determined. 

Prompted by such purpose, the assem- 
bly passed an act on the 18th of April, 
1835, reciting in substance that process 
was being served by persons claiming 
to be officers, who were not such under 
the constitution and laws of Indian 
Stream, and providing for their arrest 
and punishment. 

Prior to this action, however, on the 
part of the assembly, and on the second 
day of September, 1834, a council of 
the Indian Stream territory, being influ- 
enced unquestionably somewhat by a 
growing theory that this territory, if 

within the United States, was not in 
New Hampshire, and therefore a terri- 
tory of the United States (a theory 

which is more fully shown by the opin- 
ion of Chief Justice Parker in Bedel v. 
Loom is, 11 X. H. 9, 15) memorialized 
the attorney general of the United 

States on the subject. 

Mr. Renick, chief clerk of the state 
department at Washington, writes that 
this document cannot be found. The 
reply of the attorney-general. Mr. For- 
syth, however, unquestionably recites 
the ground of the memorial, which was 
that the council considered themselves 
"if within the jurisdiction of the United 
States as under that of the general gov- 
ernment and not of New Hampshire." 
Mr. Forsyth was a Georgian, and his 
conclusion upon the subject was stated 
in the following epigramatic sentence : 
• ; If you are within the limits of the 
United States, as has always been main- 
tained by this government, it is because 
you are within the limits of the state of 
New Hampshire." 

On the day that this memorial was 
sent to the attorney-general of the 
United States, the same committee 
addressed a communication to John 
H. White, sheriff of the county of 
Coos, in which they asked him to 
suspend the exercise of jurisdiction 
within this territory " until such time 
as we can obtain an answer from the 
United States government whether the 
boundary line has been settled and 
affixed between the United States and 
Great Britian, and if so, if we are con- 
sidered to belong to New Hampshire." 
They also informed the sheriff that 
they had sent a communication to the 
general government on the subject 
saving, "we have take!, this method 
to secure the rights and calm the irri- 
tated feelings of the people which are 




daily increasing, considering that New 
Hampshire has no legal right to claim 
jurisdisdiction over this place and 
enforce her laws upon us, if in answer 
we should be informed otherwise, we 
ns loyal subjects shall quietly and 
peaceably submit to her laws and 





Capt. James Mooney. 

authority . , . we are anxious to 
take every precautionary measure in 
our power now, and shall continue so 
to do to prevent the effusion of blood." 
A copy of a letter in the office of the 
secretary of state at Concord, which is 
without date, (but the report of the 
judiciary committee to whom was re- 
ferred the special message of the gov- 
ernor at the June session, 1S35, shows 
that it was subsequent to the commun- 
ication to Mr. Forsyth,) signed by 
another committee of Indian Stream 
and addressed "To PJis Excellency 
the Governor of the Province of Lower 
Canada," sets forth that the territory 
on which the settlement is located 
" has been, and still is claimed by the 
government of the United States and 

that of Great Britain, that we have 
until a few days since been permitted 
by said governments to enjoy ourselves 
as a neutral nation or people and 
govern ourselves by our own laws, but 
that a few days since invasions have 
been made upon our rights by the 
sheriff of New Hampshire, by his 
Deputy, William Smith of the County 
of Coos in said state, by exercising 
his authority over this territory as 
being a part and belonging to said 
state . . . and it is said that the 
government of said state has directed 
him so to do, all which doing we are 
fully of opinion is without any lawful 
authority, and a violation upon our 
rights and contrary to treaty between 
said governments, and whereas said 
inhabitants are unable to defend our- 
selves against said state, we, the under- 
signed, in behalf of said inhabits nts, 
pray your Excellency to take our case 
under your wise consideration, and 
grant us such relief as you in your 
wisdom shall judge proper and just, 
for we expect new invasions." 

A letter dated September 18, 1S34, 
from W. M. Richardson, then chief- 
justice of New Hampshire, addressed 
to John II. White, Esq., who was sheriff 
of Coos county, a copy of which is now 
in the office of the secretary of state at 
Concord, sets forth " that a question of 
boundary between the territories of 
nations is purely a political question to 
be settled by treaty, and does not 
belong to the courts of either nation." 
He says further, in the same communi- 
cation, "what the views of the gov- 
ernment of this state now are I am 
not advised. It will be the duty of 
courts to enforce the laws CO-exten 
sively with the territory which the 
state claims. Perhaps your wisest 
and safest course will be to take the 

2 4 2 


advice of the executive and follow 
that. I trust nothing will be done 
that may lead to violence and blood- 

Mr. White, on the 17th of January, 
1S35, addressed a communication to 
the council of Indian Stream in reply 
to their communication of the 2d of 
September, 1834, to which I have re- 
ferred, in which he sets forth that he 
has consulted the chief-justice of the 
superior court and the executive of 
the state, and transmits a letter from 
George Sullivan, attorney-general, to 
the governor, who had taken his advice. 
This communication, with the opinion 
of the attorney-general, made known 
the purpose of Xew Hampshire to 
exercise with vigor and aggressiveness 
her government to the bound claimed 
by the United States. 

About this time factions were de- 
veloped which favored the Canadian 
view, others which favored the Xew 
Hampshire claim as to jurisdiction, 
others the idea of a United States ter- 
ritory, and others, probably constitut- 
ing a majority, maintaining and con- 
tending that they should " abide by and 
support our constitution and laws, — " 
the constitution and laws of the Indian 
Stream territory, "agreeably to our 
oaths, until known to what govern- 
ment we properly belong when our 
constitution is at an end." 

About this time, the Canadians, under 
the lead of the magistrate to whom I 
have referred, became more aggressive. 
advocated resistance to Xew Hampshire 
laws, promised help from Canada, and 
made efforts to serve process within the 
territory and what the Canadians claimed 
to be the township of Drayton, and 
preparations were made for the organ- 
ization of battalions on the Canadian 
side of the frontier. 

Such conditions, together with the act 
of April iS, 1835, to which I have 
referred, and which related to the .ser- 
vice of process by outside authorities, 

and the attempt to enforce laws for the 


Gen. Ira Young. 

punishment of perjury, and for the for- 
feiture of citizenship within this terri- 
tory on the ground of treason, prompted 
attitudes of beligerency and created 
such conditions of excitement and inse- 
curity as to occasion a special mes- 
sage from Governor Badger to the 
legislature at the June session, 1S55 ; 
and after an investigation and a report 
from the judiciary committee to whom 
the message was referred, the legislature 
adopted a resolution declaring - that the 
state of Xew Hampshire should continue 
the possession of the Indian Stream 
territory, and maintain the jurisdiction 
of the state over the same, until the 
question of boundaries now in dispute 
between the United States mh\ I 
Britain affecting the limits of said terri- 
tory shall be finally settled: and His 
Excellencv the Governor be requested 


2 45 

to render all necessary aid to the 
executive officers of the county of 
Coos in causing the laws of said state 
to be duly executed within the limits 
of said territory." It' was further 
resolved at the same time that " it is 
inexpedient for the state during the 
pendency of the controversy in rela- 
tion to said boundaries to make any dis- 
position of the interests of the state in 
the land of said Indian Stream Terri- 

Following this resolution Governor 
Badger, as commander-in-chief of the 
New Hampshire forces, through Adju- 
tant-General Joseph Low, issued an 
order upon Ira Young as colonel of the 
Twenty-fourth regiment, which caused 
Captain James Mooney to rendezvous 
with his company at Stewartstown " for 
the purpose of rendering to John H. 
White Esquire. Sheriff of said county, 
such assistance as might be necessary 
to enable him to serve process in Indian 
Stream Territory." The company en- 
camped at Stewartstown from the fourth 
to the sixth of August, 1835. It later 
became necessary to occupy the terri- 
tory of Indian Stream by military force, 
and a detachment of the Twenty-fourth 
regiment, consisting of Captain Mooney 's 
company, was ordered into the territory 
in November, 1835. The instruction of 
Governor Badger to General Low being 
"to take such steps as might be found 
necessary to maintain the integrity of 
the state and its laws, and if necessary 
to call out so much of the Twenty-fourth 
regiment as will enable the executive 
officers of the county of Coos to exe- 
cute the laws and suppress and put 
down all insurrectionary movements." 

Accordingly General Low ordered 
Colonel Ira Young to " detach and order 
into service, and place at the disposal 
of John H. White. Esquire, Sheriff of 

the County of Coos, one captain, one 
lieutenant, one ensign, four sergeants, 
two musicians, and forty-two privates, 
for three months unless sooner dis- 

Between the time of the rendezvous of 
Captain Mooney's company at Stewarts- 
town in August audits subsequent occu- 
pation of Indian Stream territory, there 
were Canadian encroachments, which 
aroused not only the inhabitants of 
Indian Stream, but of all the towns of 
the northern part of the state. 

This paper is not the place for details, 
but as the episode had the etTect to 
prompt international investigation and 
accelerate negotiations which speedilv 
ascertained and established the jurisdic- 
tional line, it becomes historically impor- 
tant, and I must refer to it brieriv and 



John P. Hj.e. 

leave those who are interested to pursue 
inquiries with reference to this affair to 
detailed accounts in the history of G OS 
county, to which I have referred, and to 
the evidence and the report presented to 
the legislature in 1836 by a committee 



consisting of Joseph Low, Ralph Met- 
calf, and John P. Hale. 

The story in brief is as follows : In 
October, 1S35. the executive officers of 
New Hampshire Having in custody an 
inhabitant of Indian Stream territory 
were forcibly resisted and the prisoner 
rescued, escaping into Canada. During 
the same month an armed body from 
the Canadian side came into the Indian 
Stream territory executing a warrant 
upon an inhabitant of Indian Stream 
who had rendered aid to the executive 
officer of New Hampshire in respect to 
the prisoner to whom I have just 
referred. When asked by what author- 
ity they acted, they answered, "the 
king's." The inhabitant against whom 
the warrant was directed was taken into 
custody, and while the Canadian party 
were proceeding to the place where the 
warrant was returnable, was in turn res- 
cued by a mounted body of Americans. 

News of this Canadian encroachment 
spread rapidly, and within a few hours 
there were assembled on the frontier 
between two and three hundred mounted 
men, from the towns of Colebrook, 
Stewartstown, Clarksville, and the Ind- 
ian Stream territory, embracing a por- 
tion of Captain Mooney's company. 

Acting under the excitement and im- 
pulse of the occasion, some of the more 
aggressive, who were not members of 
the New Hampshire militia, organized 
a mounted party, and proceeding, I sup- 
pose, on the ground of the right of re- 
capture, invaded the king's dominion 
fur the avowed purpose of recapturing 
the party who hid early in the month 
been wrested from the New Hampshire 

This raid resulted not only in recap- 
ture, but in making prisoner of the Can- 
adian magistrate, who violently resisted 
the recapture, and attempted to make 

prisoners of the raiding put}. The 
magistrate, after being brought from the 
Canadian dominion into Vermont, was 
finally released and allowed to return. 

Military occupancy of the Indian 
Stream territory during a part of the 
years i835~ , 36.was for the ostensible 
purpose and upon the avowed necessity 
of aiding the civil authorities of New 
Hampshire, but it is to be presumed 
that the underlying purpose was broad 
enough to resist any organized military 
force from the Canadian side. 

However this may be, this show of 
military power in connection with the 
invasions and recapture, to which I have 
alluded, precipitated an emphatic com- 
plaint and protest from Lord Gosford, 
captain general and governor of Lower 
Canada, issued from the castle of St. 
Louis, Quebec, in February, 1S36, to 
Chas. Bankhead, Esq., His Britannic 
Majesty's Charge d'Affaires. at Wash- 
ington, in which he says, ''It has be- 
come my duty to communicate to you 
the details of an outrage of a very grave 
character which has recently been com- 
mitted within the undoubted limits of 
this province by an armed body, con- 
sisting principally of citizens of New 
Hampshire, on two of His Majesty's 
subjects — one a Justice of the Peace, 
and the other a peace officer, while in 
the execution of their official duties. 
And I have to request that you will take 
such steps as you may judge advisable 
to obtain immediate redress from the 
Justice of the central government of the 
United States for this infraction of the 
Law of Nations, accompanied by acts 
endangering the lives and violating the 
liberties of His Majesty's Canadian sub- 
jects." He also transmits the report of 
a Canadian commission consisting of 
Edward Short, I. McKensie, and Benj. 
Pomroy. This commission was created 



for the purpose of investigating and 
reporting the condition of affairs in the 
disputed territory, and is dated from 
Lenoxville the ist of January, 1S36, 
and among other tilings sets forth "'that 
the territory is now in the possession 
of a body of New Hampshire militia 
consisting of fifty men under the imme- 
diate orders of the same James Mooney 
who was conspicuous in the affray at 
Hereford, that in our progress thro' the 
Indian Stream settlement in the pros- 
ecution of our inquiry, we were stopped 
on the highway near the house of one 
Fletcher by a military guard composing 
a part of the force above mentioned, 
who at the point of the bayonet com- 
manded us to stand and would not per- 
mit us to pass, altho' made aware of the 
authority under which we were acting." 

After an interesting correspondence 
between Secretary Forsyth and Isaac 
Hill, then senator from New Hamp- 
shire, in which Mr. Hill maintains the 
New Hampshire claim, and indicates 
that the discontent and the disturbance 
was the result of a course pursued by 
the Canadian government calculated to 
encourage malcontents, the correspond- 
ence was forwarded to Governor Badger 
by Mr. Forsyth, secretary of state. 

The dispatches between the two gen- 
eral governments were at all times dig- 
nified and conservative. That which I 
have been able to examine begins with 
Lord Aylmer in April, 1835. Lord Ayl- 
mer, who was then governor-in-chief of 
Canada, in a despatch to Sir Charles R. 
Vaughan, Flis Majesty's minister at 
Washington, recites an instance of the 
exercise of judicial authority on the 
part of the state of New Hampshire 
within the limits of the provisional gov- 
ernment of Indian Stream and sets forth 
that such action, ,: can not be acquiesced 
in without prejudice to the pretentions 

of Great Britain to the possession of the 

territory of the Indian Stream as a por- 
tion of the province of Lower Canada.'' 
He says that " from the commencement 
of my administration I have considered 
it a very essential part of my duty as 
Governor-in-Chief of His Majesty's 
North American possessions, to cultivate 
the good will of the neighboring states 
of the American union being assured 
that, in so doing I have been acting in 
accordance with the well-known friendly 
disposition of His Majesty's government 
towards the United States." 

A communication from Adjutant-Gen- 
eral Low to Colonel White, sheriff of the 
county of Coos, under date of January 
29, 1S36, sets forth that the authorities 
of New Hampshire are advised '-that 
the British government will not interfere 
with our jurisdiction at Indian Stream 
until the question of boundaries shall 
have been settled by proper authorities " 
and that he is directed by the governor 
to ask the opinion of Sheriff White and 
Solicitor Williams as to the necessity of 
continuing military occupancy of the 
Indian Stream Territory. 

Peace and quiet having been restored, 
withdrawal of the troops soon followed. 

At the June session, 1S36, the New 
Hampshire legislature again resolved 
'• that the state of New Hampshire 
should continue the possession of the 
Indian Stream Territory and maintain 
the jurisdiction of this state over the 
same until the question of boundaries 
now in dispute between the United 
States and Great Britain affecting the 
limits of said territory shall be finally 
settled.*' The governor is again re- 
quested to render all necessary aid to 
the executive officers of the county of 
Coos in causing the laws of the state to 
be duly executed within the limits of 
said territory. The governor is also 



'•authorized to appoint commissioners 
to repair to Indian Stream and collect 
and arrange such testimony as may be 
obtained to rebut and explain the charges 
and testimony obtained and preferred 
against the citizens of this state bv Lord 


-ed W. Wi 

Gosford, Governor of the province of 
Lower Canada.'' Under this resolution 
the committee consisting of Low, Met- 
calf, and Hale, to which I have referred, 
was appointed for such purpose. 

The depositions were taken before 
Mr. Hale and Col. Ira Young and the 
evidence there gathered and preserved 
by this committee in connection with its 
report set forth in detail the heroic and 
courageous action of the people of 
northern Coos in the maintenance of 
what to them seemed right. 

With the assurance of the British gov- 
ernment through the proper channels 
that no further interference with the 
jurisdiction of New Hampshire over the 
Indian Stream territory should take 
place, local and military hostilities 
ceased, and peace was restored. 

Forsyth, Hill, Badger, Sullivan, Low, 
and White were all men of courage and 
determination and well calculated to 
maintain the rights and establish the 
authority of the nation and .state to 
such a bound as they were entitled to go. 

At about this period the work of nego- 
tiation with respect to the establishment 
of boundaries between the United 
States, Great Britain, and other coun- 
tries, was pushed more vigorously and 
being only partially closed by Webster 
was continued by Calhoun ; that part 
with which we are now dealing, however, 
being definitely and finally settled by 
Art. r of the treaty of 1842, executed 
at Washington by Webster and Ashbur- 
ton, wherein after defining the north- 
eastern boundary of Maine and coming 
to the source of the south-west branch 
of the St. John in the Highlands 
at the Metjarmette portage, it is pro- 
vided that the boundary shall go - ; thence, 
down along the said Highlands, which 
divide the waters which empty them- 
selves into the River St. Lawrence from 
those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean 
to the head of Hall Stream ; thence 
down the middle of said stream till the 
line thus run intersects the old line of 
boundary surveyed and marked by Val- 
entine and Collins, previously to the 
year 1774, as the forty-fifth degree of 
North latitude," thus giving to New 
Hampshire all the territory which .she 

According to an article, published 
in Volume 2 of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society Collections, written 
in 1S27, from Portsmouth, wherein 
the writer sets forth from recollection 
the arguments made by the two coun- 
tries which he perused through the 
politeness of the secretary of the Eng- 
lish council; the claim ol England was 
that the Maine branch of the river 



issuing from Lake Connecticut must 
be deemed the " north-westernmost head 
of Connecticut river," because the other 
streams did not bear the name of 
"Connecticut," but distinct names; 
while on the contrary, it was shown 
by the United States that this is the 
case with almost all rivers having 
different heads, and that this "head" 
coming from the lake can hardly be 
said to spring from the " Highlands," 
and would have been designated for a 
boundary by the name of the main 
branch if one more northwest had 
not been intended as the boundary. 
According to the same authority, the 
British next contended for Indian Stream 
as the north-westernmost head, while 
on the other hand it was argued that 
Leach stream is farther west, etc., and 





that the treaty does not say the most 
northerly head, the main head, or the 
north-west head, but the north-western- 
most head. 

It must also be said in the same 
connection that the surveyors of New 

York and Canada, in 1772. passed by 
Hall stream on the forty-fifth degree of 
north latitude to the main branch of 
the river. New Hampshire did not 
take part in this survey, however. 

It must also be recalled that as late 
as 1835. Sir Charles R. Vaughn, then 
Great Britain's envoy extraordinary, in 
a communication to Forsyth, the Ameri- 
can secretary of state, sets forth " that 
the British government contends that 
the north-westernmost head of the Con- 
necticut river ought to be established 
at the source of a stream which rlows 
into a lake above the Connecticut 

It may be safely assumed, that Mr. 
Webster, a native of New Hampshire, 
loving her people, and knowing and 
loving her rivers, lakes, and hills, 
looking at this great highway, having 
its source in her highlands, flowing and 
broadening through the valleys of the 
state of his adoption, prompted by love 
for his native state and his view of the 
national importance of this great river 
in a commercial and military sense, 
brought to the support of New Hamp- 
shire's claim and the contention of the 
federal government all his energy, 
and all the power of his persausive 

The territory in dispute embraced 
something like 200,000 acres, and at 
the time the provisional government of 
Indian Stream was formed, there were 
between ninety and a hundred voters, 
and a population of three or four 

At this time the people of the settle- 
ment understood that the treaty-making 
powers had at least tacitly agreed that 
neither should exercise jurisdiction 
pending treaty negotiations. 

Occupation of the territory by mili- 
tary force did not bring on a conflict 

2 4 8 


between the regular organizations, but 
unquestionably the presence of military 
force quieted the disturbed conditions 
within the territory, and caused the 
local, civil, and military authorities of 
Canada to stand off, and therefore had 
the effect to avoid conilicts and blood- 
shed which would otherwise have 
taken place between the frontier settle- 

The legislature of New Hampshire 
promptly and at the November session, 
1836, passed a resolution setting forth 
that the military and other expenses 
incurred by the government of New 
Hampshire in protecting its citizens 
from unlawful attempts on the part of 
the authorities of the province of lower 
Canada to possess and exercise juris- 
diction over Indian Stream territory, 
were proper charges against the govern- 
ment of the United States as such 
resistance was made necessary '-in 
consequence" of the foreign interfer- 
ence with such territory. 

The expenses attending this cam- 
paign were finally assumed by the 
general government upon the ground 
that as it related to a bound between 
the United States and a foreign country, 
it in effect involved an international 
dispute, and the state was reimbursed 
through special acts of congress in 
1849 an d I ^5 2 - 

So far as actual maintenance of 
jurisdiction was concerned, the burden 
for a long time rested upon New Hamp- 
shire, the federal custom officials con- 
fusing the conditions and rendering the 
situation more uncertain for a time, by 
exacting duties from the people of the 
Indian Stream territory, who brought 
their products into Vermont and New 

The assertions and administrative 
acts of New Hampshire, as lias been 

stated, were, prior to 1S34. lacking in 
force and vigor, and on the whole, the 
condition of affairs in this territory 
resulting from the inertia of the two 
governments would seem to justify the 
establishment and maintenance of the 

Daniel Webster. 

provisional government of Indian 
Stream. Its form and provisions 
show that the people possessed wis- 
dom and were inspired by principles 
of morality. The subsequent conflicts 
are sufficient evidence of their metal 
and courage. The only official stain 
upon the local government results from 
the application to the Canadian powers 
for protection against New Hampshire, 
but viewed in the light of the preamble 
to their constitution, and the communi- 
cations to the various powers, this 
should be accepted, perhaps, as a 
diplomatic effort on the part of the 
people to secure aid necessary to sus- 
tain themselves in a position of neu- 
trality pending treaty negotiations, in 
order that they might the more natur- 
ally and gracefully adjust themselves 



to the government under whose juris- 
diction they should finally fall. 

Whatever may have been the views 
of individuals or factions during the 
unsettled and disturbed periods, when 
the jurisdictional line was finally estab- 
lished, all became loyal to their state 
and country, this territory furnishing 
more soldiers to the Civil War, accord- 
ing to her population, than any other in 
New Hampshire save one. And there 
were none more brave. 

The boundary contlict is no more. 
Peace and prosperity reign in the val- 
leys of the upper Connecticut. Only 
a few of the strong and brave actors 
in this affair remain. The great ma- 
jority have been removed from the 
stage of action, some sleeping among 
other scenes, many having their final 
resting place among the hills and in 
the valleys they loved so well. 


I first wish to express my appreciation of 
the courtesies extended to me by the Hon- 
orable William P>. Ives, president of the 
council of the Canadian government at 
Ottawa, and to the Honorable John Costi- 
gan, secretary of state, Canada, who have 
kindly furnished copies of such papers as I 
have needed from Canadian Archives, in the 
prosecution of this work. 

The Honorable Joseph B. Walker of the 
Historical society requests that I refer to 
documents and histories connected with the 
affair to which I have directed attention in 
the foregoing paper. Consequently, I refer 
(not as including all) to the following 
treaties, official correspondence, messages, 
reports, histories, etc., some bearing direct- 
ly, others remotely, upon the subject. 

Treaty of 1783, Art. 2. Treaty of 1814, 
Art. V. Treaty of 1842. Art. 1. 

Correspondence between the governors of 
Lower Canada and the British ministers at 
Washington and Mr. Forsyth, partial copies 
of which with other papers are in the secre- 

tary of state's office at Concord marked 
44 Papers relating to Indian Stream, 1S34- 

Other copies of Canadian and Federal 
official correspondence, which I pass to the 
New Hampshire Historical society. 

Correspondence between Governor Bad- 
ger and the attorney general of the United 
States, and between the governor and the 
attorney-general of New Hampshire, a part 
of which is in the secretary of state's office 
at Concord. 

A paper on the Northern Boundary, writ- 
ten from Portsmouth, April 20, 1S27, to 
which I have heretofore referred. 

The Critical Period of American History, 
by John Fiske, 1891. 

Book of Indian Stream Records, now in 
the New Hampshire Historical Society Col- 

History and Description of New England, 
by A. J. Coolidge and J. B. Mansfield, 
i860. 390. 

New Hampshire Patriot, 1820 to 1838. 

Military History of New Hampshire by 
Chandler E. Potter, published in Adjutant 
General's Report, New Hampshire, 1S6S, 
12, 269. 

Garneau's History of Canada, 1S62. 

The Northeastern Boundary, by Honorable 
Israel Washburn, Jr., LL. D., Collections 
of the Maine Historical Society, Vol. S, p. 1. 

Judge William L. Putnam of the United 
States Circuit Court has a valuable collection 
of documents relating to the north-eastern 
boundary, among which is a volume consist- 
ing of documents and papers, principally 
extracted from the statements laid before the 
King of the Netherlands, revised by Albert 
Gallatin, with an appendix and eight maps. 
Another volume of documents relating to 
the north-eastern boundary of the state of 
Maine, printed by Dutton & Wentworth, 
Boston, printers to the state of Maine in 
182S. Another, consisting of the governor's 
menage and documents on the subject of 
the doings of the arbiter (King of the Neth- 
erlands) with a report of the committee of 
the legislatuie in relation to the aoith-east- 
ern boundary of Maine, printed by Todd & 



Holden, printers to the state in 1S31. The 
maps in the appendix to Gallatin's volume 
strongly sustain the American view, both as 
to the Highlands between the St. Lawrence 
and the St. John as. the boundary of .Maine, 
and as to Hall stream as the northerly bound 
of New Hampshire. 

Address by Honorable Sidney Webster 
before the Grafton and Cods liar Associa- 
tion in 1892, on Franklin Pierce and the 
Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, Bar Publica- 
tions, Vol. 2. 

History of Coos County, Fergusson, iSSS, 
95, 696-720, 

Grant Power's History of the Cods Coun- 
try, 2d edition published 1S80. Old edi- 
tion, 1S41. 

Report of Legislative Committee and Res- 
olution, November session, and Act approved 
December 22. 1824. 

Resolution of the Legislature approved 
June 18, 1836, creating a Committee of 

The Report and Evidence filed by Joseph 
Low, Ralph Metcalf, and John P. Hale, 
November 23, 1836, a copy of which is now 
with Richard Fletcher, Esq., Lancaster, 
bound in Vol. 13 Pamphleteer, such volume 
being a collection of interesting documents 
made by Hiram A. Fletcher, Esq. This 
report is published in the Journal of the Leg- 
islature, 1836, p. 397, but it does not con- 
tain the evidence taken by Mr. Hale as does 
Fletcher's collection in his Vol. 13 of the 

Another copy with Mary Bedel Drew, 
daughter of Col. Hazen Bedel and grand- 
daughter of Lyman Lombard, a member 
of Corresponding Committee to the Gov- 

Report of Glines, Land Agent, Journal of 
the House, June session, p. 297. 

Report of James \V. Weeks, Surveyor. 
Appendix to Journal, June session, 1849, 
p. 600. 

Report of John Flanders and David Plan- 
chard, Agents, Id. 596. 

Plan of Pittsburg prepared and filed in the 

Secretary of State's office by Hon« 
James W. Weeks June 15, 1849. 

Governor Badger's Special Message to the 
Legislature, 1835. House Journal, p. j}. 

Report of Judiciary Committee, appendix, 
Journal 1S35. 

Any one interested in the history of this 
affair should examine carefully the Journals 
of the House and Senate from 1S00 to 1830 
(as I do not undertake to refer to them all), 
and for this purpose it would be well to refer 
to Aiken's index under the head of " Indian 
Stream" and "Pittsburg." It would be- 
well, also, to look for the Governor Badger 
papers among his descendants, as well as 
the papers of General Low, Colonel Young, 
and Sheriff White. Honorable James W. 
Weeks, of Lancaster, and David Blanchard, 
Esq., of Pittsburg, have personal knowledge 
of the Indian Stream affair, and have made 
valuable collections of papers. 

Unfortunately, there are few, if any. papers 
or records in the office of the adjutant-gen- 
eral, where one would naturally expect to 
find a full account of the military operations. 
The late Amos W. Drew, of Stewartstown, 
was ensign of Captain Moonev's company. 
His record book of the company is now in 
the possession of his son, Hon. Irving W. 
Drew, of Lancaster. It is to be hoped that 
the Historical Society will obtain and pre- 
serve this. I should also examine records 
of the state treasury department for evidence 
of the financial transactions between the 
state and federal governments. 

The northern boundary was by actual sur- 
vey ascertained under the Webster-A>hbur- 
ton Treaty, and marked by iron posts as 
follows : 

On Easterly side — »« Boundary Aug" 9 til, 

On Westerly side — »« Treaty of Washing- 
ton.' 1 

On Northerly side — "Col. I. B. B. Est- 
court, H. B. M. Con; - r ." 

On Southerly side — Albert Smith, I". S. 
Com' ar ." 


By Clarence //. Pearson. 

She had lived all her life in a log 
cabin on the side of one of the Cumber- 
land mountains in Eastern Tennessee. 
To her the little towns in the Sequachee 
valley represented the great centres of 
manufacture and commerce. She had 
once visited South Pittsburg, which was 
said to have a population of something 
over four thousand, and the strange and 
wonderful things she saw there furnished 
her with food for many days of reflec- 
tion. Her daily life was extremely 
uneventful. She kept house for her 
father, who was her sole surviving rel- 
ative and her only companion. He was 
a grave, unostentatious man, who pur- 
sued his chosen occupation quietly and 
industriously, but never tried to extend 
his business beyond certain limits and 
never advertised. He was a moon- 

One day, late in August, a party of 
campers from Chattanooga came and 
pitched their tents on the mountain 
side not far from the little cabin. The 
company consisted of a married couple 
of thirty-five or thereabout, several lively 
and exceedingly noisy young people 
who have nothing in particular to do 
with this story, and little Dot, the baby, 
aged four. They disported themselves 
very much after the manner of campers 
in general, exploring every nook and 
cranny of the mountain, and singing, 
laughing, and shouting until thev awak- 
ened the echoes for miles around. 

"Game '11 be powerful sca'se this fall 
ef this yer pack o' yellin' loonatics don't 
shove out soon," crumbled Xaomi's 

father one day, "for 1 'low they'll skeer 
every livin' thing outen the kentry." 

One afternoon, when every one thought 
she was asleep in one of the tents, little 
Dot started on a tour of discovery. 
About the first object of interest she 
found was a long, slender, graceful, 
golden-brown creature with beautiful 
seal-brown markings and a queer little 
rattle on the tip of its tail. Its eyes 
shone like diamonds, and little Dot 
thought she had never seen anything 
quite so lovely and attractive in her 
whole life. 

Naomi came upon the child and her 
new acquaintance at a very opportune 
moment. The reptile, irritated by the 
too close approach of the little one, had 
struck, fortunately burying its dcacllv 
fangs in the folds of the brightly-colored 
dress instead of the white, delicate flesh. 
Without a moment's hesitation the girl 
caught the squirming creature by the 
neck so close to the terrible, gaping 
jaws that it could not turn to bite her. 
It coiled so tightly around her arm as 
to almost paralyze it, but she held it in 
a firm grasp, and, taking a stone in her 
left hand, laid the ugly, triangular head 
on a boulder and pounded it to a shape- 
less mass. Then, contrary to all prece- 
dent, she refrained from fainting. 

Little Dot's parents were profuse in 
their expressions of gratitude, and the 
r- >t of the party were so loud in their 
praises of her courage, that at first 
they made Naomi very uncomfortable. 
They came to the house frequently, and 
little Dot followed her about like a 

2 5 2 


shadow. It was very easy to learn to 
love the beautiful little creature whose 
life she had saved, and to conceive a 
strong friendship for the parents, whose 
kindly feeling toward their child's pre- 
server was so manifest. 

About this time Naomi's father met 
with a serious reverse in business. Two 
strangers who were ostensibly prospect- 
ing for coal, discovered the cave where 
he kept all the tools and implements of 
his occupation, and carried them away. 
They also took the owner before the 
federal court to answer to the charge of 
violating the United States revenue 
laws. In a few days, for justice is not 
always leaden-footed, especially when 
dealing with illicit distillers, word came 
back that the old man had been sen- 
tenced to imprisonment for two years. 

And so it happened that Xaomi, hav- 
ing nowhere else to go, accompanied 
her new friends to Chattanooga. Two 
years amid new scenes and surround- 
ings make a great change in the life of 
a simple mountain maid. At the end of 
that time one would hardly have known 
her ; indeed the moonshiner's daughter 
scarcely knew herself. At last came 
the day to which, in spite of herself, 
she had been looking forward for a 
lono; time with a secret dread. With a 
sinking heart she read the scrawling, 
ill-spelled epistle, notifying her that her 
father was once more a free man, and 
requesting her to return home at once. 
She knew that she ought to be glad. 
She was glad that the long, weary days 
of her father's imprisonment were over, 
but how could she return to the dull, 
monotonous existence which she had 
known before ? She slept little and 
wept much that night, for she had 
decided after a sharp struggle with her 
inclinations, that the path of duty led 
her to the lone cabin on the mountain. 

She thought how sadly she should miss 
little Dot and her parents, to whose 

kindness she owed so much : and then 
with a sharp twinge of pain she thought 
of the handsome, manly young me- 
chanic who had sought her society SO 
frequently during the past few months. 
He had made no spoken declaration of 
love, but she was very sure that a cer- 
tain important question had trembled 
upon his lips at their last meeting, and 
that only a chance interruption had 
prevented its utterance. And she must 
leave the city the next day without an 
opportunity to bid him good-bye, for he 
was away on a visit and would not 
return for nearly a week. 

One bright afternoon six weeks later 
Xaomi was far up on the side of the 
mountain, gathering nuts. Chancing to 
glance up from her work she saw a man 
standing on a high knoll a few hundred 
yards below her father's cabin. His 
form looked strangely familiar, and she 
watched him curiously. Presently a 
clump of bushes near him seemed to 
emit a little puiT of white smoke, and 
simultaneously the man threw up his 
hands and staggering forward, fell to 
the ground. A second or two later the 
report of a rifle reached her ear. She 
turned cold with horror as the awful 
truth dawned upon her. A murder had 
been committed and worse still, she felt 
sure that her own father was the assassin. 
Probably the victim was some prowling 
revenue officer, and yet the figure had 
been so like that of some one she had 
known. A terrible thought arose in her 
mind — a possibility that filled her with 
sickening fear, and she rushed down the 
mountain's steep side like some mad 
creature. Heeding no obstacle in her 
wild haste, she dashed on, tearing 
through bushes, leaping over fallen 
dashing her feet against the sharp stones. 


2 53 

until, breathless and panting, she arrived 
at the spot where she had last seen the 
stranger. Merciful God, what a sight 
met her gaze ! There prone on the 
ground lay her handsome lover with the 
blood still slowly oozing from a wound 
in his chest, and the terrible glassy glare 
of death in his blue eyes. His features 
were distorted, his limbs were drawn 
up, and in his right hand was a ilower- 
ing shrub which he had clutched and 
uprooted in his strong death agony. 
Xaomi stood there staring with a strange, 
dazed look on her face. Could this 
poor, pitiful, helpless object be the 
strong, self-reliant man she had known 
and loved ? Yes, it must be — it was, 
and yet she did not, could not weep or 
cry out. It was so odd, she thought, 
that she should stand looking at him, 
realizing that he was dead, and yet man- 
ifesting no grief. She wondered if she 
really had a heart. She could feel some- 
thing beating and throbbing in her 
bosom, but it seemed like a great lump 
of ice. For a long time she remained 
apparently as unmoved by the ghastly 

spectacle as the rocks around her. Then 
slowly, very slowiv, a sense of her great 
loss came upon her. A numb pain 
unlike anything she had ever before 
experienced crept into her bosom and 
became more and more intense until she 
could hardly refrain from shrieking in 
her anguish. She leaned against a 
small tree, covered her face with her 
hands to shut out that horrible stare, 
and moaned piteously. Presently she 
was aroused by a light touch on her 
shoulder. Looking up she saw her 
father beside her with a world of pity in 
his usually cold, gray eyes. The old 
man had divined the whole sad truth, 
and the strange emotions which strug- 
gled within him rlooded the wrinkled old 
face with tender feeling. 

" Come, little gal," he whispered softly, 
"come home." 

" O pap ! " she broke forth in a wail 
of agony, " how could you ? How could 
you ? " 

" God help me ! " he murmured hus- 
kily, " I done 'lowed 'twas a revenue 

By Edwin IV. Sanborn. 

A time has now come when it is pos- 
sible to review with calmness the whole 
affair of Ndronga. It is not easy to 
realize that prior to 1904 the Ndronga 
islands were hardly known to the world. 
On many maps they are not mentioned. 
On others they are called the YVatkins 
islands, probably after the original dis- 
coverer. Lying at a distance from lines 
of traffic, their products were not suffi- 
cient to attract commerce. 

Yet their crowded history of two years 

has not been a mere rush of accident. 
It was a natural outcome of the coloniz- 
ing movements at the close of the last 
century. As the African field became 
exhausted, the long rivalries in Asia 
were nearing a crisis. Close observers 
had noted the coming of a new order in 
China. The breaking up of that ancient 
system offered vast possibilities to the 
restless powers of Europe. While Brit- 
ish aggression was reaching out from 
India, and Russian from Siberia, the 



French had gained a foothold at Ton- 
quin and the Germans in Cbrea. There 
were interests of Holland in the East 
Indies and of Spain in the Phillipine 

It was clear that success would 
depend on naval preparation. From 
the need of intermediate harbors and 
bases of supply an eager scrutiny was 
turned upon the islands of the Pacific. 
With available harbors in the southern 
oceans already taken, there was now a 
fierce scramble for stations in western 
Polynesia. Since the formal establish- 
ment of a protectorate over Hawaii in 
1897, the United States had fortified 
there a strong naval station. It was 
now necessary to protect the Hawaiian 
protectorate. Early in 1904 the cruiser 
A'ew Whatcom was despatched for a 
thorough exploration of the Central 
Pacific islands, and as a result of this 
cruise, Ndronga came into sudden prom- 
inence. The islands have been so thor- 
oughly described that we only need to 
recall their general features. 

Like many Pacific islands, they were 
formed by the joint action of volcanic 
and coralline agencies. Xdronga proper 
is an attol of the usual horse-shoe form. 
The enclosed lagoon, having a width of 
about ten miles and depth of fifteen to 
twenty fathoms, offered a fine harbor. 
At a distance of ten miles is what is 
now known as Huckins island, contain- 
ing some fifty square miles of land. 
Steep, rugged cliffs, the rim of an old 
volcano, rise around the shore line. 
Reefs make it unapproachable by sea, 
but a rocky ridge readies toward the 
attol and is carried on by coral forma- 
tions for the whole distance. Xdronga is 
thus, properly speaking, a single island; 
but as there are two bodies of land con- 
nected only by a narrow neck, we have 
become accustomed to speak of the 

whole group as the Ndronga island 
Such a harbor, joined with a natun 
stronghold, offered great advantages a 
a naval station. 

The coral island was found to have 
native population of about two hundre 
and lift}-. They were of the Papuan <. 
negritic race ; had learned nothing < 
civilization, and were reputed to retai 
savage and even cannibal instinct 
On the other " island" were two whil 
men, survivors of the brig Polly, whic 
had been driven out of her course an 
wrecked a few weeks earlier. The 
were Zenas Huckins, of Aroostoo 
county, Maine, first mate of the Poll 
and a French- Canadian sailor name 
John Bergeron, or "Bazro," as the nan 
was called by his American ship-mat 
The rescued seamen were anxious 1 
hasten home; but after mate Huckii 
had been entertained on board the Ne 
Whatcom and favored with a talk i 
Commander Waffles's cabin, he decide 
to continue for the present his residem 
on the island. Leaving a guard 1 
armed marines, Commander YVaffli 
steamed away to Hawaii to cable h 
report and receive instructions. Du 
ing the absence of the New Whatco 
there were important developments. 

The government of Xdronga was a 
absolute monarchy. The late king ha 
passed away at a state banquet fro 
heart-failure, due to the lodgment of 
bit of clavicle in his throat. The su 
cession was now in dispute between h 
daughter, who had assumed the title 1 
Hoogle-Google I. and his nephew, tl 
ambitious Wombat. Accompanied 1 
the marines, mate Huckins venture 
toward the Ndronga attol. From mov 
ments of the populace it was seen th 
the large body of the commonalty wre 
not attached to either claimant. The 
was much to show a strong current 1 



feeling in favor of popular government. 
Mr. Huckins consulted an influential 

delegation of natives upon this point, 
and from their utterances and gestures 
found that they were indeed moved by 
a revolutionary spirit. He returned to 
camp impressed with the duty of placing 
himself at the head of the popular cause. 
An opportunity was not long in com- 
ing. Among the supplies saved from 
the Polly, were a keg of genuine Aroos- 
took County cider apple-sauce and a 
box of spruce gum consigned to a fac- 
tory town in New South Wales. On 
waking one morning Huckins found 
that both had disappeared. The tracks 
of bare feet in the sand showed in what 
way they had gone. Mr. Huckins 
demanded as an American citizen the 
protection of an armed escort, and 
started in pursuit. On arrival at the 
village it was clear that the time was 
ripe for action. The cider apple-sauce 
had already been consumed, and the 
box of gum was broken open. To 
attract attention Mr. Huckins called 
out several times, — ''Fellow citizens!'' 
He then inquired in a loud, clear voice 
whether public sentiment favored the 
elevation to the throne of either appli- 
cant. Hostile cries set at rest any 
doubt on that point. He asked again 
whom they would choose to lead in 
organizing a republican form of govern- 
ment. As there was a general rush in 
his direction, with loud acclaim, Mr. 
Huckins felt himself entrusted with 
the task of formulating such a plan. 
To avoid all questions, he inquired 
whether there was any opposition to his 
organizing a provisional government. 
No voice was rai.^ed in response. 
Indeed, these details seemed to arouse 
little interest. Mr. Huckins returned 
to camp, and lost no time in carrying 
out the popular will. He took the 

title of chairman of the board of select- 
men. He also found it necessary to 
assume for the present the offices of 
fence viewer and culler of staves. 

On the return of Commander Waffles, 
a treaty of annexation to the Cnited 
States was prepared with which the 
AV<v Whatcom set sail for San Fran- 
cisco. President Harfcock was known 
to be favorable to territorial extension, 
and there was no surprise when the 
treaty received his approval, and was 
commended to the senate. But for the 
sudden death of President Harfcock, 
the whole matter would have been 
quickly finished. The succession of 
A 'ice President Wardheele for the first 
time caused a feeling of uncertainty. 
Of the views of the new president on 
public questions, little was known. At 
the Omaha convention of 1900, after 
the long contest for the presidential 
nomination, a short adjournment was 
taken. The weary delegates were anx- 
ious to go home. Indiana had lost the 
presidential nomination, and the choice 
of candidate for the vice presidency 
was accordingly left to the delegation 
from that state. The delegation were 
found in the cafe' of the Imperial hotel. 
It was known that Major Boodelle. the 
leader of the delegation, was a close 
friend of ex-Alderman Wardheele. in- 
deed it was mentioned as current gos- 
sip, that he had lost $2,300, to Mr. 
Wardheele, while seeking needed relax- 
ation at a friendly game of poker the 
previous night. The two gentlemen 
now engaged for a few moments in 
earnest conversation, and on the reas- 
sembling of the convention. Major 
Poodelle presented the u one of Mr. 
Wardheele, who was at once chosen by 

It is a matter of regret that the per- 
sonal relations between the new execu- 

2 5 6 


the and his predecessor had been some- 
what strained. The vice president had 
urged the appointment of one of his 
constituents, Mr. Dennis Blox OThyfe, 
as postmaster at Duttonwood Creek, 
Indiana. Senator Wabash insisted on 
the nomination of Editor Phloter of the 
Buttonwood News-Clipper^ a nephew of 
his wife's cousin. The contest will be 
long remembered for its length and 
bitterness. It was during an executive 
session upon this issue that the fatal, 
personal encounter occurred between 
Senator Hummock of Xew York and 
Senator Xoyes of Nevada ; an event 
which caused no little comment upon 
the rigid etiquette of the senate, as it 
was felt that the lives of both gentle- 
men might have been spared for con- 
tinued usefulness, had not the courtesy 
of the senate forbidden any interference 
with their proceedings. The confirma- 
tion of Mr. Phloter brought down a 
storm of captious criticism upon the 
president and Senator Wabash, as it 
was followed by the senator's change of 
vote upon the Simpleson bill for coining 
the juniorage on silver bullion. 

For these reasons, it was thought, 
probably without any just ground, that 
President YYardheele would reverse the 
policy of the late government. His first 
steps were certainly marked by cautious 
deliberation. The treaty was withdrawn 
from the senate, and Colonel Souah- 
masch of Kentucky was despatched as a 
special commissioner to make an impar- 
tial investigation of the status at Xdron- 
ga. Such action seemed proper to set 
at rest ill-informed suspicions. A fierce 
newspaper discussion was in progress, 
descending to ribald, not to say scurri- 
lous, accusation. It was said that when 
mate Huckins asked the feeling of the 
Ndronga electorate as to the restoration 
of royalty, their cries of seeming oppo- 

sition were due to their being inflame 
by cider apple-sauce; and that when !i 
called for dissenting voices to his ow 
plan, their silence was caused by loci 

jaw, following a hasty attempt to devoi 
the spruce gum. It was further claime 
that the wishes of the natives could n< 
be learned to advantage without an ii 

To avoid any semblance of arme 
interference in the affairs of a friend] 
nation, Colonel Souahmasch as preside! 
tial ablegate, ordered all detachments c 
the United States army to retire to tli 
east of the Sierra Nevada, and directe 
our navy to withdraw from the Pacifii 
On his arrival at Ndronga, he refused a 
courtesies from (de facto") Selectma 
Huckins in a manner which seeme 
somewhat haughty but was undoubted 1 
prompted by a delicate sense of the r 
sponsible nature of his duties. M 
Huckins, who suffered from a chron 
catarrhal trouble, had brought with hii 
in escaping from the wreck, a sing 
bandanna handkerchief marked wit 
the colors of the American flag. Th 
Commissioner Souahmasch at one 
destroyed, lest its frequent displa 
should be misconstrued. He set oi 
wholly unattended to seek a free an 
unconstrained statement from the pe< 
pie of Xdronga. 

Commissioner Souahmasch never n 
turned to report. He had left ordei 
that his investigation should not be di 
turbed, but after three days of anxiou 
waiting a party of sailors from the D 
sptitch cautiously approached the villagi 
The natives were lying about in a daze 
condition, as if sleeping off the effect ( 
some extraordinary indulgence. Froi 
the smoking embers of a tire were r.ike 
a few bits of black glass and a ha 
a dozen small, round disks, some blu< 
others red. In the heated campaign c 



190.}, in which the Ndronga question 
was the leading issue, many harsh accu- 
sations were made, but the fate of the 
paramount commissioner still remains a 

mystery. In that campaign President 
Wardheele stood upon the broad plat- 
form that a wrong had been done to a 
less powerful but friendly people, and 
that this wrong must be righted. Jt was 
pointed out that the man Huckins soon 
after a conference with our naval force, 
had, either through negligence or design, 
allowed a food supply saturated with 
intoxicating liquid to be distributed 
among the people of Xdronga. This 
interference must now be disavowed and 
the rightful dynasty restored. The chiv- 
alrous policy of the president appealed 
strongly to the public, but later a change 
of sentiment resulted in his defeat and 
again reversed the position of the gov- 
ernment. It was no doubt largely due 
to the threatening attitude assumed by- 
European powers. 

Vessels of other nations had appeared 
in the harbor of Xdronga. When the 
British cruiser Stoke-Pogis sailed away, 
it was found that Queen Hoogle-Google 
had sailed with her, it being given out 
that she had appealed to the British 
crown. At the court of St. James the 
royal visitor was treated with the high- 
est distinction. She was at once placed 
in charge of Sir Reginald Sope-Scow- 
ersby, first knight of the bath. At the 
state dinner given in her honor, Queen 
Victoria for the first time in years 
emerged from retirement. Finding 
a chair uncomfortable, Queen Hoogle- 
Google cleared a place for herself 
upon the royal board, where she 
squatted with a circle of viands ranged 
conveniently about. It is a fine tribute to 
the breeding of English royalty that this 
innovation caused no remark. Indeed, 
the Prince of Wales, at a signal from 

his royal mother — in order to place the 
guest of the nation entirely at her ease- 
mounted the table himself, and took as 
nearly the same attitude as his figure 
and suppleness would permit. 

While these events were taking place 
at London, it was suddenly found that 
Prince Wombat, the rival claimant, had 
appeared at Berlin, where he was received 
with even greater honors. Of John Ber- 
geron, the companion of Huckins, little 
had been heard. Sailors on the French 
corvette La Chart reuse had made him 
feel at home, and did not fail to remark 
on the neglect with which he had been 
treated. It was found that Bergeron 
was a native of France, and had never 
become a citizen of Canada or the Uni- 
ted States. He asserted that he had been 
washed ashore at Xdronga on a wave- 
preceding the arrival of mate Huckins. 
Upon this state of facts the French 
government set up a plausible claim to 
to the islands by priority of occupation. 

It was seen that this island was now 
the key to the Pacific, with all which 
that implied. During the winter of 
1 904-^5 the naval powers were strength- 
ening their forces in the Pacific. As 
one vessel after another was reported in 
that quarter, it became possible for 
rival nations to reduce further the navy 
required for home defence. It was felt 
that the struggle awaited for so many 
years would be short and decisive. 
Italy and Austria acted openly with 
Germany. Russia was ready to support 
the claims of France, and it was believed 
that France had also made a secret 
treaty with Spain. The positions of 
England and the United States were not 
declared, except as it was known that 
both were prepared to protect their own 

On the morning of Angus 1 . 5. 1905, 
there rested on the quietly heaving 



waters about the islands of N"dronga 
such an array as was never before 
assembled. It included every existing 
battle-ship of the. first class, and nearly 
every heavily armored cruiser. There 
were monitors, dynamite cruisers, and 
every form of modern engines of destruc- 
tion. It had been the policy of all the 
powers to mass their forces for a single, 
decisive battle. The total number of 
vessels cleared for action has been 
placed by that careful correspondent, 
Mr. Glotter, at 893. There was as yet 
no formal declaration of war. The 
Hawaiian cable had been extended by 
the United States government to 
Ndronga, and it was by this medium that 
the news was every moment expected. 

It is worthy of note that in the assem- 
bling of this vast armada there had 
been but a single mischance— the wreck- 
ing of the United States cruiser South 
Framingham upon the Abreojos reef, in 
making her way from the China seas. 
This loss, as was clearly shown by offi- 
cial inquiry, was clue to unavoidable 
accident, the chart used by the naviga- 
tor of the South Framingham as a chart 
of the Pacific ocean being in fact a chart 
of the Indian ocean — the result prob- 
ably of a typographical error in the gov- 
ernment printing-office. 

The early morning hours passed with- 
out event. At about noon a large, 
native catamaran put off with water for 
the British flag-ship He lie moth. The 
catamaran was formed of heavy palm 
logs lashed together, the logs in front 
coming to a sharp point several feet 
under water. It was powerfully driven 
by large paddles. To allow the craft 
to come alongside to better advantage, 
the Behemoth seems to have intended to 
swing about to starboard. Through 
some error in the transmission of sig- 
nals, the reverse order was received, and 

the huge vessel swung swiftly to poit, 
meeting the catamaran as it approached 
at speed. The submerged, pointed bow 
of the catamaran striking the Behemoth 
below the water line, crushed a hole in 
her unprotected hull. Through mistake 
or disregard of orders, the bulkheads 
had been left open and the Behemoth 
rapidly filled, the crew barely making 
their escape in boats. 

After one o'clock a strong wind, which 
had been gradually freshening, began to 
disturb the dispositions of the tleets. 
The sky was darkened with an angry 
gloom. Those familiar with the tropics 
predicted a cyclonic storm of great vio- 
lence. For a time the heavy war-ships 
held their own against the gale, but as 
it grew into a tempest, they dared not 
face the savage fury of the open sea. 
One after another was compelled to 
steam, while it was still possible, into 
the sheltered harbor of Xdronga. Even 
there the low, windward shore did little 
to break the hurricane. As its rage 
increased, the vessels one by one were 
driven toward the lee shore, until all 
were hopelessly jammed together. The 
crescent of land about the harbor no- 
where exceeded ten feet above the usual 
sea level. The seething waters, piled 
up by the storm, now began to beat 
over into the lagoon. It was plain that 
before morning the whole attol would 
be submerged and storm-swept. From 
the other side of the coral crescent the 
connecting ridge of higher land stretched 
away to the sheltered promontory of 
Huckins "island." The hundreds of 
vessels were now a solid mass. It was 
not impossible to pass from one to an- 
other and reach the shore. Soon thou- 
sands of men were seeking safety along 
the rough road which had been built to 
Huckins island. 

At daybreak, near 300,000 men were 


: 59 

gathered m the shelter of the cliffs ten 
miles from Ndronga harbor. The storm 
had not slackened, and nothing could 
be seen of the harbor. Suddenly a 
blinding blaze lighted up the storm. 
A huge tower of dull flame was seen to 
rise a thousand feet into the air, and 
slowly sink away. It seemed a half 
minute before any sound was heard. 
It came then in rending crashes, swell- 
ing into a deafening roar and dying 
away in dull reports. The shock was 
like an earthquake, throwing every man 
to the ground, The land surged like 
waves of ocean. Fragments of rock 
were torn from the cliffs and thundered 
into the boiling surf. 

When the hugh vessels began to break 
up, some blow had reached the percus- 
sion of a torpedo or had exploded a car- 
tridge of dynamite, carrying instant ruin 
to all the magazines of powder and high 
explosives. As the storm abated, the 
destruction was found to be complete. 
News of the disaster was cabled to San 
Francisco, but soon after by the shifting 
of wreckage, the cable was broken, leav- 
ing the world in terrified suspense. 
Three hundred thousand fighting men 
of hostile races were crowded on a 
dreary island. The great store of sup- 
plies belonging to the United States 
would prevent suffering for several 
weeks, but would not unlikely be the 
first cause of contiict. 

The vessels despatched with relief 
were not unprepared to find a scene of 
carnage and desolation. When the first 
comers neared the island, their worst 
fears were realized. Xo living being 
was in sight. As the sailors climbed the 
rocky shore to view the interior, they 
were terrified by a sudden tremendous 
roar of thousands of voices. In a 
moment it was renewed, rising to demo- 
niac howls and yells. They dragged 

their trembling limbs to the summit of 
the ridge and looked over. From its 
rugged outer walls the island sloped in all 
directions to the center, where was an 
open plain. It was a vast amphitheatre. 
The sides of this coliseum were d.irk 
with excited spectators, intent upon a 
contest in the arena. It was a game of 

At first the various crews had stayed, 
sullen and threatening in their rude 
camps. But the good humor of the 
American sailors was hardly dampened 
by the storm. Early the next morning 
they were swapping jokes and tobacco 
with the English tars. Selectman Pluck- 
ins, who had long since reorganized his 
domain — Huckins island now forming 
Jackson county — announced that the 
county fair would take place some weeks 
before the usual season. As the govern- 
ment supplies included a number of 
domestic animals, he was able to present 
the familiar and popular chase of the 
greased pig. lie had of course the 
usual greased pole, sack races, and the 
like. Men from the various camps 
began to show some interest. Before 
the close of the fust day. Frenchmen 
were entered for the potato race along 
with Germans and Italians. Interna- 
tional games were arranged. The event 
of the second day was a contest between 
an Englishman and a Russian in driving 
setting hens between two distant goals. 
A moderate entrance charge was made 
to defray the legal fees of the town and 
county officers. A small cocoanut was 
found to make a fairly good base-ball, 
and bats were easily made. Later one 
of the naval reserve on duty at the sup- 
ply station, remembered putting a gen- 
uine baseball in his kit. and on the arri- 
val of the rescue party a game was in 
progress between picked from the 
crews of the Chicago and the New York. 


Taking homo the stranded sailors was temporary proportional decrease in the 

slow and tedious. Immense armies were armies of the great powers. Prosperity 

massed for action, but without navies grew up so fast, and discontents waned 

the object of the war had failed. The so quickly, that we have seen the process 

European nations, drained by taxation, gradually continued. We find ourselves, 

could not rebuild their ships. Xeglected for a time at least, in an era of good feel- 

harvests and industries required atten- ing. It is too early to forecast the 

tion. Little by little, men were detached future, but no one is found to-day to 

from army service. At the Brussels con- assert that the ruin of the world's na- 

ference arrangement was made for a vies at Ndronga was an unmixed evil. 

By George Bancroft Griffith. 

We have wandered to-day, with hearts full and glowing, 
'Mid haunts the great statesman did fondly revere ; 

On the banks of Punch brook, that still softly is flowing, 
The thrush and the robin sang sweetly and clear. 

We thought while the breath of the blossoms delighted 
Of the sprig of arbutus we saw Webster wear ; 

"'T was gathered," he said — and his noble eye lighted — 
" Near my humble old home, in that valley so fair ! " 

On the mown fields of Elms' farm the sunlight was lying. 
But the oak tree that held his famed scythe was now gone ; 

O'er a slope of Searle mountain an eagle was flying 
As I turned to the spot where our hero was born. 

The waterfall shone, but the grist-mill he tended. 

Whose hopper the bright, earnest lad watched with glee. 
Or the case of some barefooted rustic defended 

On its meal-whitened floor, we no longer could sec. 

The little frame house with its sacred enclosure, 

The hearthstone whose glow charmed his own baby eyes — 
Those orbs that thrilled millions — neglect and exposure 
Had shrunken the shrine that the nation should prize. 

But here was the well where the mighty expounder 
Quaffed sweets that were purer than Hybla e'er gave ; 

And the elm that was set by the cabin's brave founder — 

Far below gleamed the headstone that leaned o'er his grave. 



We stood on the spot and we gazed on the mountain 

The woods in their grandeur, the waterfall near ; 
The moss-covered sweep o'er the treasured home fountain. 

And eacli lip softly murmured, — " 'T is good to be here ! " 

The little red school-house, the sheep path up yonder, 

The brook clear and bright as his own native ^.kics. 
Of which he oft dreamed, and daily grew fonder. 

We saw with emotion, with tear-jewelled eyes ! 

The steepleless church near the billows of clover, — 

'T was here that the choir at his baptism sung; 
Here Daniel once taught, the boy-dreamer, the rover, 

When joy lit his brow and his bosom was young. 

Yes, 't was here he had first those visions of glory, 

Found sermons in stones, and tongues in the trees ; 
Here was rooted the germ of his life's matchless story, 

As his forehead was kissed by the health-giving breeze. 


And here, when his sparse locks with silver threads glistened, 

His heart often turned at the close of the day ; 
In dreams, on his sick-bed, as rapt watcher listened, 

He spoke of Punch brook and of newly mown hay. 

So a warm, fervent tear, as a tiibute bestowing, 

On the cold, silent hearth, we turned from the spot. 

But the mountain named for him, that brook softly flowing. 
The scenes of his childhood, will ne'er be forgot. 

By C. C. Lord. 

Once Peter craved in deathless song 

His life for age, and Peleg woke 
His muse to sing for ages long, 

And each his zeal with ardor broke. 

Then Peter sang the soul of things, 

That roams through thought's unbounded space. 
While Peleg piped of lights and wings 

That flickered just before his face. 

Time tells the tale, now genius thrives, 

And worth imagined wastes away. 
For Peter lived a million lives, 

But Peleg lasted just a day. 


By George //. Mo 


' '> f lfs^;^'^ ton threw 

- mous silver dollar 

ARDLV a stone's 

throw — if one could 

throw a stone as tar 

as George Washing- 

the fa- 

•< -_• >' mous silver dollar — 

Ov^^^^^rS' .from "the most Euro- 
~«^r pean thing; on this con- 

tinent " to what is certainly the most 
genuinely Yankee-like of anything in 
New Hampshire! "The most Euro- 
pean" adorns a hill-top, while the gen- 
uinely Yankee occupies the plain at its 
feet ; both were called into existence 
by the same man ; one has been depicted 
in The Granite Monthly, 1 the other 
has not, though it will be when this 
number comes from the press ; the one 
is known as the Tilton Arch ; the other, 
as the Tilton Fair. 

' What the anniversary of the Battle of 
New Orleans is to the Bay State Democ- 
racy, what the May training was to the 
inhabitants of Greenland Parade, what 
commencement is to the Hanover small 
boy — a fixed feast in the calendar, an 
occasion to date from, a crisis demand- 
ing the utmost of one's enthusiasm and 
attention — all this and more is the Til- 
ton Fair to a member of the Xew Hamp- 
shire Grange. The fact that the Tilton 
fair is exclusively a Grange fair — or a 
Grange affair, as you please — is too 
easily lost sight of, yet it is the fact 
which should be most prominently 
brought out, for it was undertaken by 
the organization at a time when state 
fairs in New Hampshire were not allur- 

ing investments, when the people had 
lost confidence and patience with tin. 
old order of exhibitions, and when .1 
new venture was sure to be looked upor 
with more suspicion than encourage 
ment. Under these conditions the 
Grange State Fair Association was organ 
ized. Theoretically it was the mosi 
narrow and straight-laced associatior 
that ever tried to do business. It wa- 
organized by members of the Grange 
none but members of the Grange were 
allowed to exhibit ; the judges wen 
largely taken from among the member: 
of the Grange, and members of the 
Grange were looked to for support 
Theoretically nothing could have beer 
more contracted. Practically, nothing 




Daniel G. Holm*t, Superintendent. 

1 Sec The Granite MONTHLY for March, iSqj. 



was more expansive; for the Grange 

opens wide its doors to any reputable 
citizen, and what was feared at first as 
a handicap to the exhibition was found 
to be the means of making it more 
attractive — to say nothing of increasing 
the membership of the Grange. 

But the most judicious set of rules 
and regulations and the most extended 

and when the park gates closed on the 
evening of the last day of the exhibition 
of 1886, — the first one, — there was a 
small surplus in the treasurer's box, a 
corps of very tired and very thankful 
officials in the secretary's office, and 
several thousand satisfied visitors all 
over the state, each of whom was a 
walking advertisement for the next 


. ■ 


h jfi 

' ■ ' .- 




Nahum J. Bacheider. 

membership in the Grange would prob- 
ably have failed to make the Tilton fair 
the instantaneous success it was, had it 
not been for the Hon. Charles E. Tilton, 
who, with characteristic generosity, 
threw open the gates of the then newly- 
completed Franklin & Tilton Driving 
Park to the infant association, and bade 
them enter in and enjoy it free of 
charge. Mr. Tikon's liberality made 
many things easy for the enterprise, 

year's show. The next year's show was 
far ahead of the first, and the third was 
better than the second. The ninth 
broke all records. 

I went to the ninth Tilton fair by spe- 
cial train. With me went fourteen car- 
loads of people. This is true to a dot, 
for every seat in the train was taken 
and I had to ride on the platform. 
When the fair-ground was reached it 
looked as if fourteen other special trains 





#** y* ■ 


- ' - ■_■ -_ 

A Bird's 

had arrived there before ours, and the 
scene about the entrance-wicket resem- 
bled a foot-ball field as it will appear 
when women are permitted to play the 
noble game. 

But once inside the fence discomforts 
are forgotten. There is no time to think 




Cnaries E. 1 ilton. 

of them, for you come at once through 
the gate upon the backstretch of the 
track and after dodging the rliers who 
happen to be " working an easy one " 
on that quarter just then, you are within 
the encloMire where half the fakirs of 
the fair are congregated and where a 
Midway Plaisance of striking machines, 
merry-go-'rounds, shooting galleries, and 
ball-throwing alleys is filled with loud- 
mouthed blandishment. A wheezey 
hand-organ ('run by an endless chain, 
more's the pity! I and a captive monkey 
are added to the charm of the horizon- 
tal Ferris wheel where you can take your 
choice of a saddle-horse or a chariot, and 
ride five minutes for a nickel. A quite 
impossible cigar awaits the man who 
makes the bell ring a: the top of the 
striking-machine's index column, the one 
who knocks over one of the frowsy 
headed base-ball marionettes, or who 
makes a bull's-eye with the air-gun, the 



inevitable nickel being prerequisite to 
tempting fate. It costs nothing, how- 
ever, to hear the hand play " Sweet 
Marie," to see the side-show's gorgeous 
canvases, or to watch the trained steers 
cavort about at the pleasure of their 
young mistresses. 

Further along there are other free 
shows. Here a man is eating great 
handfuls of cotton and is breathing forth 
fire and it may be slaughter for all we 
can tell. Presently he pokes his fingers 
into his mouth and brings forth a piece 
of ribbon which evidently has a bargain- 
counter connection somewhere in his 
alimentary canal, for he pulls it out by 
the yard. Fearing that some ulterior 
purpose underlies all this necromancy, 
let us hasten along to where up to date 
dentistry is being inflicted upon a man 
old enough to know better, the operator 
being a fat man with a black skull-cap 







Lucien F. Batcnelder. 

resemble the Boston base-ball club, hav- 
ing lost their grip. This dental parlor 
who has seized the old fellow's aching on wheels is well placed. On one side 
tooth between pincers which very much is a candy booth where the delectable 


. y 

w ■ - ■ 



■ - - .. . i .-■ ■ ' - ■ . 

A Grange Team. 


- ' P 


here were displayed all 
those bits of macrime, 
rick-rack, and razzle-daz- 
zle needle-work .so deal 
to the feminine heart. 
These are now grown so 
numerous that for the 
past few years the spa- 
cious pavilion where two 

floors are crowded with 
a weal tli of dainty crea 



tions displayed by indi- 
vidual Granges, though 
each exhibitor is in com- 
petition. Here are paint- 
ings, embroideries, histor- 
mixture is made before your eyes and ic relics, curios, geological specimens, 
sold hot. Here one gets the tooth- and hundreds of other things not made 
ache. At the dentist's next door the in the likeness of anything under the 
tooth is removed. And alongside of sun. 

that comes the church where we may But of the church : After the removal 

enter in and give thanks. of the woman's department to more 

The old church is one of the features roomy quarters the old edifice was used 
of the fair. It was built in 1794 and by thrifty tradesmen who exhibited the 
was the first church in Northfield. It choicest of their stocks. In 1S91 it was 
was removed to its present location by given over to an innovation in the form 
Mr. Tilton and, except that the pews of a baby show, which proved so popular 
have been for the most part removed to that it had to be abandoned the next 
make room for the exhibits, its interior year; though in the succeeding exhibi- 
presents the same appearance that it did 
when it was first oc- 
cupied. The tall pul- 
pit with its sounding- 
board overhanging the *■""• - 
preacher like an ex- £' 
tinguisher now rears 
its loftv head among 
a display of prize l 

pears, while from the ' 'j 

precentor's seat one I 

looks out upon a sea 
of apples and grapes. 
In the early days of 
the fair the old church 
was devoted to the la- ; . 
dies' department and .. M «mbrino w..k« 




dies A^d gents,jthat 
you get the big- 
gest, squares! meal 

i r 

for a quart e i ;" o 
that there is "plen 
ty of room inside 


: i. 

A Perche^on. 

tion it was again a feature, and this year 
was once more eliminated. 

Like Trinity church in New York city 
the historic old church of the Tilton fair- 
ground stands at the head of Wall street, 
for certainly the row of eating booths 
which stretches away from the church 
door to the stables deserves that name. 
At any rate, it is the street of the money- 
changers, more money changing hand' 


now." the refer- 
ence being solely 
to the seating ca- 
pacity of his din- 
ing room ; or the 
crowd is Informed 
that here they are 
and that they can 
secure at this par- 
ticular place a 
"long, cool drink 
that '11 cool you 
all the way down 
and half the way back :" and so on. 
At the head of this row of hostelries 
and beneath the very drippings of the 
sanctuary itself, at the head of this row 
of hostelries in another sense, also, by 
reason of its preeminent merit, is the 
VV. C. T. U. tent, which Haunts its ban- 
ner gaily in the air and feeds more peo- 
ple and feeds them better than any 
other establishment on the grounds. 

.._-_._-. __:--"_ .^„ 

i V 





along that row of flimsy structures than For several years this tent has been one 
in any other equal area 
of the field— except the 
treasurer's office. The 
managers of most of these 
victualling-places believe 
in the doctrine that con- 
versation should be lively 
during meals and they 
set the pace at a Nancy 
Hanks gait. To be sure, 
the conversation is not 
very intellectual in char- 
acter, and consists on the 
part of the boniface chief- 
ly in bombastic announces 

that it is "rieht h 


Mot r er an J C * i c, 


t 4 



. .. 






j 69 




A Hot Finish. 

of the features of the fair, and to make 
it successful scores of devoted women 
belonging to the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union in Franklin, have 
given unsparingly of their strength and 
their ingenuity. 

At the foot of this row and flanked by 
Machinery Hall, in which the model 
creamery is in full operation are the pri- 
vate racing stables of the Hon. Warren 
F. Daniell and Mr. Charles C. Kenrick 
of Franklin, two men who have done as 
much as any in the state to raise the 
quality of New Hampshire stock. 
Viking was once sheltered beneath this 
roof, and from beneath it Edith H. went 
forth to her first race as a two-year-old. 

Next beyond here, lining the whole 
south fence of the enclosure, and even 
creeping along the western side, are the 
stalls for the speedy and exhibition 
horses. Xext to them are the cattle-pens 
where the herds of our best breeders, 
decorated with many a blue ribbon and 
the veins rich with blue blood. 

The finest herds in the state have 
annual delegations here. Jerseys from 
the rich Pembroke intervales, Ayrshires 
from Strawberry JJank, Guernseys, and 
Durhams, soft-eyed creatures, their 
breatli as sweet as a new rose, their 
milk as rich as a sub-treasury vault — 

and each the winner of 
every creamery test ! I 
had this from the keep- 
ers of the herds them- 
selves, so it must be 

And after this the del- 
uge. Sheep, swine, dogs, 
duck^. hens, turkeys, and 
Guinea fowl, each after 
his kind and several of 
each fill every stall and 
building and shed full to 
overflowing. It is a lib- 
eral education in domesticated animals 
to spend a day at the Tilton fair. 

While in the great university of human 
nature a day here is a post-graduate 
course. "All the world is queer," said 
the Scotchman. Pie must have been to 
the Tilton fair on Governor's Day when 
everybody was there. It is as good as 
a printing-office for types. If Mary E. 
Wilkins ever makes up her mind to 
write a jolly story she ought to come to 
the Tilton fair for her material. I say 
that not so much because Miss Wilkins's 

- • . - 

The Striking Machine. 

il : 






1 :' 

• • . • 



a distinguished speak< 
who congratulated th 
fair officials that the 
had no politicians abou 
Had that distinguishe 
speaker been with me o 
the afternoon of Goven 
or's 1 )ay at the fair thi 
year he would have rea 
ized that human judj 
ment is not always gooc 
for of the orators on th; 
occasion there were tw 
candidates for the l"n 
ted States senate, foi 
stories are all pitched on the minor key candidates for governor, and two asp 
as because everybody at the Tilton fair rants for congressional honors. I migl 
is good-natured. In the course of sev- also say that there were a Unite 
eral years' experience at the fair I have States senator, two congressmen, and 
found only _-—.— .. . 
one ill-hu- rl 
mored man «~ ; 

Listening to the Oratory. 

and he was 
the father 
of a baby 
which had 
just not 
been award- 
ed a prize 


&C' vM' 

A Qoiet Corner. 

in the baby-show, and he had a right to the frankest possible character. 

among th 
spe ake r s 
but t h a 
would ad 
only on 
person t 
the list. Th 
oratory th.i 
day was e 

get mad. Octave Thanet went to the 
World's Fair last summer, and ever 
since then she has been writing on 
"American Types " which . 
she found there. The 
World's Fair lasted a good 
deal longer than the Til- 
ton fair does, but it can 't 
beat the New Hampshire !' 
exposition for furnishing 
magazine writers an ex- 

A type not to be found 
at the Tilton fair, how- 
ever, is the politician. I 
have this on the word of 

representative of the farmers told th 
candidates what they were expected t 
do. and the candidates told the farn 





Wall S:r- ■ 




\- :>s 

I ■- 

1 ■>>■-••,!- 



Tne Ascension. 


ers what they were expected to do. Under the old method the orator 

This freedom of intercourse doubtless talked over the heads of several thou- 

grew out of the fact that the speech- sand people whom he could not see and 

making this year was done under a who could not hear him. Under the 

huge canvas pavilion while previously new arrangement the speaker looked his 

it had been done from the press stand audience calmly in the eye and talked 

near the track. with each man in the crowd. Of all 

i - 




H. W. Keyes's Prize Winnirg Shropin.-e. 

A High Fiy. 




classed. People will walk five 
miles to see a balloon ascen- 
sion when by staying right at 
home and watching sharp they 
can see quite as much of the 
allair five minutes after the 
balloon is cut loose as anybody 
can. But I suppose it is those 
five minutes that count ; or, 
if not those, it is the hall 
hour before the start is made 
— that half hour when the po- 
lice are so busy keeping the 
small boy outside the ropes, 

King of the Herd. , , , 

when the great, misshapen, 

the innovations which have been made silk body is seen to assume form and 

in the Tilton fair programme, probably float at ease, when the baggage is put 

none met such universal praise as this, aboard the frail car, when the aeronaut 

For three solid hours the eloquence is busy with his orders, and finally, ah 

gushed forth, and for that long the audi- the bounding air-ship tugs at its moor- 

ence drank it in and would have been ings, when the aeronaut climbs into the 

glad to stay longer. All this talk about ring and shouts ''Let her go;" 

oratory being a lost art is mere non- How everybody stares ! Even the 

sense so far as New Hampshire is con- judges at the track suspend ringing the 

cerned, for the speaking at the Tilton bell long enough to dislocate their necks 

fair this year — and each day's pro- by looking after the mounting bulb with 

gramme contained more or less of its human freight. The first two days 

speech-making — was of a very high char- of the fair are taken up with arranging 

acter as respects matter and delivery. for the ascension, and in five minutes 

Governor's Day as an attraction used on the third day it is all over. You 

to stand alone at the Tilton fair. But remember the description of a toboggan 

the progress of the age has thrown even slide,— " Wh izz-z-z-z ! Walk a mile.' 
that into competition, and 
of late years the governor 

as a drawing: card has ,-i 

-^ <4 
been matched against ei- ( m / 

i- •"' 

ther a championship base- t 

ball game, a free-for-all 

horse-race, or a balloon 

ascension. With two of 

these His Excellency holds 

his own. The ball game 

and the horse trot are no 

better than he. But when 

it comes to a balloon ascen- 


sion, he is distinctly out- a 'Handy ■ lc. 



• . 


■• -,. 

;.. ti i 

!J! A 




In Front of ihi Grand Stand. 

A balloon ascension is much like that. 
And a governor can 't compare with it ! 

The men who devise all these schemes 
for attracting the public and making the 
Tilton fair the popular success that it is 
are not the least worthy of attention 
during the day spent on the grounds. 
The president of the fair association is 
displaced ordinarily every year, so that 
that functionary's name is legion. The 
first president of the association was 
Col. William PI. Stinson, of Mont Ver- 
non. The present occupant of the posi- 
tion is Capt. George Farr, of Littleton. 

It is upon the secretary, however, that 
the work of the fair falls. It is he who 
devises programmes, attends to adver- 
tising, selects judges, looks after entries, 
answers questions, and carries every- 
thing on his mind. It is not the ideal 
secretary of a fair association to whom 
this description belongs alone. It be- 
longs to the secretary of the Grange 
State Fair Association, Xahum J. Bach- 
elder, who has held the place, except 
for one year, ever since the fair was 
projected. To him more than to any- 
body else is due the success of the 
enterprise. He has worked early and 
late and hard to make the fair what it 
has become, and has the satisfaction of 

- knowing that it is the most 
successful exhibition of its 
kind New Hampshire has 

ever seen. 

Vet not even lie with all 
his other interests could 
have alone achieved what 
has been won at Tilton. 
£jpi He has been ably and effi- 
ciently assisted by Mr. L. 
F. Batchelder, of Tilton, 
and Mrs. Electa C. Flan- 
'< ders, of Fast Andover. Of 
these, Mrs. Flanders serves 
only through the actual 
days of the fair, while upon Mr. Batch- 
elder falls nearly all of the routine pre- 
liminary work of organizing and cata- 
loguing the exhibition. This is an 
exhaustive work demanding careful, ear- 
nest, continuous, accurate attention, 
which Mr. Batchelder is well qualified 
to bestow. 

As a result of these nine years of 
effort the Grangers of Xew Hampshire 
have something to be proud of. They 
have the best purely agricultural fair in 
Xew England. They present perhaps 
not the fastest, but certainly the squar- 
Their sports are all clean 

y, I 


• f I '\ S J 


Tro Old Cr. 


and manly. The morals of the fair are who have by recent contracts made pos 

of the highest order. Liquor is contra- sible the continuance, for a long tern 

band on the grounds, which are now of years at least, of that world's exposi 

under the control of the association tion in miniature — the Tilton lair. 

. . - ■ «■«, --'1;': 

i*-~ — 

By Edward A. yenks. 

11 It is so hard — my love, my more than life — 

To say Good-bye ; 
To leave the arms so empty, where your wife 

Found it so sweet to lie ; 
No kisses — oh ! it cuts me like a knife 

Dear one, just to lie down and die, 
E'en though your great heart guards my slumber deep, 

And June's warm tones, in whispers low, 
Break lovingly upon my dreamless sleep, 

And I can hear you go — 
And come again — and go — and hear you weep — 

You love me so. 

" And, dearest, when you come to that far land 

Where I shall be, 
I may not know the place upon the strand 

Of the deep crystal sea 
Where your light boat will touch ; — I may not stand 

With outstretched arms, where you can see 
The face you long for;— I may be away 

On some most sweet and holy quest : — 
How cati you ever find me t then f — the way 

Will seem so long, at best, 
Till your dear head may lie — again— -some day— 

Upon my breast." 


"Dear heart, it will be easy, when I go, 

1 o find you there. 
For all the heavenly throng will surely know 

Your dazzling sunlit hair — 
So radiantly beautiful— and so 

Will make sweet haste to tell me where 
My hungry heart may find you— in what realm 

Of beauty. I shall listen long — 
Beneath the shade of some o'erarching elm — 

For snatches of a song 
That will my soul with rapture overwhelm 

And make me strong. 

"And I shall follow it — no song so sweet 

Was ever heard : 
Shall wildly listen for your footsteps fleet — 

Swifter than any bird : 
And when the violets beneath your feet 

Breathe in your breath, their fragrance stirred 
By your glad coming; and the ruddy gleams 

Of parted lips, just touched with dew, 
Break through the trees; and the warm, limpid beams 

Of loving eyes of blue 
Come flying to my arms — Good-bye, wild dreams ! 

/ shall have you." 



By Jonas Lie. 

[Translated from the Norwegian by Hon. Samuel C. Eastman.] 


"The more quickly and quietly the he could enter upon his new state of 

wedding could be arranged, the better," household affairs on the new year. 

said the sheriff. It had its advantage Naturally, Kathinka was asked about 

in getting ahead of explanations and every one of these points; and she 

people's talk. People submitted to an always found everything which her 

accomplished fact. father thought, right. 

The third Christmas day was just the The conclusion that the wedding 

right one to escape too much sensation ; should be arranged speedily and 

and it suited the sheriff exactly, so that promptly was just exactly as if taken 



out of the captain's own heart. On 
the other point, on the contrary, that 
everything should be kept so quiet and 
still, he was doubtless in agreement 
with the sheriff and ma, of course ; but 
it really did not lie in his nature that 
the whole joy should take place smoth- 
ered ia with a towel before his mouth. 
and whispering on tiptoe as if it were a 
sick room they were having at Gilje 
instead of a wedding. 

Some show there must be about it ; 
that he owed to Thinka, and to himself 
also, a little. 

And thus it came about that before 
Christmas he took a little sleighing trip, 
when it was good going, down to the 
lieutenant's and to the solicitors', Schar- 
fenberg and Sebelow, with whom he 
had some money settlements to get 
adjusted in regard to the map business 
that had been done in the last two 

And then when he met the report 
that the banns had been published in 
church for his daughter and the sheriff, 
he could answer with a question if they 
would not come and convince them- 
selves. Confidentially, of course, he 
invited no one but the army surgeon, 
and those absolutely necessary. But, 
winking, old fellow, how welcome you 
shall be, the third Christmas day, not 
the second and not the fourth, my boy, 
remember that. 

And he took care that provisions as 
well as battalions of strong liquors 
should be stored up inside the ramparts 
at home so the fortress could hold its 

On Christmas eve there came a horse 
express from the sheriff with a sleigh 
full of packages, — nothing but presents 
and surprises for Thinka. 

First, and foremost, his former wife's 
warm fur cloak with squirrel skin lin- 

ing and mull, which had been made 

over for Thinka by Jomfru Brun in the 
chief parish ; then her gold watch and 
chain with car drops and rings ; all like 
new and burnished up by the goldsmith 
in the city, and a Vienna shawl, and 
lastly, lavender water and gloves in 

In the letter he suggested to his 
devotedly loved Kathinka that his 
thoughts were only with her until they 
should soon be united by a stronger 
bond and that she. when once in her 
new home, would find several other 
things, which might possibly please her, 
but which it would not be practical to 
send up to Gilje, only to bring right 
back again. 

He had not brought Baldrian and 
Viggo home to Christmas — and in this 
he hoped she would agree with him ; 
he had sent them down to his brother, 
the minister at Holmestrand. 

Never in Great-Ola's time 

had there been such festival show in 
horses and vehicles, when on the third 
Christmas day they started down the 
hill to the annex-church : the harnesses 
and bells shone, and both the black 
horses glistened before the double 
sleighs, as if they had been polished 
up, both hair and mane. 

L'nder the bearskin robe in the first. 
sat the captain in a wolf skin coat, and 
Thinka adorned with the chains and 
clothes .of the sheriff's first wife with 
vouncr Svarten. In the second ma and 
Thea, with Great-Ola on dickey seat 
behind and old Svarten. 

There stood the subalterns paying 
their respeets at the ehurch door in 
uniform : and inside in the pew, Lieu- 
tenants Dunsack, 1'risak. Knebelsber- 
*rer, and Knobelauch rose up in full 
uniform. Then the sheriff began to 
feel tiiat here was Style indeed. 



And when they turned towards home, 
after the ceremony was over, now with 
the captain and his wife in the first 
sleigh, and the wedded couple in the 
other — there was such a long cortege, 
that the sheriff's idea of celebrating the 
wedding quietly must be regarded as 
wholly over-ridden. 

At Gilje dinner was waiting. 

During this the powers of the battal- 
ion from the youngest lieutenant up to 
the captain developed a youthful cour- 
age in their attack on the strong wares 
so wildly and so regardless of the 
results, that it could only demand of 
the sheriff a certain degree of prudence. 

All would drink with the bride and 
the bridegroom, acrain and again. 

The sheriff sat contented and lean- 
ing forward with his great forehead 
thinly covered with hair, taking pains 
to choose his words in the cleverest 
and most fitting manner for the occa- 

And so long as it was confined to 
the speeches, he was the absolute mas- 
ter, unless he might possibly have a 
rival in the army surgeon's sometimes 
more deeply laid satire, which became 
more problematical and sarcastic after 
he had been drinking. 

But now the small twinkling eyes 
shining more and more dimly and ten- 
derly absorbing, devoted themselves 
exclusively to the bride. 

She must eat the tower tart and the 
wine custard, for his sake ! He would 
not drink any more, if he could avoid 
it, for her sake. I assure you for your 
— only for your sake. 

An inroad was made on the wares at 
Gilje, with prolonged hilarity till far 
into the night, when some of the sleighs 
in the starlight and in the gleam of the 
Northern lights reeled homewards with 
their half unconscious burdens drawn 

by their sober horses, while as many as 
the house would hold remained over in 
order to celebrate the wedding and 
Christmas the next daw 

By New Year's the house was 

finally emptied of its guests, the sheriff 
and Kathinka were installed in their 
home, and the captain travelled down 
on a visit to them with Thea in order 
to have his Xew Year's day spree there. 

But then ma was tired out and com- 
pletely exhausted. 

She felt it. now the wheel of work 
had stopped at once, and she sat there- 
at home, alone, on the second Xew 
Year's clay, how tremendous a task it 
had been to bring it all out ! The 
trousseau all through the autumn and 
the household affairs before the holi- 
days, Christmas and the wedding, and 
all the anxieties. 

It had gone on incessantly now, as 
far back as she could think over. It 
was like ravelling out the yarn from a 
stocking, the longer she thought, the 
longer it was, clear back to the time, 
when it seemed to her there was a rest, 
the days she was lying in childbed. 

But that was now long since. 

She was sitting in the corner of the 
sofa half asleep in the twilight, with her 
knitting untouched before her. 

Aslak and two of the girls had got 
leave to go to a Christmas entertain- 
ment down at the Skreberg farm, and 
besides old Torbjoerg, who was sitting 
with her hymn book and humming and 
singing in the kichen, there was no one 
at home. 

Bells jingled out in the yard. Great- 
Ola had come home with the two seated 
sleigh and old Svarten. after having 
driven the captain and Thea. 

He stamped the snow olf in the hall 
and peeped into the door. 

When lie drove p>ist Teigen. the post- 

v - 

2 7 S 


master came out with the captain's 

"When did you reach there last 
evening? I hope Thea was not cold ?'' 

"No, not at all! We were down 
there in good time before supper. Ever 
so many messages from the young wife; 
she was down in the stable and patted 
and stroked Svarten last night. It was 
just like a separation." 

Ma rose up. 

" There is a candle out for the stable 

Great-Ola vanished again. 

Old Svarten still harnessed to the 
sleigh stood in the stable doer and 
neighed impatiently. 

" It only lacked that you should turn 
the key also," growled Ola. while he 
took off the harness, and now with the 
harness and bells over his arm let the 
horse walk in before him. 

" Xo, but if young Svarten is n't 
neighing also ! That was the first time 
you have said a decent good day here 
in the stable, do you know that ? But 
you will have to wait you see." 

He curried and brushed and rubbed 
the new arrival like a privileged old 
gentleman. They had been serving 
together now just exactly nine years. 

In the kitchen the spruce wood 
crackled and snapped on the hearth 
and shone with an uncertain reddish 
glow upon ma's copper and tin dishes 
just polished up and on the walls, as if 
they might have been mystical shields 
and arms. 

Great-Ola was now sitting there mak- 
ing himself comfortable with his supper, 
Christmas cheer and entertainment. — 
butter, bread, bacon, wort-cakes, and 
salt meat; and Torbjoerg had been 
ordered to draw a bowl of small beer 
for him down in the cellar. Ola had 
heard one thin ir and another down there. 

Thinka, she had gone out into the 
kitchen and would take charge of the 
housekeeping immediately. Hut there 
she found some one who meant to hold 
the reins. 

Old Miss Giilcke would n't hear of 
that. She went straight up to the 
office, the}' said, and twisted and had it 
over with her brother the whole fore- 
noon till she got what she wanted. 

And in the evening the sheriff sat on 
the sofa and talked so nice to the young 
wife. Beret, the chamber maid heard, 
he said, that he wanted her to have 
everything so extremely nice and be 
wholly devoted to him, so that — Horsch, 
the old grey wolf ! — we can see now 
what he was doing here last year. 

" And thereby," said Ola, with his 
mouth full between his teeth, while he 
cut and spread a new slice of bread, 
"she got rid of the trouble, and the 
management, too." 

"It is of no use to pull the noose, 
when one has his head in a snare, you 
see, Ola." 

In the sitting room ma had 

examined the mail that had come, sit- 
ting by the stove door. Besides a 
number of " Hermoder," " the Consti- 
tutionelle," and a free official docu- 
ment, there was a letter from Aunt 

She lighted the candle and sat down 
to read it. 

In certain respects it was a piece of 
good fortune that Jaeger was not at 
home. He ought to have nothing to 
do with this. 

" Dear Gitta : 

" I have taken the second Christmas 
day to write down fur you my thoughts 
concerning Inger-Johanna. I cannot 
deny that she has come to interest me 
more than I could wish ; but, if we can 
be in a certain degree of anxiety on 



account of the smallest flower in our 

window, which is just going to blossom, 
how much more then for a human bud, 
which in the developing beauty of its 
youth is ready to burst out with its 
life's fate. This is more than a ro- 
mance, it is the noble art work of the 
Guide of all, which in depth and splen- 
dor and immeasurable wealth surpasses 
everything winch the human fantasy is 
able to represent. 

•' Yes, she interests me. dear Gitta ! 
almost so that my old heart can tremble 
at thinking of the life's path which may 
await her, when rise or fall may depend 
on a single deceptive moment only. 

" What nature can mean in letting 
such a host of existences, in which 
hearts are beating, succumb and be 
lost in this choice or, if it thereby in its 
great crucible makes an exact assay, 
without which nothing succeeds in pas- 
sing over into a more complete develop- 
ment, — who can unriddle nature's 
scenes ? My hope for Inger- Johanna 
is that the fund or the weight of her 
own personality, which she possesses 
in her nature will preponderate in the 
the scales of the choice in the decisive 

" I premise all this as a sign from my 
innermost heart ; for I follow with in- 
creasing dread, how the path is more 
or more made slippery under her feet, 
and how delicately your sister-in-law- 
weaves the net around her, not with 
small means to which Inger-Johanna 
would be superior, but with more 
deeply lying, sounding allurements. 

" To open up the alluring prospect 
of making her personal qualities and 
gifts available — what greater attraction 
can be spread out before a nature so 
ardently aspiring as hers ? It is told 
of Englishmen that they fish with a 
kind of counterfeited, glittering llies. 

which they drag over the surface of the 
water, until the fish bites : and it 
appears to me that in not less skilful 
manner your sister-in-law continually 
tempts Inger-Johanna's illusions. She 
never mentions the name of the one 
concerned, so that it may dawn upon 
her of itself. 

"Only the careless hint to me the last 
time I was there in her hearing, that 
Roenow all along had certainly been 
rather daintily rejecting in looking for a 
wife among the elite of our ladies — 
why was not that calculated to excite, 
what shall I call it, her ambition or her 
need of having a field of influence? 

" Ferhaps I should not have noticed 
this remark to that extent if I had not 
seen the impression it made on her; 
she was very absent-minded and lost in 

"And yet the question, whether one 
should give her heart away, should be 
so simple and uncomplicated! Are you 
in love? Everything else only turns on 
— something else. 

"The unfortunate and fateful thing 
is. that she imagines that she is able to 
love, binds herself in duty to love, and 
thinks that she can say to her immature 
heart, You shall never awaken. Dear 
Gitta, suppose it did awaken — after- 
wards — with her strong, vigorous nature ? 

" It i^ that which hovers before me 
so that 1 have been compelled to write. 
To talk to her and make her prudent 
would be to show colors to the blind : 
she must believe blind!)' on the one who 
advises her. Therefore it is you, Gitta, 
who must take hold and write." 

Ma laid the letter down in her lap; 
she sat in the light looki and 

keener even than common. 

It was easy for Aunt Alette, the 
excellent Aunt Alette, to think so hap 
pily that everything should be a> it ought 



to be. She had her little inheritance to 

live on and was not dependent on any- 
one. But — ma assumed a dry, repellant 
expression — without the four thousand, 
old and tormented in Jomfru Joergen- 
sen's place at the governor's she would 
not have written that kind of a letter. 

Ma read further : 

" I must also advance here some 
further doubts so that you will certainly 
think that this is a sad Christmas letter. 
This is then about dear Joergen who 
who finds it so hard at school. That 
he has thus far been able to keep up 
with his class, we owe to student Grip, 
who, persistently and without being will- 
ing ever to hear a word about any com- 
pensation, has gone over with him and 
cleared up for him his worst stumbling 
blocks, the German and the Latin gram- 

" And if I should now express his idea 
in regard to Joergen, it is with no small 
degree of confidence that it may be well 
founded. He says that so far from 
Joergen's having a poor head, it is just 
the opposite. Only he is not made for 
the abstract, which is the requisite for 
literary progress, but all the more for 
the practical. 

" In connection with a sound, clear 
judgment, he is both dexterous and in- 
ventive. Joergen would be an excellent 
mechanic or even a mechanical engineer, 
and just as certainly would come to dis- 
tinguish himself, as he will reap trouble, 
difficulty, and only extremely moderate 
results by toiling from examination to 
examination through study. 

"To be sure I cannot subscribe to 
student Grip's somewhat youthful wild 
ideas about sending him to be an appren- 
tice to England <or even so far as to the 
American Free States !) inasmuch as a 
mechanic cannot obtain an equally 

[t<> BE C< 

respected rank in society, such as i> 
said to be the ease in the above named 

" Still much of this it seems to me, is 
worth taking into serious consideration. 

M I sometimes almost doubt whether, 
old as I am, nevertheless I might be too 
young. Call it the fruit of inner devel- 
opment or simply only an attraction, but 
the thoughts of the young always exert 
an enlivening and strengthening influence 
on my hope of life. Still I never recon- 
cile myself that it should be a natural 
result that their ideals are, as it were, 
exhausted and weakened and break from 
age like any old earthern-ware. 

"And when I see a young man like 
Grip judged so severely by the so-called 
practical men, — not. so far as I under- 
stand, for his ideas of education, but 
because he would sacrifice himself and 
put them in operation, — I cannot avoid 
giving him my whole sympathy and 

"Now he has abandoned law and 
devoted himself to the study of philology ; 
for, he says, in this country no work is 
of any use without a sign-board, and he 
will now try to get a richly gilded one in 
an excellent examination, seize hold of 
untrodden soil, just like the dwarf birches 
upon the mountain, and not let go, even 
if a whole slide came over him. 

"When it is considered, that he must 
work hard and teach several hours daily 
only to be able to exist, I cannot other- 
wise than admire this fiery courage, and 
— true I have not many with me- and 
wish him good lurk.'" 

Ma sat pondering. 

Then she cut out one page which 
spoke of Joergen. It might be worth 
while if opportunity ottered to sh>>w it to 
Jaeger. In the simplicity of her heart 
she really did not know what to think. 

NT IN it. i>.] 


Conducted by Fred Gowing, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 


Mr. II ". S. Harris, Coc's Northwood Academy. 

It has been calculated by good but especially those in reading, gram- 
authority that the word scissors can be mar, composition, and penmanship, may 
spelled in nearly six thousand ways, all be an indirect lesson in orthography, 
supported by the analogy of other words and often pupils gain more real knowl- 
in the language. The composite char- edge of spelling in these incidental ways 
acter of our mother tongue, while it than by their regular spelling lessons, 
makes it a rich medium for the com- Vet the former alone are not sufficient 
munication of ideas, gives to its orthog- for the purpose. If the spelling-book is 
raphy so great irregularity that English discarded, the spelling lesson cannot be ; 
spelling is an art rather than a science, but it should be so connected with other 
and an art to be acquired chiefly by studies as to mean something to the 
sheer exercise of memory. This fact pupil. Learning to spell is at the best 
places the child of the English-speaking chiefly a memorizing exercise, but the 
peoples at an immense disadvantage in memory works well only when it works 
comparison with many other nations, in intelligently, and time can be better 
that the acquisition of the mechanical used than in the memorizing of mere 
art of spelling requires so large a frac- words without regard to their meaning 
tion of the time and mental labor ex- and use. 

pended in acquiring an education. Written spelling lessons are more val- 
Yet its difficulty by no means justifies liable than oral, not only because we 
the neglect of spelling, but instead 'use our knowledge of spelling almost 
increases its importance as a branch of exclusively when writing, but because 
study. Surely no art is more desirable, the memory is better reached through 
and a person's orthography as often as the eye than through the car, hence the 
any other one thing becomes an index art is more readily acquired in this way. 
of his education. Children differ as In practical life all the knowledge we 
much in natural ability to spell as in get of the sequence of letters in words 
aptitude for music or mathematics, but is received through the eye. That coin- 
that is no reason for not cultivating the ing through the ear cannot be relied on, 
art in every case to the fullest extent as the sound of a word often gives no 
possible. Some suggestions may be clew to its spelling. Train the pupils 
given as to the teaching of English to depend on their sense of form w\<\ 
spelling. proportion, and they will detect a mis- 
First. Teach it constantly, and in a spelled word at sight as readil) as they 
variety of ways. Almost every lesson, would recognize the error in a picture 



of a star-fish with six rays or of a lily 
with five petals. 

Nevertheless, oral spelling should not 
be discarded, as it has its uses, chief of 
which is the aid it lends to pronuncia- 
tion. Children who read much often 
know words by sight and understand 
their use before they have any correct 
idea of their pronunciation. In either 
method of spelling, the syllabication of 
words should receive much attention. 
Spelling is more than the proper se- 
quence of letters in a word ; it includes 
a knowledge of syllabication, which 
knowledge comes into use every time 
we have to divide a word at the end of 
a line. A person who writes pro- on 
one line and blem on the next does not 
know how to spell problem any more 
than the one who writes it probblem. 

Secondly. Take advantage of what 
little science there is to English spelling, 
and teach thoroughly a few rules which 
cover a large number of words and have 
few exceptions. Experience has shown 
that all of the following rules are useful, 
being of almost constant application, 
and that these five are about all that 
are worth teaching. The scholars should 
be drilled on these until the rules and 
their applications are very familiar. 

i. The word full used as a suffix 
always drops one /. Example, handful. 

2. The plural of nouns ending in y 
preceded by a consonant is formed by 
changing the y to i and adding es\ of 
those ending in y preceded by a vowel, 
by adding s. Ex., ladies, boys. 

3. Silent e ending a word is dropped 
before a suffix beginning with a vowel. 
Hoping, whitish, blamable, stony ', will 
illustrate the wide application of this 
useful rule. The exceptions are few 
and obvious, when e is retained to keep 
c or g soft, or to distinguish the word 
from another, as dyeing. 

4. After e the digraph ei and not ie !•- 
used ; after any other letter, ie. Ex., t 
eeire, beliere. This distinction is easily 

remembered by observing e. e, r, is 
the alphabetical order of these letters, 
and it is of great use in spelling a I 
number of words, neither and seize being 
almost the only common ones which do 
not follow the rule. 

5. A consonant after a single vowel 
at the end of a monosyllable or of an 
accented final syllable, is doubled before 
a sufiix beginning with a vowel. Ex., 
planning, robbed, admittance. This rule 

has hardly an exception, and is one 
which is of constant use. 

Thirdly. Support, by example and 
precept, the improvements in spelling 
that are constantly coming into use. 
Phonetic spelling would be desirable, 
but it is practically a new language, and 
will not come into common use at pres- 
ent. But the language is gradually and 
constantly changing for the better, 
anomalies are yielding place to regular 
forms, and large classes of irregularitie> 
in spelling are disappearing from the 
language. A glance at any old book 
printed more than a century ago. with 
its many silent letters, double letters, 
and useless final h's and e's, will show 
how greatly the language has changed 
for the better in its orthography. This 
change is still going on, and is destined 
to continue until reason bears a little 
more extended sway in English spelling. 
In this work we all can aid. 

As all similar words have dropped 
the superfluous //, there is no reason 
why the spelling mold, molt, and savior, 
should not be exclusively u>ed. Eor a 
similar reason a.\ and plow are much 
preferable to axe and plough. There is 
no excuse for longer tolerating the ter- 
mination re in the large c!a>s of • 
of which center and theater are examples. 



save in the very few cases like acre and 
ogre where it is obvious that this spelling 
is required by the pronunciation. Pro- 
gram and quartet are examples of 

undergo a 

like curtailment. In the 
spelling of all words in respect to which 
good usage is divided, let us throw our 
influence in favor of the simple and 

another class of words whose spelling is regular forms, and so help to save 
becoming simplified by the dropping of future generations at least a little 
useless terminal letters, and such words of the pains of learning English spell- 
as catalogue and though are destined to ing. 


In Superintendent A. S. Draper's re- 
port for 1893, of the schools of Cleve- 
land, the following clear statement of 
his beliefs on the subject of education 
is found ; it is most admirable : 

I believe that education, all-around 
and generally diffused, is the only safe- 
guard of the Republic ; that to make 
sure of this end, the American school 
system has been developed, and that it is 
the most unique and beneficent educa- 
tional instrumentality the world has 
ever known ; that it is incomplete unless 
it begins with the kindergarten and 
ends with the university; that if any 
part of this system demands better care 
than any other, that part is at the bottom 
rather than at the top. 

I believe that no one is fit to teach in 
the schools who has not the soundness 
of character and the cultivation of mind 
to be worthy of admission to the best 
of American homes; that the teaching 
service is not competent unless it pos- 
sesses scholarship broader than the 
grade or the branches in which it is en- 
gaged, and beyond this is specially 
trained and prepared, and over and 
above this, is in touch and hearty sym- 
pathy with the highest purposes and 
aspirations of the American people; 
and that even then it cease •.-> to be com- 
petent when it ceases to be studious 

and fails to know and take advantage 
of the world's best thought and latest 
experience in connection with the ad- 
ministration of the schools. 

I believe that it is not the business of 
the schools to undertake to cram into a 
child's head all of the facts it will ever 
be desirable for him to know, but that 
it is their business to start the powers 
of his mind into activity so that he will 
be able to act on his own account and 
will have the desire to find out things 
for himself; that it is not the business 
of the schools to discriminate in favor 
of either sex or any class, or specialize 
in favor of any profession or employ- 
ment, but to train for intellectual power, 
to the end that the child may become a 
self-supporting citizen, may feel the dig- 
nity of honest labor, either intellectual 
or manual, may be disposed to earn his 
living, may choose a respectable voca- 
tion suited to his circumstances and 
within the reach of his gifts, and may 
pursue it contentedly until ambition and 
experience shall combine to point out a 
better one. 

I believe that severity and caprice 
and indirection and secrecy have no 
place in the management of the schools, 
but that openness and steadiness and 
firmness and regularity and kindness 
should prevail, to the end that the child 


should become a good citizen as well as als, are to be prevented, if need be, 

an intelligent one, may grow to honor from putting any of the powers or 

the truth, to respect authority, to value functions of the public schools to any 

property, to abide in agreeable relations partisan or sectarian or selfish end ; 

with his fellows, to know the cost and that the ground upon which the school 

to give stalwart support to the distin- system stands is common to all, that, 

guished institutions of the mighty self- without reference toother divisions, all 

governing republic of which he is a may meet upon it in absolute equality, 

part. and that it is the duty of all citizens to 

I believe in political parties and in keep this ground sacred if they would 

religious denominations, but that the fortify the republic against the danger s 

public school system has nothing to do which may encompass all states based 

with any of these and that all parties upon the principle of universal suffl 

and sects, all associations and individu- and general eligibility to public office. 



Willard D. Chase, M. D., was born in Claremont and died at his home in 
Peterborough, September 3, aged 57 years. He had practiced his profession 
successfully in Greenfield for two years and in Peterborough for 26 years; had 
served on the school committee, and represented the town of Peterborough in the 
house of representatives in 1S89. 


Judge Charles Batchelder was born in Xorth Hampton in 1S49, and died while- 
en route from Europe to this country on September 4th. He was educated in 
Harvard College and was admitted to the Xew Hampshire bar, being the partner 
of Hon. J. H. S. Frink at Portsmouth, and for the past sixteen years had been 
judge of the municipal court. He was president of the Portsmouth Savings Dank, 
and member of the board of education at the time of his death ; was for several 
years United States commissioner, and had held many city offices. Xo man 
enjoyed the esteem and confidence of his fellow citizens in a greater degree than 
did Judge Batchelder. 


Dr. Mary L. Brassin, daughter of Titus V. and Susanna Wadsworth, was born 
in Henniker, May 7, 1836, and died in Fresno, California. She graduated at 
Mount Holyoke Academy in 1861, from the Female Medical College in Phila- 
delphia in 1867, and in 1871 went to Constantinople by imitation of the Woman's 
Board of Foreign Missions and there practised her profession for many years. She 
married Dr. John Brassin in Boussa, Asia Minor, in 1 S 73, and seven years 
they removed to California, where she resided until her death. She is survived 
by her husband and one daughter. 

/I </A(7( 7 ) , 



V rec, P ,ent of the degree of ,,,, V Ham P sl,,re His. 

" e ™»rned Susan G. Johnson, ^tkiZT T ^ Dart,n 
"— ived ,,- a w ; ( ,„, , an 'J »«den uedding was celeb] 


GWman C. Georo- »,, , ■ '- 

September , , * '" '" J) ""'>-mon. and died at hi- ,, 

r > --^x^^v^^;^ 

»»~ h. i, »*,„„,.,„ ;,;';™'. *■•«; °< >•«*. i...u ., 

one daughter. 


(l 0- goods trade. During the , , 3 ° S ' Mr ' Goo ^"g ™-r,,M 

,n ": ; . 0f ^^r, Cooking & Co"™, c ^l"™ * SS ° dati ° ns »*»g „,-„, :i „: 
G °° k,n S & Co»Pany. rn social We he * ' G °° king * Swan - "«« S H 

,"- Hair 'son campaign. ff e lvi ,. : g cand,dat e in the William 

and hro daughters. * M '"' ce ma ™ d . and rs survived bv a ,, 

JohnG. Ibbottwasl ■ J ° HV G " ABBO ". 

PW«I >n manufacturing since his , 


was for a number of years town treasurer, and for many years a deacon and 
treasurer of the Baptist church. He was universally respected as an upright 

business man, and is survived by a widow and two children. 


Rev. Grindall Reynolds, D. I)., was born in Franconia, December 22, 1822, Inn 
moved to Boston at the age of four and received his education in Boston schools 
and in the Cambridge Divinity school, class of 1S47. He nrst preached in Jamaica 

Plain, Mass., and in 1S5S was called to the old First Parish church of Concord, 
Mass., resigning his pastorate there in 1S82 to accept the office of secretary of the 
American Unitarian Association, a position which he tilled with a great degree of 
success and held at the time of his death. He published a ki History of the 
Concord Fight," " History of Concord," and was a contributor to Johnson's 
Encyclopedia and the Atlantic Monthly. He received the degree of A. M. from 
Harvard College in 1S60, and that of 1). I), in 1894. He is survived by two 
daughters and by one son who resides in the West. 

Publishers' Note. — On page 225 of this number of The Granite Monthly, in the 
first paragraph of ••Our Northern Boundary," by Hon. Edgar Aldrich, the types have 
attempted to make the distinguished jurist misquote the language of Bacon. The critical 
reader will notice that instead of •• There be those things which make a nation great and 
prosperous. — a fertile soil, busy workshops, and easy conveyance for nwu and goods from 
place to place," as printed, the extract should read. •• There be three things which make 
a nation great and prosperous, — a fertile soil, busy workshops, and easy conveyance for 
man and goods from place to place."* 




Printed from new type, and illustrated with several thousand Engravings and Maps. 

Within the last decide, however, the progress of discovery in every department of knowledj 
is made necessary an entirely new standard work of reference. This fact indued the publisl 
t rs to subject the work to a most thorough revision uuder the editorial supervision of 

Prf-sidhnt or the University ok Wisconsin, 

issisted by thirty-six eminent American scholars as department editors. The work was 
ifter long and careful preliminary labor, and with the most ample resources for carrying it <>n | 

successful termination. Every article has been revised and rewritten, and is signed by th 
juthor or reviser. 

Prospectus and specimen pages of Johnson's Universal Cyclopaedia, showing type, ttlustr; 
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72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

Frye's Primary takes the lead. 

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For Introduction, 60 cents. 

The popular demand for Frye's Primary Geography has been as remarkable n 
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Descriptive circulars sent postpaid to any address. 

GINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 


What Our Patrons Say of Us: 


gfefc (gtufuaf nxfcpouvanu Com^,""~~" 


NICHOLAS FIU)7t, General A*,.,,. 
Chase lllock, 

1/ S * Concord . ^ //.. c . /^^. <? , w / 

ty <***<^z4-^ m **-* <~< **^ 


The Granite Monthh- Co., 

Monitor Building, 

Concord, X. I [ 


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fete*, _aS^ 


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NOVEMBER, 1894. 



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THE FRIENDSHIP OF WOMEN. Milo Benedict. . . ~ . 

THEN AND NOW. B. B. Hint. .......... 

THE MILLS OF GOD. II. C. Pearson. ......... 



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THE FAMILY AT GIIJE {Translated from the Norwegian of Jonas Lie). Hon. Samuel C. 
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Historical Skktch of Hennicer Academy and High School (Illustrated ). 

1 . 

:> i -■ 

Entered at the post-oTice at Concord, N. H., as second-class matter. 

Illustrated and Printed by Republican Press Association. 








If so, cover it by a policy in the 


and secure your family from the chance of being turned out ii 
the event of your early death. Many a home ha^ been saved t 
widow and orphan children by this simple and sure provisioi 
which would otherwise have passed into the hands of creditor* 
The management of an embarrassed estate is hard enough i 
your strong hands and with your experience; what will it be t 
them always accustomed to lean upon you for support? A •" 
policy will enable them to keep the house when you are gon« 
and enjoy the comforts you would have cheerfully supplied 
you had remained. Specimen policy mailed upon applicatioi 
nicholas frost, general agent for n. h.. 

Cm vsk Block. Concord 

The Granite Monthly 


Vol. XVII. 

NOVEMBER, 1894. 



By George H. Moses. 

HEY had talked the 
matter all over, but 
not every man was 
convinced. Out of the 
Ml sixty thriftv Scotch- 
Irishmen who had 
met that cold No- 
vember afternoon at Joseph Scobey's 
house in Londonderry, it was but nat- 
ural that some should fail to indorse 
the enthusiastic views of the promoters 
of the enterprise, and the proposition 
to secure a township from the Masonian 
lands, now sold to a Portsmouth syndi- 
cate, was not to be Li railroaded " through. 

m m. 


■ ■ 


.'*"•■ *- . •-■■■■ 

But finally the question was settled, and 
it was 

Votid that Cap* Todd & Cap' Barr Shall 
Go to Portsmouth and Do their Best to Pro- 
cure a Township. 

Each man present subscribed ten 
shillings to a fund to prosecute the peti- 
tion, and with characteristic honesty 
paid the subscription at once. From 
this fund three shillings, four pence, 
were taken to pay Scobey for the ^wak- 
ening." as they called the drink of 
brandy or rum which each smacked his 
lips over, and with the balance the two 
captains set out for Portsmouth. 

- •¥?■£ 

Mair Street t«.';.-e the Fire. 



• -; 




Dov.'s Mills. 

"Their Best''* was evidentlyjnothing 
wonderful, for, though it was on the 
29th of November, 174S, that the sub- 
scribers "votid" to send them, nothing 
was heard of the petition until April, 
1752, when another meeting was held. 
a number of new subscribers were 
added, the committee was increased to 
five members, the cost of the ;> waken- 
ing "rose to twelve shillings, and under 
these inspiring circumstances it was 

Voted to prosecute the Afores d Petition. 

This time they were more enterpris- 
ing, and on the 13th of May in the 
same year the petitioners again met and 
chose a committee to "Go and Yewe" 
the proposed sites. They also began 
to gather up the loose ends of their 
web, and 

5ly Voted that each person of this Com- 

munity is to pay twenty shillings to the 
treasurer Cap 1 barr now or at furthest by 
the Sixteenth Day of this Instant and those 
that Dont pay said twenty shillings by s d 
time it will be Lookt on that they forrlte 
their Right and their ten Shillings formerly 
paid except they Decide that they Drop 
to-night and then they are to have Their ten 

A few cautious Scots withdrew and 
received their ten shillings, but at the 
next meeting, June 27, the list was 
closed against further accessions, and 
the committee immediately set out for 
Portsmouth to secure their town. They 
were successful in their quest, and on 
Thursday, July 16, 1752, at the house 
of Ann Slayton in Portsmouth, the 
Masonian proprietors met and granted 
their Londonderry petitioners a town- 
ship called No. Six. 



The name No. 6 was not a new 

one, for it had been conferred upon the 
township nearly twenty years before by 
the general court of Massachusetts, who 

had rewarded certain veterans of Sir 
William Phipps's ill-starred expedition 
against Quebec with generous grants of 
townships in New Hampshire, among 
them being the No. Six now granted to 
the Londonderry petitioners. For this 
bit of altrurian generosity, so far as No. 
Six was concerned, the Massachusetts 
legislators made amends by giving the 
veterans a township in Maine. 1 

The new proprietors of No. Six set 
briskly about making their possessions 
habitable. The old grantees had done 
next to nothing, and the Londonderry- 
people began the work de novo. Vet it 
was a long while before a settlement 
was made, and in point of fact only one 
of the proprietors ever settled in the 



H. A. Emerson. 

town. In 1758 the foundation was laid 
for the first sawmill in town, but no set- 
tlers came to the town for two vears 


■ . 



Mill of Con'.oocook Vale-/ ^a;.-.' Comp4ny. 
Water ford. 



thereafter, and tradition says that when a native of Boxford, Mass., and had 

the mill wa-> nearly completed Indians graduated from Harvard in 1733. He 

appeared in the neighborhood, and the taught the first school in Rum ford (now 

workmen returned to their homes in Concord), and was the first preacher in 



- . 

Londonderry, and the mill project was Canterbury. He was likewise the first 
abandoned. pastor in Hopkinton. In the spring of 
The hist settler was the Rev. James 1760 James Peters, the only proprietor 
Scales who had come into possession of to settle in town, moved in from Hop- 
some land in the westerly part of the kinton and built a house near the Scales's. 

- x 




£T75 - m *t *■»•■ 

; s a 1 B:o-« 

town. He built a lop; cabin, having There were no neighbors nearer than 

removed from Hopkinton here, but his Putney Hill, Hopkinton, no mill orst:>re 

residence was brief, for in six months lie nearer than Rumford, fifteen miles away, 

returned to Hopkinton. Mr. Scales was At Hillsborough, on the west, a few fain- 



ilies had settled, but to the north "expended" each time they came 

stretched an unbroken forest. For two together, but much was accomplished, 

years Mr. Peters lived alone in town, and in cooperation with the settlers, 

In 1763 he was joined by his son and measures were taken to build roads, 



Preston's Block. 

by several others who came from Marl- raise money, and set the town machinery 

borough, Mass. From this latter place in operation. 

many others came, so many in fact that Finally, in 1768, on the first day of 
when John Wentworth was besought to the year, the proprietors assembled for 
incorporate the town the place was self- the last time. They transacted no bus- 
styled New Marlborough. iness, the town had passed from their 

: -• . 
. - 



• • 


■ ■ 

. • - ■• 





: • ...-.' 

Town House 

During these years the proprietors had control, they perhaps drank a solemn 

not been idle and numerous meetings bumper to the success of No. 6, and 

were held at Londonderry. Doubtless adjourned without day. On the four- 

the usual amount of " licor " was teenth of March in the same year the 







i ...>'<\ 


- tU r^ j3 W 

. ! 


Residence c' A. G. Preston. 

inhabitants petitioned for a town charter London. "No other township in all 

and on the ioth of November John our wide domain," remarks the town 

Wentworth, governor and captain-gen- historian with some pride, " is known by 

eral, was pleased to grant it, though he that name." 

overruled the petitioners' desire that the Before the charter was secured the 
town should be called New Marlborough settlers were astir to find a minister. 
and gave it the name of his old friend, evidently in anticipation of the new dig- 
John Henniker, a wealthy merchant of nity soon to arrive, and in the summer 


I ; 







Birthp'ace of Pro*. J. '//. Patl 

Prof. J. W. Pi 



of 1 7 68 Captain Eliakim Howe, in whose committee of arbitration consisting of 

hands a ministerial fund had been placed, three citizens of Warner — whose deci- 

hirecl his cousin, the Rev. Jacob Rice, sion was not found satisfactory and an 

to preach. The proprietors at London- appeal was taken to the legislature. 

derry during their term of administra- The house was finally built, however, 

tion had passed frequent votes as to and was first occupied in 17S7. It still 

hiring a minister, but it was the settlers' stands, a noble structure, though it has 

action which brought results, for they long ago lost its religious character as a 

not only settled the town, but also set- town church, separation of church and 

tied this question by settling Mr. Rice, state having taken place in Ilenniker in 

II H h «.L||| r ,, : 

-■■■ . 


HenniKer Ac3;eTiy. 

who accepted their call on condition 
that his salary rise and fall as silver rose 
and fell— a proviso which shows that the 
currency question is no new issue. Two 
years later a log church was built and 
was occupied for worship some weeks 
before it was covered by a roof. This 
structure was burned on the evening of 
the "dark day," May 19. 17S0, and was 
not replaced until the town had passed 
through the usual controversy over a 
location and had left the matter to a 

1S01. Since that time it has been more 
or less used by different denominations 
and has always served as a town hall. 
It was extensively remodeled some years 
ago and in 1887 its centennial was cel- 
ebrated by a re-dedication, the event 
receiving a degree of attention quite in 
keeping with its merits. 

The new town had hardly taken its 
bearings when the struggle for American 
liberty began and in the Revolutionary 
war the people of Henniker did noble 




r • 

• ' 




^Pjlll liiSF:' 

i~ | 

b-frCi>^ .. . - ; ■- . ..-.-.■ 

Residence of John Gage. 

service. Xo less than 132 men from 
here fought in the Continental army and 
at one time the call for troops became 
so urgent that there was 
scarcely an able-bodied man 
left in town except the Rev. 
Mr. Rice. 

The war over, the people 
of Henniker turned their at- 
tention from national to local 
affairs. A saw-mill had long 
ago been set up and the 
necessary potashery was soon 
numerously in operation. 
New settlers had come in, 
and with them had come dif- 
ficulties. As for those whom 
they wanted, the townspeo- - - 
pie were in a quandary as to 
how to make them pay an equitable tax; 
and as for those who were not wanted. 

some means must be devised 
to get rid of them. 

The objectional settlers con- 
sisted of a few of that thrifty. 
law-abiding, benevolent class 
called Shakers, but they were 
non grata to our Henniker 
friends, and despite the report 
that the new-comers contem- 
plated the purchase of a large- 
tract of land and the estab- 
lishment of a ••family" in the 

community, the town met, and with 

excess of zeal, — 

Voted To Due somethins 





relative To 








t • 


■ . - ■ 



Residence of Hon. Grcrge C Preston. 

Cogswell Homestead 

those People Called Shakering Quakers. 
\'oted to Chosse a Commity to take cart- of 
the Shakering Quakers. 

Chose Cap. Howe, James 
Wallace, Elisha Barnes, John 
Goodenow, Sam 1 Kimball, for 
the Commity. 

Voted that any person not 
being Town Resident Shall 
have no Residence in this 
Town of the Denomination of 
Shakering Quakers. 

Voted that we will not have 
any Dealings with the SI 
ing « >u ikers Living in this 1 

Voted that they shall not 





strool about the Town without giving an 

account to the Commity it' Called on Tue. 

The Shakers left the town soon after 
this, and their places were filled by 
others. So many others came, attracted 
doubtless by the fertile intervales of the 
Contoocook river or by the equally pro- 
ductive uplands, that in 1791 the town 
was large enough to aspire to county- 
seat honors, the occasion arising from 
the division of Hillsborough county into 
" half-shires." Henniker was the choice 
of the western portion of the county to 


John Gage. 

academy was founded with a strong 
board of trustees and a weak financial 
basis. Yet that, too, was prosperous, 
and still exists, serving as the town high 
school. Among its more prominent 
graduates were the late Hon. James 
Willis Patterson, LL. D., educator, 

Hon. P. B. Cogswell. 

share honors with Amherst, and Con- 
cord was the favorite of the eastern 
representatives. As a compromise, Hop- 
kinton, between the two, was selected. 

From now on dated the palmiest days 
of the town. Agriculture flourished then 
as never before or since. Manufactures 
were scanty, but the population was 
numerous, and for the next thirty years 
the census showed increasing numbers. 
Churches sprung up beside the first one ; 
some of them tlourished and some of 
them faded. Schools prospered, and an 



■ ^"H 

Hon. Geo'go C F 



the inspirations of the poet. 
but from them breathed the 

voice of freedom as well, for 
here lived the family of Par- 
ker Pillsbury, the anti-slavery 

apostle, though he was born 
before the family came here. 
Here, however, his brothers 
were born, among them being 
the late Hon. Oliver Pills- 
bury, insurance commissioner 
of Xew Hampshire, and here 
he began his work. The voice 
of liberty gave forth no un- 
certain sound along this val- 
Goodenow Homestead. ley, and the people of Henni- 

ker were fired to action by 
statesman, and orator, the most bril- the most stirring and eloquent and 
liant man of a generation, who was born famous of all that noble band who pre- 
here in Henniker, a scion of one of the pared the land for the war which fol- 
sturdy Scotch-Irish grafts from London- lowed. Another brother. Gilbert Pills- 
derry stock : the Rev. N. F. Carter, of bury, served the anti-slavery cause in 
Concord, historian and teacher ; and the another way. entering political life in 
Rev. Addison P. Foster, D. D., of Bos- Massachusetts, and as a member of the 
ton, who has won renown in Sunday- state senate procuring the first election 
school work in the Congregational of Henry Wilson as United States sena- 
denomination. Henniker's most noted tor. He was activelv engaged during 
woman and Xew Hampshire's only true the war as government agent for the 
poet, Miss Edna Dean Proctor, was also freedmen, and in that capacity found 

educated in this school. 

The Proctor farm, Miss Proctor's 
birthplace, lay high up on a hillside, the 
farm-house peering out through the 
pines upon the village and 
the valley of the Contoocook 
below. This farm, once the 
best in the town, is now de- 
serted. Not a vestige of the 
buildings remains. The fam- 
ily is scattered, and all that 
is now left are the hills, the 
eternal hills, and the river 
flowing at their feet, mingling 
its murmurings with the whis- 
pers of the pines. From 
these hillsides came not onlv 

himself in Charleston, S. C. 
city was evac- 
uated. After 
reco n struc- 

after that 


R- 1 dence c' 

C O 



Emerson's Bloc!<. 

tion he was chosen the first mayor of 
Charleston, serving three years. 

Reforms found easy lodgment here, 
and the anti-slavery movement was 
preceded several years by the Washing- 
toman temperance wave which deluged 
this town. More than a thousand 
signers were secured to the pledge, and 
from that day to this the sentiment of 
the community has been for what is 
elevating and ennobling. Its activities 
along beneficial lines have been most 
noteworthy. The academy and it> grad- 
uates we have noted. Among 
its teachers have been men 
afterward eminent, such as 
Professor John S. Woodman, 
for many years a member of 
the faculty of Dartmouth 
college, and the Hon. Will- 
iam M. Chase, now a justice 
of the supreme court of New 
Hampshire. Another mem- j 
ber of the same court. Judge 
Robert M. Wallace of Mil- 
ford, was born here and was 
a pupil in the academy when 
Judge Chase was an instruct- 
or. An earlier distinguished 
teacher in the time was Icli- 

abod Bartlett, who rose to a 
seat in congress. 

N'ot only in religious, mur- 
al, and educational work has 
the town expended its activ- 
ities. Its culture is only too 
evident in other directions. 
In the world of letters Hen- 
niker has no need to be 
ashamed, even if there were 
no other representative of 
the town than Miss Proctor. 
But there are others, though 
the world of letters cannot 
exclusively claim them. Two 
members of a noted family 
in the town have erected literary monu- 
ments. These are the brothers Cogs- 
well. Leander W. and Parsons B. And 
yet each of them has made his mark in 
the world of affairs. 

The elder, Leander W. Cogswell, is 
the most eminent soldier who went from 
Henniker to the last war. His service 
was very distinguished, and he rose to 
be lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, the 
Eleventh New Hampshire, of which he 
was in command for at least half of its 
term of service. In civil life he filled 

. i 

Residence of Wm, U. Da* 



r • 




Congregational Church and Chape: 


important town offices, sat in the legis- 
lature, and served as state treasurer and 
bank commissioner. To the bibliog- 
raphy of the state he added a " History 
of Henniker" and a "History of the 
Eleventh New Hampshire Regiment." 

His brother, Parsons B. Cogswell, 
has been for nearly a half century a 
resident of Concord, where he has iden- 
tified himself with the highest and best 
journalistic enterprises which the state 
has fostered, the Concord Evening 
Monitor and the Independent Statesman. 
Those sterling, reliable journals have 
known him in every editorial capacity. 
and the impress of his lofty ideals and 
rugged honesty can never be effaced from 
their columns. For more than thirty 
years he has served on the school 
board of Concord, and is now nearing 
the close of a highly successful term as 
mayor of the city. His published 
works include a volume of travels bear- 
ing the title "Glints From Over the 
Water," and a most artistic specimen of 
book-making entitled -'Three Dedica- 
tions," compiled to commemorate the 

beneficences of the Hon. George A. 
Pillsbury to the communities with which 
his life in New Hampshire was identi- 

In addition to these the Rev. N. F. 
Carter, before mentioned, has achieved 
no mean renown as a writer of verse, 


X V 



< « 

. / 









Rev. A P. Foster, D D. 



and his biographical compilation of world is Mrs. \\. \\. A. Beach of Boston 

"Native Ministers of New Hampshire " who was horn here, Amy M. Cheney. 

is a monumental work. As early as three years of age she 

Turning to the kindred held of music developed surprising musical genius and 

and the town genealogies present the today is the most noted female composer 

name of Christopher Columbus Gibson, in America, being the only one to have 

violin virtuoso and composer, the composed a successful oratorio; while 





-« »". 


• i 



- u^.~. 


Metnodist Criurch. 

" American Ole Bull,'' as he is termed, 
of whom a recent number of this mag- 
azine 1 contains an appreciative sketch ; 
while from the same source comes in- 
formation of Emma Abbott's connection 
with the town by reason of her grand- 
father's residence here. 

Another famous woman in the musical 

1 Apri 

her mass in E flat is one of the world's 
masterpieces in ecclesiastical music. It 
was to her strains that the World's Fair 
at Chicago was opened, she having set 
to music the ode of the occasion. 

Henniker's contribution to the coun- 
try's roll of fame is a theme to dwell 
upon, for there is abundant material, as 







i i 


,1 Rj 



.'■ . 

place of quite as 
notable a family as 
can be found any- 
where. Five of them 
were boys and they 
all became lawyers. 
Two of them never 
held office but they 
both reached high 

places in their pro- 
fession, and one of 
them died at the 
head of the bar in 
Portland, Me. Of 
the others, Rufus 

the evidence shows. But there is more King Goodenow graduated from West 
yet. To New Hampshire the town Point, commanded a company in the 

Bir*hp!ace of Juc'^- R. M. Wallace. 


gave a gov- 
ern o r , Na- 
thaniel B. Ba- 
ker, who was 
born here and 
from here 
went to col- 
lege ; and an- 
other son of 
the town, Da- 
vid Andrew 
YVarde, w a s 
stricken down 
in death when 
the govern- 
or's chair was directly before him, he 
having served as president of 
the state senate with even- 
prospect of promotion. 

With the record of a re- 
markable family this portion 
of our story will close : Among 
the many settlers who came 
to Henniker from Marlbor- 
ough, Mass., was John Good- 
enow, who lived here for more 
than twenty years. His house 
is still standing, and is remark- 
able as having been the birth- 

Ingalls's Gr ; st-rr. 

War of i8l2, 

studied 1 a \v, 
was clerk of 
the courts in 
Oxford coun- 
ty, Maine, for 
years, and 
was a mem- 
ber of the 
Th i rty- First 
congress. An- 
other, Daniel, 
was speaker 
of the Maine 
house of representatives in 1S30, 1831, 










ti m 


a "■■ 


■ . .... ~-' 

•■^ • 

"■• • ."■• 



H. A. Err.»fsoi. 



and 1832, was Whig 
candidate for governor, | 

was attorney-general of 
Maine, and for seven | 
years was a justice of ^ 
the supreme court of 
Maine. And another, 
Robert G., was a bank 
examiner in Maine for 
four years, and sat in 
the Thirty-Second con- 
gress. Of the girls of 
the family the youngest 
married Daniel P. Stone 
of Maiden, Mass., a 
millionaire, and from 
his estate the Stone professorships of the Cogswe 


ReidTfice 0' Dr. G. H. Sanborn. 

philosophy at Bowdoin and Dartmouth 
colleges received their foundations. 


It is much like that 
Ilenniker, to be sure, when one thinks 
of its moral attributes, its strength, and 
its resources ; but otherwise it is far dif- 
ferent. The Henniker of these other 
days was a centre of much of the activ- 
ity of the whole community. Its Fourth 
of July celebrations were the admir- 
ation of the countryside, its Jack>onian 
jubilations eclipsed all others (at one 


Dr. G. H. Sanborn. 

Mrs. Stone was born after the family 
removed to Maine so that Henniker 
shines only in the reflected light of her 

But the Henniker of to-day is not 
the Henniker that produced the Goode- 
nows, the Patterson.., the Proctors, and 

7 ^ 



/ / 

Dr. L. W. Peabody. 





Eldad Marsh.* 

of these festive gatherings of Democ- 
racy General Franklin Pierce, then 
twenty-five years old, delivered his first 
political speech"). Its hotel was the 
best along the entire stage route, the 


V V 


Henry E. Merrick. 

Henniker Rifles were the crack com- 
pany of the Twenty-sixth regiment of 
militia, and later the Henniker Grena- 
diers succeeded to their fame in the 
Fortieth, and a Henniker training day 



f ■ 




- •- 

Hon. Cl.ver P;!lsbury. 

W. H. Bean. 

* Eldad Marsh, the oldest man in Eienniker, was b rn in 179S, arid for 7; years has voted in the old I 
house which is pictured in another place. 



was an event to be anticipated and 

These affairs have passed. The 
stages no longer rumble up to "the old 
National." No shrill fife or resounding 
drum ushers in a training day. The 
Battle of New Orleans must seek com- 
memoration elsewhere. But in their 
place comes the daily shriek of the 
locomotive and the hum of industry 
rising above the murmur of the river. 
The old had much to commend it. but 
the new is in advance. 

A condition precedent to the develop- 
ment of the new Henniker was the 
establishment of railroad connection. 
The first move toward this end was 
made in 1835, when the railroad fever 
was hot within everybody's veins, and 
when the people north of Henniker 
were seeking an outlet to Boston. 
Henniker was on the old stage road to 
Windsor, Vermont, which was consid- 
ered the most favorable line for a rail- 
road to follow, and two of the surveyed 
routes ran through this town. The 
building of the Northern and the Con- 


Mrs. H. H. A. Beach. 

that the local agitation again arose. 
At that time a charter was obtained 
from the New Hampshire Central rail- 
road to run from Manchester to Wind- 
sor, Vermont, through Henniker and 
Claremont. Meetings were held in the 
towns along the line of the projected 
necticut River roads gave these plans road, and the people finally subscribed 
their quietus, and it was not until 134S to the stock of the road. At a most 

enthusiastic meeting, held in Academy hall, 
t^S?***-^' -V" % Henniker, the early construction of the road 

was urged, and in the spring of 1850 the 

people of Henniker saw their first railroad 

train — at a cost of over $100,000. This 

■ . ;: 





Inter/ale Farm. 



road did a good business, but, says Col- 
onel Cogswell in his "Historyof Henni- 
ker," "the Concord and Northern rail- 
roads combined to stop its going beyond 
this town. As a result of that combina- 
tion a road was pushed up through War- 
ner to Bradford. That movement was 
an injury to this road. The managers 
of it became embarrassed and the stock- 
holders were called upon for an extra 
assessment. Finally the road passed 

ings of our people was forever lost. 
\t the session <»f the leg- 
islature for 1S4S. on the 24th day 
of June, a railroad was chartered from 
Contoocouk to Hillsborough Bridge. 
through this town, a distance of four- 
teen and a half miles, which was opened 
to this town in December, [849, a short 
time before the New Hampshire Cen- 
tral, which has been in operation since 
that time." 



. - 


/ , 

Unive.' Church. 

into the hands of Joseph A. Gilmore, 
superintendent of the Concord road, 
and Robert X. Corning, a conductor 
upon the same road. They were the 
nominal owners, though it was supposed 
the Concord road stood behind them. 
Determined still further to cripple the 
business interests of Henniker, on the 
bright, beautiful Sabbath morning of 
October 31, 1S5S, Mr. Gilmore, with a 
swarm of hands, appeared in this town 
and commenced tearing up the rails 
and track. Before the sun went down 
the track from this place to North 
Weare, a distance of seven miles, was 
torn up, and $100,000 of the hard earn- 

The people of Henniker never forgot 
the dismantling of their railroad, or, 
rather, they were not permitted to forget 
it. Messrs. George C. Preston and 
Henry K. Merrick aroused the flagging 
public sense of wrong whenever it seemed 
likely to be lulled into quietude by a re- 
flection or. the advantages which sue 
ceeded those taken away, and their 
efforts to secure the righting of the 
wrong were finally successful in 1893 
In that year both these men were in th€ 
legislature of Xew Hampshire, Mr, 
Merrick sitting in the h iusc fr •:: Hen 
niker and Mr. Preston representing his 
district in the senate. Through theii 



o u o 



Shoe Shop. 

efforts legislation was enacted giving the 
Concord & Montreal railroad the right 
to relay the rails which had been torn 
up, and the road was reopened during 
the summer of that year. 

Along with this great good fortune in 
1893 came a severe blow to the town 
in the shape of a fire, the most disas- 
trous in the history of the village, which 
prostrated the business portion of the 
town. To add to the desolation, when 
the people were just recovering from the 
effects of the fire, the shoe factory, the 
chief industry of the place, shook the 
dust of Henniker from its feet and set 
out for green fields and pastures new, 
where the exemption period had longer 
to run. 

But the new Henniker was not down- 
cast over either of these misfortunes. 
The smoke was yet rising from the ruins 
of the market-place when the enterpris- 
ing owners began planning for better 
buildings to succeed those which were 
lost ; and the shoe factory had not re- 
moved from the town when the people 
had subscribed the necessary funds to 
purchase the plant and the new owners 
had found occupants for the shop. 

Yet neither shoe factory nor new 
places of business sum up the new 
Henniker. At West Henniker the C'on- 

toocook Valley Paper Mills 
still hold the market with 
their superior product, and 
various manufactures of 
wood,— shingles, clapboards, 
lumber, and wooden ware, — 
furnish employment for 
scores of hands. A grist- 
mill, with a threshing-mill 
attached, is bus)- the year 
around, and the Henniker 
creamer) - has now high re- 
pute for its excellent wares. 
liack of all this is the 
fanning interest, though farming is 
not what it once was in Henniker. 
The hillsides throughout the town are 
dotted with cellar-holes, where once 
stood farm-houses, and many of the 
best farms of the generation past have 
grown up to woodland ; yet farming 
is not gone from Henniker. I said 
farming is not what it once was here, 
and I was right ; for who of the fanners 
of a half century ago would have dreamed 
of keeping two hundred hens, of dating 
each e££ as it was laid, and of marketing 



Curtis B 2- _:;. 



them in Boston at sixty cents a dozen ? ker to preach the gospel of hum. in free- 

or of having a customer for all their dom, but before he could deliver his 

milk and cream come to their very doors message Henniker's message reached 

for it ? or of populating their farms each him, wafted from the wooded hills and 




Her.'-, ker Crearr.ery. 

summer with the numberless summer 
boarder? These are the changes that 
have come over the spirit of agriculture's 
dream in Henniker. 

There is much to render the last- 
named crop profitable in Henniker. A 
more delightful place for a month's so- 
journ in summer can scarcely be imag- 
ined. The village itself is small and 
quiet, but it has many conveniences 
which render it alluring to city folk. It 
is near at hand and is easily reached 
from the large centers. It has three 
churches, — Congregational, Methodist, 
and Universalist ; there are eleven 
schools ; there are good stores ; there 
are excellent sidewalks, and in every 
direction spread the most enchanting 
drives ; while the river, with its broad 
sweeps, its placid surface, and its em- 
bowered banks, is one of the most 
charming of New England waterways. 
The scenic attractions of Henniker have 
always been of enthralling' interest to all 
visitors to the town. More than fifty 
years ago X. P. Rogers came to Henni- 

fertile valleys, and he straightway gave 
the message to the world. 

"We left the river road," he wrote, 
"on the margin of the Contoocook, and 
wound our way among the hills to the 
southward of the beautiful village of 
Henniker. It brought us at length into 
a valley behind the high ridge that over- 
looks the village. We ascended to the 
summit, where stand the comfortable 
and pleasant dwellings of our true 
friends, George and Daniel Cogswell. 
I could hardly imagine to myself a more 

Gage's M.ll. 



desirable location. A glorious prospect 
stretched around them. 

Oil to the south, beyond the deep and 
narrow valley, rose high, wooded hills, 
their heavy hard-wood growth touched 
gorgeously with the first pencil of Octo- 
ber. North, the village, shining at their 
feet, with its painted dwellings and green 
fields, a wide upland country swelling 
beyond it, rising in the distance and 
terminating with old Kearsarge, with its 
bare head among the drifting clouds.'' 

Another picture of this lovely village 
has been drawn, almost from the same 
spot, and in Edna Dean Proctor's words 

is mirrored the scene, with the river- 

Ceaseless it Hows, till, around its bed, 
The vales of Henniker are spread, 
Their banks all set with golden grain, 
Or stately trees whose vistas gleam — 
A double forest in the stream : 
And winding 'neath the pine-crowned hill 
That overhangs the village plain. 
By sunny reaches, broad and still, 
It nears the bridge that spans its tide — 
The bridge whose arches, low and wide, 
It ripples through — and should you lean 
A moment there, no lovelier scene 
On England's Wye or Scotland's Tay 
Would charm your gaze, a summer's <\\\ . 

By Milo Benedict. 

That men often fail to establish or to 
maintain friendly relations with women 
chiefly because some peculiar and un- 
reasonable prejudice, either natural or 
acquired, exists between them, I think 
can hardly be gainsaid. 

It is not uncommon for a man to seek 
an acquaintance with a woman superior 
to himself in point of delicacy of feel- 
ing, quickness of perception, fineness of 
judgment, and keenness of intelligence, 
and then to accuse her of as much am- 
biguity as he can imagine, simply through 
his own dullness, being oblivious of the 
fact that human nature is capable of 
infinite degrees of perfection, and that 
a man with imperfect vision can never 
perceive the roundness and complete- 
ness of a being with a perfect one. And 
inevitably does not his inadequate judg- 
ment lead him to place all women at 
once in a line with those doubtful ques- 
tions, great or small, which have per- 
plexed his soul and batiled his senses 

throughout his life ? She has become to 
him a symbol of mystery and uncer- 
tainty, and tempts him always into such 
speculation as he would give to ques- 
tions of theology or casuistry, perhaps. 
He can not lay his finger on her spirit 
and disport freely his knowledge of its 
quality as he would in handling a gar- 
ment or any tangible substance. He 
avows that he reasons, but she has no 
reason ; he feels, but she has no feel- 
ing ; he judges, but she has no judg- 
ment; he admires, but her admiration 
rests in a circle in which his is not in- 
cluded. This, of course, is because her 
reason, her feeling, her judgment, her 
admiration, transcend altogether the 
scope of his, and hence a full revelation 
of herself to him is an impossibility. 
Her consistencies are to him inCOl 
encies, and what she holds to be order 
to his senses is chaos. He sets her 
down as having an attractive blankness, 
perhaps,- -what it is he does not attempt 

3 o8 


to define, or if he docs he fails. He 
acknowledges her attractiveness, but 
her nature is spoiled by surprising con- 
tradictions, complications, and caprices. 

In his mystification he forms in his 
imagination a creature of very dubious 
character, in which appears much that 
he doesn't understand and little that he 
does,, and this becomes his type of 
woman, which he believes to be truly 
representative, though he deplores the 
fact that the type has so little corres- 
pondence with his ideal. 

When such imperfect conceptions 
have taken possession of a man. it is 
probably only by some super-human 

manliest savage is thought by his rela- 
tives to be the one who is fiercest and 
cruelist. But the first evidence of hi>> 
real improvement is evidenced in his 
growing gentleness. And if he would 
comprehend civilized man and woman 
he must be regenerated with a gentle 
heart, and all fineness and nobility v. ill 
come with it. It argues nothing in 
favor of a man that lie is hostile in any 
degree to woman, but marks him as lack- 
ing, let us say, that indefinable S< n - 
thing, the possession of which would 
fill him out and make him complete. 

If a man, however, has no defect, ma\ 
he not readily gain the friendship of 

power that he can be made to outgrow women, and may not women prove their 

them. Failing thus to comprehend the 
subtility and truth of woman he ends in 
ascribing to her, partly out of his own 
generosity of heart, a certain vague 
excellence which he remembers to have 
been conspicuous in his grandmother, 
and which is surely present in his 
mother, though it is to be believed he 
holds these two persons to be notable 
exceptions to the rule. 

Such capital defect of insight, such 
gaps in the range of his sympathies, 
indicate a warped spiritual condition. 
His character has been cast in a mould 
of eccentric form. It is not liquid and 
flexible all around, but hard and bristling 

fitness for such relationship? We a>k 
the.->e questions because a writer we 
have just been reading in a recent 
number of The Atlantic Monthly, and 
at whose instigation we were tempted 
into writing upon this pretentious sub- 
ject, declares that. "As a rule it is im- 
possible for a friendship to exist be- 
tween a man and a woman unless the 
man and woman in question be hus- 
band and wife." 

Is this merely a reflection drawn 
from the writer's personal experience, 
or is he making a general and incon- 
trovertible statement? Do feminine 
characteristics disqualify women for the 

in spots. Because of the partiality of beautiful office of friendship any more 

his feelings none of his feelings can be 
quite true. Because he finds imperfect 
correspondence between his nature and 
the feminine nature he disparages the 
feminine. Pie may belong to that class 
which regards a certain hostility to 
women to be a mark of virility and su- 
periority. This class is certainly a 
large one, and seems to hd\c founded 
its principles on the notion that gentle- 
ness is incompatible with strength. 
Take the case of the savage. The 

than masculine characteristics disqualify 
men for the same? Or is human nature 
so large that pure friendship may exist 
between men and women independent 
of these differences ? To dwell on the 
characteristic differences belonging t<» 
each sex is to magnify particulars. 
The manish man and the womanish 
woman are marked deviations from the 
true ideal, and the deviations, it may be 
remarked, are ali in the line of 



De Quincey wrote. '• Man is ever 
coming nearer to an agreement." This 
of course is equivalent to saying, man 
and women are ever coming nearer to 
an agreement. We turn agreeably to 
the words of our wise Thoreau. He 
says: '"Men and women of equal culture. 
thrown together, are sure to be of a cer- 
tain value to one another, more than 
men to men.'' It seems to us that one 
of the prime characteristics of woman is 
her genius for friendship. She seems 
habitually more in touch with the higher 
elements than man. who may indeed 
achieve a tolerable success before the 
world with only a creditable head for 
business, while possessed of as little 
soul, as little feeling (to borrow the 
humor of Charles Dudley Warner) as a 
reaper and binder. A woman must 
have feeling and she must have soul, 
even in her finger tips. Every part of 
her frame, every feature should be 
precious to all discerning eyes for the 

soul expressed in them. Her fineness 
does not spring from poor antecedents. 
Every perfection of hers must have 
come, like the rainbow, from a source 
as wonderful and beautiful as itself. 
Fineness must proceed from excellence; 
and therefore every fine woman must be 
as excellent as she is fine. 

Without reference to any opinion 
confirmed by experience, it would seem 
a strange anomaly indeed to credit 
woman with such ideal attributes of 
character and at the same time discredit 
her capacity for friendship. Friend- 
ship, it is true, is no respecter of sex, 
and that is why it should not discrimi- 
nate. Or if it should discriminate at 
all, why should it not in favor of those 
who are surest, we believe, of keeping 
the sacred fire aflame, and of keep- 
ing their hearts open to those who 
need the warmth and solace of sym- 
pathy and the enrichment of apprecia 
tion ? 

By B. />'. Hunt. 

The spring was new, the blades looked out 

In just a shy young way. 
The cowslips turned themselves about, 

As thinking what to say; 

New little thrills from cell to cell, 

Crept with an elfish speed. 
The fronded things along the dell 

Were very blithe indeed. 

Then joy from out the morning sky 
Shot glances everywhere; 

Then happiness, with radiant eye, 
Swam lightly through the air ; 


Then melody all through and through 

Sent quivering trill> and lays : — 
Ah, me ! but when the times were new 
How happy were the days ! 

Now, now the day wears russet shoes. 

And loves to sit at ease, 
Not minding much to gain or lose 

Amid her fevered trees. 

The dews are lazy on the stalks, 
The blades are languid grown, 

The corn dames rustle where they walk, 
The drooping forests moan ; 

The brooks in measured tunes go by, 
The dreaming scents are still, 

The idle sunbeams love to lie 
And comb the haze at will. 

Yet stroke we soft our good grav hairs, 

And yield our lips to song, 
And bring the folding of our cares 

Where benedictions throng. 


By H. C. Pearson. 

All the year round, through whirling a-droop ; and now and then the holy 

winds of rain and pelting drives of hush was broken by some monster 

snow, the tall pines raised their green moose with bellowing rush. The harshly 

crests proudly to the sky and bade sea- strident "caw, caw, caw," of dull black 

sons, and storms, and Time himself de- crows, the awful screech of night owls, 

fiance. Their sturdy branches, closely these were the songs of the solitudes, 
interlocking, denied the curious sun And no man knew them save the 

even a glimpse of the mysteries about Hermit. 

their bases. Twilight aisles were there, At noon of every day the Montreal 

dim, cool, and faintly fragrant, with express thundered into the little Station 

softly springing carpets and hangings, at the foot of the mountain, paused im- 

gray, and green, and black. patiently while the leathern mail-bag 

Through these secret passage-ways of and mayhap a passenger or two were: 

nature lurched uncouth Bruin ; sly Rev- discharged, then onward rushed again 

nard trotted fearlessly along with ears further into the northland. Every day 


3 11 

weary travellers, gazing with idle curi- 
osity through the cinder-covered win- 
dows, beheld a strange figure on the 
wide plank platform, wondered for a 
moment, and forgot. Twenty years be- 
fore the lounging villagers had won- 
dered, too. The Hermit's hair and beard 
were brown and curling then, now they 
were of the purest white. But the erect 
form was still unbowed, the piercing 
eyes still grey and sharp as tempered 
steel, and the silent lips still sealed. 

Not once in all the long years had the 
loaded train missed his scrutinv. Some- 
times the double engines had to fight 
their way desperately by through the 
deep snow; sometimes they panted and 
sweated in the heat of their midday 
labors. But, summer and winter alike, 
his gaunt form stalked up and down 
the platform while he peered into every 
window in patient, ill-requited search. 
Then, as the parting whistle screeched 
he turned on his heel, passed like a 
haunt through the quiet, single street, 
and disappeared for another twenty-four 
hours in the depths of the mountain 

This day autumn was giving winter 
friendly greeting. The white birch 
skirmishers of the host of pines were 
shedding the seared leaves that had 
never hid their gauntness. Down below 
in the oaks and chestnuts lithe squirrels 
leaped and chattered, and now and then 
a flock of partridges arose with booming 
flutter. The Plermit felt the chill of 
coming snow in his blood, and hastened 
his steps along the familiar paths. 
Arrived at his lonely cabin, a brisk 
blaze soon leaped and crackled in the 
broad fireplace, inviting the old man to 
rest and meditation. 

" He will come soon," said he to the 
flames. -'The wind howled it in my ear 
last night, and the big lynx over yonder 

screeched it twice. He must come, for 
the world is small and twenty years is a 
long time to wait. He will come soon. 
I know it. And when he does, — " the 
steely eyes gleamed like the sword of 
a soldier. 

The dusk fell and with it the snow- 
flakes. Fast and faster they came, some 
sifting through the pine boughs, some 
clinging to them in damp, sleety masses. 
Very wet and uncomfortable a bewil- 
dered huntsman found them as he 
sought in vain to find his way out of the 
forest. Exhausted and hopeless, he was 
about to sink down in despair when a 
faint light shone through the darkness. 
The Hermit had opened his door. Tie 
wanderer, pushing his thankful way in 
that direction, had fairly entered the 
cabin before he brushed the snow from 
his eyes to greet its owner. 

One glance, — and he would have rled 
back to the pathless darkness and the 
freezing snow ; but the old man barred 
the way, his tall frame tense and rigid, 
his eyes a-fire in his deathly pallid face. 

"At last ! At last ! " he cried. " Long 
years have I waited for you, John 
Gwynne, — long, weary years. I knew 
you would come to me at last, and you 
have. Xow pray to God while I thank 
him for delivering you into my hands." 

'•Mercy ! Mercy ! " gasped the new- 

" Mercy? " echoed the Hermit, " What 
mercy had you on me twenty years ago, 
and what on her a twelve-month later? 
You robbed me of my wife, then killed 
her with your neglect. I am your aveng- 
ing angel." 

The wretch before him grovelled on 
the rough floor in abject fear. His 
bloated face was colorless, from head to 
foot he shook as if with ague. " Spare 
me. Frank," he whispered, "spare me. 
We were bovs together, and friends 


3 12 


once. I betrayed you, but I swear to 
God she tempted me." 

" You lie ! " the Hermit fairly screamed. 
"You damnable villain, that fills the 
list of your crimes. To insult the 
woman you ruined and deserted, you 
cowardly whelp ! " 

With his eyes fairly burning into those 
of the man upon the floor, the Hermit 
stepped back deliberately and took up 
the shot gun that rested in the corner. 
" I am going to kill you," he said sim- 
ply ; "pray to God or devil as you will." 

The doomed creature lifted his voice 

in an unearthly wail that for a moment 
startled even the Hermit. That moment 
was fatal. A timer's spring, a vice-like 
clutch about the knees, and two forms 
were locked in a death struggle. 

Next day some hunters from the vil- 
lage found their way to the lonely 
cabin. Within lay the Hermit, — dead. 
And in the farthest corner something in 
human shape chattered and chuckled 
and moaned. Blood dripped from 
wounds upon its face and breast. Wet- 
ting its fingers it wrote upon the pine 
boards of the rloor a woman's name. 

By Edward A. Jenks. 

Somewhere there ? s a wonderful country : 

Do you think it lies over the deep ? 
It may be far oft in the mountains ; 

An island, perhaps, fast asleep; — 
Just fancy! — perhaps up above us, 

Beyond the bright stars and the blue, 
Great rivers and lakes and green valleys 

Are waiting for me and for you. 

But how can we get there, I wonder ! 

No boatman will take us to-day ; 
No tally-ho leaves for the mountains ; 

Some siren would lead us astray 
If we were to start off together — 

No compass or chart to our hand — 
In the darkest or sunniest weather, 

To find that invisible land. 

The road to that strangest of countries — 

Do you know that I saw it last night? 
It may only be travelled when shadows 

Can dance hand in hand with the light. 
I lay on the rocks by the ocean 

And looked out far over the sea. 
When the great Harvest Moon took a notion 

To come up and hob-nob with me. 


3 ' 3 

In an instant a flashing of silver — 
A few low commands from the Queen- 

A crowd of the nimblest of workmen — 
Wide layers of mystical sheen — 

Great rollers in rapid succession 
Drawn steadily in from the sea 

By the steadiest teams of sea-horses 

And the road was all ready for me. 

Was there ever a vision so splendid? — 

A beautiful Nowoman's hand 
Driving seventeen dripping sea-horses 

Post haste from the far Noman's Land ! 
She drove to the rocks like a whirlpool — 

She whistled and beckoned to me : 
Oh ! who could withstand a Xowoman ! 

She drove like a flash to the sea. 

What I saw on that nocturnal journey — 

What I heard when we reached Xoman's land. 
The Xochildren's silvery laughter 

While sifting the silvery sand ; 
The loveliest Xomaidens romping 

With clouds of the airiest elves, — 
I must never reveal— it 's a secret ! — 

You must go there and see for vourselves ! 



By Ensign Lloyd H 

HE traveller making his 
first ocean voyage is 
very apt to heave a sigh 
of relief upon finally get- 
ting within sight of land 
again, and to rejoice in the 
fact that all danger is appar- 
ently at an end. If, however, the cap- 
tain of the ship be consulted he will be 
found to look upon the matter in quite 
a different light. 


Chandler, U. S. X. 

His ship once clear of land outward 
bound, the skipper settles down to the 
comparatively easy and quiet time of 
the long sea voyage, having nothing to 
do but take his sights and avoid colli- 
sions. Things change greatly, how- 
ever, as the ship approaches her des- 
tination. The captain's mind is filled 
with thoughts of rocks, reefs, and the 
many outlying dangers that make the 
approach to almost every port a fit sub- 


ject for anxiety. Then it is that any the weary seaman upon his way. And 

errors in navigation will count, and a then, the outer lights passed, with what 

slight mistake made in some sight taken, relief and pleasure does the same skip 

perhaps, several days before may make per. utterly exhausted, perhaps, from 

all the difference between a safe arrival weary days and sleepless nights of . 

in port and a shipwreck. or fog, see slipping by each minor light, 


R , !« i 

: -/-- ; 

Dragging for Sun-en Rocks. 

Such being the case, it may readily buoy, or beacon, the passing of which 
be imagined with what eagerness the means one step more towards the haven 
captain looks forward to the first sight of safety and rest. 

of those landmarks that all civilized Each country has its own system of 

nations have erected for the guidance planting buoys, erecting lights, beacons, 
of "them that go down to the sea in etc., but the purpose is the same in 
ships," those magnificent structures every case : to point out all rocks, 
that tower above the sea to guide shoals, or other dangerous spots, and 

to indicate the channels by which ships 
may safely pass to the harbur within. 
Every nation issues charts and books 
showing and describing the sub-marine 
dangers, channels, and the systems of 
buoyage and lighting, so that a captain 
may easily make himself familiar with 




all the important harbors of the world. 
;• - • Before a harbor can be charted it is 

necessary that it be thoroughly sur- 
veyed, and in the United States this is 
done by the coast and geodetic survey. 
an organization annually appropriated 
for by congress. The main office ot 
Point Alienor B«ac n, Bettor. Htrbor. the survey is in Washington, and from 



Schooner Ea^'c, 
Of the United States Coast Sin 

this parties are sent out to do work all 
over the country. The greater part of 
the shore work is done by parties of 
civilians, but a small part of that, as 
well as all the work afloat, is done by 
the officers and men of the United 
States navy. There are several small 
schooners and steamers thus manned 
which go from port to port and do this 
work as required. 

Let us suppose that a survey is to be 
made and lights and buoys established 
in a hitherto unexplored harbor. A 
proper place is selected for a base line, 
which can be carefully measured by 
actual handling of the chain, and the 
longer this base line can be made the 
better. Then at one end of this line an 
observatory is established, with transit 
telescope, sidereal clock, and all the 

instruments necessary for astronomical 
observations by means of which the 
latitude and longitude of the spot can 
be accurately determined. The direc- 
tion in which the base line runs from 
the observatory is also obtained by 
astronomical observations, and thus the 
base line and the latitude and longitude 
of one end may be plotted on the draw- 
ing board. 

This being done, all other prominent 
points of the surrounding country are 
determined by observations with the 
theodolite or plane table and triangula- 
tion, the same as in ordinary surveying. 
Then minor points are determined, and 
the coast line run in much the same 
way as a surveyor determines the limits 
of a held in country work. 

The work of the boats is of more 



interest as being peculiar to marine 
surveying, and consists of the deter- 
mination of the depth of water at every 
point in the harbor, with special obser- 
vations for submerged rocks, reefs, or 
other hidden dangers to navigation. 
All these when plotted upon the chart 
show the navigator at a glance what 
spots he has to avoid, and through what 
channels he may safely carry his ship. 

The shore line around the sheet of 
water to be surveyed is drawn in upon 
the drawing board, together with the 

This having been done, the sound- 
ing work may be begun, and it i.-> car- 
ried on by the vessel itself, by strain 
launches, or by pulling boats, accord- 
ing to the depth of water on the work- 
ing ground. The vessels do the work 
in deep water off the coast, and the 
launches and pulling boats the harbor 
work. The methods used in the steam 
launches may be taken for description, 
as they are typical of the entire work. 

The complete working party for such 
a boat consists of two observers, one 



■ : ) 


I ■«• --4 

:, -* i *SEr.\. 

- --.<.- 


^ " 

Sounding from a Pulling Boat 

positions of all the prominent objects 
in the neighborhood. Enough of these 
points are necessary to ensure that 
there shall be no point on the sheet 
where a boat can go where there will 
not be enough of these objects or sig- 
nals in sight to enable the observers to 
accurately determine the position of 
their boat, and if there are not enough 
natural objects in the vicinity, signals 
are erected and located to accomplish 
the purpose. The usual form of signal 
is a whitewashed wooden tripod sur- 
mounted by colored flags. 

of whom is in charge, one recorder, one 
helmsman, two leadsmen, and one ma- 
chinist to run the launch. The neces- 
sary apparatus consists of two sextants, 
one three-armed protractor, a clock, and 
a record book, as well as a rough trac- 
ing of the shore line and signals. 

The general sounding work is done 
by running the boat along a system of 
parallel lines more or less closely 
spaced according to circumstances. 
which system is afterwards crossed by 
one or more sets of similar lines run- 
ning in different directions. With 



soundings taken on all these lines, it 
is readily seen that a sheet of water 
would be pretty thoroughly explored. 
To run a line of soundings, the officer 
in charge of the boats anchors upon 
one end of the desired line, determin- 
ing his position by the observation of 
angles. One of the signals on shore, 
the position of which has already been 
determined, is selected as a centre ob- 
ject, and the angles between it and two 
other signals, one on either side, are 
observed by means 
of the sextants. The 
three-armed pro- 
tractor is a gradu- 
ated circle bearing- 
three arms, the cen- 
tre one of which is 
fixed with its edge 
at the zero of the 
graduation, while 
the other two are- 
movable and may 
be set with their 
edges at any point 
of the graduation, to 
the right or left of 
the centre. The 
right arm of this 
instrument is set at 
the angle observed 

currents, or other causes of deviation. 
The depth of water at the anchorage is 
noted in the book, together with the 
time and the angles by which the posi- 
tion was determined, and the boat then 
steams slowly along the line, the leads- 
men getting the depth of water as fre- 
quently and regularly as possible. At 
short intervals the observers determine 
the position of the boat in the manner 
already described, thus verifying and 
correcting the course. The recorder 
notes in his book 
the time and depth 
at every cast of the 
lead, and the angles 
at every observa- 
tion. By means of 
these angles the dif- 
ferent positions can 
be plotted on the 
chart, and the 
soundings between 
them must fall along 
the lines joining the 
plotted positions. 
Special work is of 
course necessary for 
the development of 
rocks and irregular 

Wherever two 

between the centre signal and the one lines cross, the soundings on each one 
to its right, and the left arm for the left must agree at their intersection, or the 
angle. If the signals have been prop- spot must be re-surveyed, and thus the 
erly selected in the first place, and the systems crossing each other, as already 
protractor be placed upon the tracing spoken of, afford a very complete check 
so that the ed'j;e of each arm runs on the accuracy of the work, 
through the plotted position of the ob- A very important matter is the correc- 



Bjg Light, Boston Ha'bor 

ject observed, then the centre of the 
protractor is over the spot upon which 
the observations were taken. 

Being anchored on the end of the 
line, a range is selected by which the 
boat can be steered in the desired di- 
rection, regardless of the effect of wind, 

tion of the soundings for the height of 
the tide. With the surface of the water 
rising and falling through a distance of 
several feet twice in every twenty-four 
hours it v. ill be easily seen that the 
depth at any given point will ';c greatly 
different at different times. The sound- 



ings as given on the chart are for "mean 

low water," and all observations are cor- 
rected to that " plane of reference." At 
some convenient spot an upright board 
is placed in the water having feet and 
tenths marked upon it, the zero < 

mark being so placed as to t 

be always below the sur- 
face of the water. This 
is watched _ , 

etc., etc., etc., all of which are of great 
importance, but the details of which 
would be quite out of place in a maga- 
zine article. 

The final plotting of the work, reduc- 
tion to scale, engraving on cop- 
per, and the printing are done 
in Washington, and then 
the chart, as far as the 



for months 
and even 
years, and 
a record is 
kept of all 
its lowest 
readings, the 
mean of 
which is the 
height on the 


survey goes, is 
ready for is- 
sue. All the 
^ channels 
and shoals 
being thus 

Boston Light. 

known, the 
next work is 
the erection 
of light- 
houses, planting of buoys, etc. Light- 
water " or of the " plane of reference." ships are moored on dangerous spots 
Suppose this mean reading to be at the at sea where it is impossible to build 
figure two of the gauge, and suppose towers ; tall lighthouses are built in 

valise of " mean low 

also that at three o'clock on a certain 
afternoon a boat working in the vicinity 
found a depth of water on a certain 
spot, of 1 6 feet, the surface of the water 
at that hour being level with the figure 
6 on the gauge. Then to find the depth 

such exposed places as Minot's ledge 
below Boston and Boone island off 
Portsmouth, as well as in the more shel- 
tered spots on the mainland ; smaller and 
lower-powered lights mark the channels 
inside the harbors, whistling or bell 

of water on the spot at mean low water buoys are placed where there is swell 
we would have 16 less 6 plus 2, which enough to operate them, buoys lighted 
equals 12 feet, the depth required. by gas or electricity mark the important 

The work described, however, is of channels, and simple buoys and beacons 
the very simplest and most fundament- of all shapes, colors, and sizes serve as 
al character, and a book could easily guides and warnings to the mariner, 
be filled with accounts of current ob- These are built and cared for jointly by 
servations, deep-sea soundings, sweeping 
for detached rocks with a \ V ->^^ 

chain between two boats or 
with a length of gas-pipe 
under a boat, development 
of special shoals, tracing 
of curves of equal sound- 
ings, transferring of tidal 
corrections from one part 
of a harbor to another, Heavir.g the i_e*d. 

1 •* 

- w & - 


the engineer officers of the army and lightships, placing and replacing buoys, 

by naval officers acting as lighthouse in- and in keeping the whole system in good 

spectors, all working, as does also the working order. So Uncle Sam spends 

coast survey, under the direction of the his money freely to welcome and guide 

secretary of the treasury.' A consider- not only his own home-coming ships but 

able fleet of steamers is always at work those of his neighbors that come to visit 

carrying provisions to lighthouses and his ports in trade or in friendship as well. 

By Laura Garland Carr. 

If you would know just how it seems 

Within the lotos-land of dreams — 

Where it is always afternoon. 

And breezes lie in languorous swoon — 

Where speeding time and scheming man 

Work little change in nature's plan — 

Then board the Hustler some fair day — 

(Take not the larger boat. I pray. 

For jar and thud and bulk annoy. 

And talking crowds the charm destroy) — 

And on Contoocook's sunny tide 

One golden hour serenely glide. 

Its mirrored calm no ripples break. 

Save those that follow in our wake. 

The forests crowd close to the brink, 

While deep adown their shadows sink. 

And, clo->e beneath our flowing keel, 

Lon<r water-brasses sway and reel. 

The cow-bells' clang, the wild bird's lay, 

Sound mystical and far away, 

And scattered homes, where mortals dwell, 

In silence rest as 'neath a spell. 

The river turns, the river swerves, 

We wind alone: the graceful curves 

Where reeds and rushes, lithe and rank. 

As swaying fringes deck the bank. 

Where idle boats on sandbanks lie. 

Or, anchored, rock as we steam by ; 

Where ugly sn igs their stations keep 

Like timid monsters of the deep, 


Where lonely bridges darken down 
And awe us with forbidding frown — 
Seeming of loneliness a part — 

Not reared for man by human art. 
Now here a strip of cultured land 
Runs down to meet a little strand, 
And there a narrow rift lets through 
A tiny landscape to our view. 
And now a slender wharrlet pleads 
A visitor — yet no one heeds — 
For, curving 'round the little bay, 
Our steamer takes its homeward way. 
And charms of wave, of sky, of shore. 
Repeated, thrill our hearts once more, 
And all too soon we come again 
Within the haunts of stirring men. 


Changes are good for men and streams, 

Too much of quiet breeds unrest ; 
Contoocook wearies of her dreams. 

And ardent longings swell her breast. 
In silence, gathering all her force, 

She rises over bound and rule, 
Letting her waves, in headlong course — 

Like happy children loosed from school- 
Sweep o'er and down the barring height 

With shouts and leaps and bursts of glee- 
Each outbreak breathing wild delight, 

Each motion saying " I am free ! " ; 

And all the time a solemn strain, 

Thunderous and awsome tills the air, 

Like some huge organ's grand refrain. 
Calling all hearts to praise and prayer. 

With rush and roar the masses pour. 

Seething and white on sounding ledges : 
Some, clinging closer to the shore, 

Make tiny cascades down the edges. 
With skip and twirl, with swish and swirl, 

With here a turn and there a tumble. 
Some little waxes in eddies whir!. 

Some with the grassy ledges fumble. 


With babbling din, a height to win. 

Some upward strive with push and shoulder, 
But, baffled, on again they spin, 

'Gainst fretting rock and stolid bowlder. 
In kittenish way their pranks they play 

With bits of wood and scraps of paper. 
And sober cans, long past their day. 

Like puppets now must dance and caper. 

And all the time a solemn strain, 

Thunderous and awesome fills the air, 
Like some huge organ's grand refrain, 

Calling all hearts to praise and prayer. 

Below the bluffs the crazy stream 

Bethinks herself and grows sedate. 
Again we see her surface gleam. 

Again she takes a sober gait : 
And where the River Man, of stone. 

With face clear cut against the green, 
Leans his grim head, massive and lone, 

On its rough resting place — serene — 
The waters huddle in the shade 

That gathers, darkening like a cave. 
Then creep along adown the glade 

Serious and silent as the grave. 



By Jotias Lie. 

("Transltted from the Norwegian by Hon. SAMUEL C. EASTMAN.] 


Everything was white now in the very It was cold here, the warm-blooded 

heart of winter, white from the window captain maintained. He began to amuse 

panes in the sitting-room to the garden, himself with feeling and tracing out 

the fields, and the mountain slopes, where there was a draft, and then with 

white as the eye glided over the moun- pasting long .strips of paper with cloth 

tain-tops clear up to the sky, which lay and oakum under it. And then he 

like a semi-transparent, thickly-frosted to go out from his work, with only his 

window pane and shut it all in. wig, without his hat, and chat with the 



people in the stable, or at the barn, 
where they were threshing. 

They were getting on there now with 
only ma, Then, and himself: no one un- 
derstood what Thinka had been for him ! 

At last he ended in pondering on lay- 
ing out fox-traps and traps and spring- 
guns for wolves and lynx in the hill 

Ma was obliged a hundred times a 
day to answer what she thought, even 
if she had just as much idea about it 
as about pulling down the moon. 

"Yes, yes, do it, dear Jaeger." 

"Yes, but do you believe it will pay — 
that is what I am asking about — to go 
to the expense of fox-traps ? " 

" If you can catch any, then " 

" Yes, if " 

"A fox skin is certainly worth some- 

" Had n't I better try to put out bait 
for lynx and wolf? " 

"I should think that would be dearer."' 

"Yes, but the skin— if I get any: it 
depends on that, you see." 

Then he would saunter thoughtfully 
out of the door, to come back an hour 
later and again and again fill her ears 
with the same thing. 

Ma's instinct told her that the object 
of his first catch was really lie! : if she 
allowed herself to be fooled into giving 
positive advice, he would not forget to 
let her feel the responsibility for the 
result, if it resulted in a loss. 

Today he had just again been pon- 
dering and going over the affair with 
her, when they were entirely unexpect- 
edly surprised by the sheriffs double 
sleigh driving up to the steps. 

The hall door, creaking with the 
frost, flew open under the captain's 
eager hand. 

"In with you into the sitting-room, 

Behind his wolf-skin coat Thinka 
emerged, stately and wrapped up in 


•• Your most obedient servant, kins 
man, and friend." 

The sheriff was on a business trip 
farther up, and asked for hospitality for 
Thinka for two or three days, till he 
came back again ; he would not omit 
to claim her back again promptly. And. 
in the next place, he must ask of his 
father-in-law the loan of a small sleigh 
for his further journey : he should be 
quite up in Xordal's annex this even- 

Thinka already had Torbjoerg and 
Thea competing each for one of her 
snow-stockings to get them off, and 
Marit was not free from eagerly peep- 
ing in at the door. 

" You shall, in any event, have a little 
something to eat and some tea-punch 
while the horse breathes and they get 
the sleigh ready." 

The sheriff did not have much time 
to waste, but the sun of family life shone 
too mildly here for him not to give a 
half hour, exactly by the clock. 

He made one or two attempts to get 
his things off. but then went to Thinka. 

" You have tied the knot in my silk 
kandkerchief so well that you will have 
to undo it yourself again. Thanks, 
thanks, my dear Thinka. She spoils 
me completely. Nay, you know her, 

"You see what she has ahead)' begun 
to be for me," he said later, appealing 
with a pleasant smile to his father-in- 
law and mother-in-law at the hastily 
served collation — he must have his tea- 
punch poured out by '1 iiink.i's hand. 

When the sheriff, carefully wrapped 
Up by his young wife, was followed out 
to tiie sleigh. Thinka's tea >tood tl.^rc 
almost untouched and cold; but ma 


came now with a freshly-filled hot cup, 

and they could bit down to enjoy the 
return home in peace. 

He is certainly very good- -ma thought, 
had guessed that Thinka was homesick. 

"The sheriff is really very thoughtful 
for you, Thinka, to let you come home 
so soon," she said. 

"Fine man! would have to hunt a 
long time for his like!" exclaimed the 
captain with a full, strong bass. " Treats 
you like a doll, Thinka." 

" He is as good as he can be. Next 
week Jomfru Brun is coming to make- 
over a satin dress for me ; it has only 
been worn once. Giilcke will have me 
so fine," said Thinka, by way of illus- 
tration. The tone was so quiet that it 
was not easy for ma to tell what she 

"The fellow stands on his head for 
you ; don't know what he will hit upon." 

Besides his wish to meet his wife's 
longing for home, the sheriff may pos- 
sibly also have determined to take her 
with him from a little regard for the 
younger powers in the principal parish- — 
Buchholtz and Horn. They had begun 
to visit at his house somewhat often, 
and evidently to feel at home there after 
a young, engaging hostess had come to 
the house. 

Towards evening the captain had a 
quiet game of picquet. 

It seemed as if comfort accompanied 
Thinka. Her mediatorial and soothing 
nature had come to the house again ; it 
could be traced both in and out. 

Father came again in the forenoon 
for a little portion of sweet cheese and 
whey cheese, when they were cooking 
salt meat and peas in the kite lien, and 
ma found first one thing and then 
another done for her and was antici- 
pated in many handy trifles, notwith- 
standing that Thinka also had to finish 

an embroidered pair of slippers that 
Giilcke had expressed a wish to have. 

But it was not all so very bad with 
that. She got well along on the pattern 
while her father was taking his noonday 
nap, and she sat up there and read him 
to sleep. 

The captain found it so comfortable 
when he saw the needle and worsted 
flying in Thinka's hand, — it was so 
peacefully quiet — it was impossible not 
to go to sleep. 

And then he was going to have her 
for only three days. 

While her finger^ were moving over 
the canvas, Kathinka sat having a soli- 
tary meditation, — 

Aas had sent her a writing when he 
heard of her marriage. He had believed 
in her so, that he could have staked hi.-> 
life on her constancy, and even if many 
years were to have passed, he would 
have worked, crept, and scraped in 
order at last to have been able to 
have her again, even if they should 
then both have their youth behind them. 
It had been his joyful hope that she 
would keep firm, and wait for him even 
through straits and poor circumstances. 
But now that she had sold herself for 
goods and gold, he did not believe in 
any one any more. He had only one- 
heart, not two: but the misfortune was, 
he saw it more plainly, that she also had. 

"Huf! I thought I heard you sighing 
deeply," said the captain, waking up: 
"that comes from lying and struggling 
on one's back. Xow we shall have 
some coffee." 

Even if Thinka could not answer Aas. 
still she would try to relieve her heart a 
little t<; [nger- Johanna. She had bn 
her last letter with her to answer in this 
period of calm at home, ^\\u\ was sitting 
up in her room, with it before her, in 
the evening. 

3 2 4 


Inger-Johanna is fortunate, as she has 
nothing else to think of, she said to her- 
self, sighing and reading : 

''And you, Thinka, you also ought to 
have your eye on your part of the coun- 
try, and make something out of the 
place into which you have now come ; 
it is very likely that it is indeed needed 
up there, for there is no doubt that 
society has its great mission in the 
refinement of customs and the contest 
against the crude, as aunt expresses it. 

"I am not writing this for nothing, 
nor wholly in the air; I stand, indeed, 
too near to many conditions to be able 
to avoid thinking of the possibility of 
sometime being placed in such a posi- 
tion. If I said anything else. I should 
not be sincere. 

"And I must tell you, I see a great 
many things I should like to help on. 
It must be that a place can be found 
for a good many ideas which now, as it 
were, are excommunicated. 

"Society ought to be tolerant, aunt 
says; why then cannot such views as 
Grip's be discussed peacefully ? The 
first thing I would do would be to go 
in for being extravagant and defend 
them. In a woman, nevertheless, this 
is never anything more than piquancy. 
But ideas also must fight their way into 
good society. 

"I ponder and think more than you 
can imagine ; I feel that I ought to put 
something right, you see. 

"And I am not any longer so wholly 
struck with the wisdom of men alto- 
gether. A woman like aunt keeps silent 
and pulls the strings ; but you can never 
imagine how many are led by her strings. 
She is, between ourselves, a little diplo- 
matic, in an old-fashioned way and full 
of flourishes, so that she almost makes 
it a pleasure to have it go unobserved 
and by a round-about way. Straight 

out would many times be better, i 

believe; at any rate, that i> my nature. 

"And still a little warning with it, 

Thinka (of how 1 feel, I speak, as if I 

were in aunt's skin ». Remember that 
no one ever rules a room except from a 
place on the sofa : 1 know that you are 
so modest that they are always getting 
you off on the chairs. You are not at 
all so stupid as you think, you only ought 
not to try to hide away what you mean. 
"If I should sometime meet Grip 
again, I should convince him that there 
may be other ways to Rome than just 
going headforemost at it ! I have got a 
little notion of my own since he last 
dictated to me, with his contempt for 
society, and was continually its superior. 
But I have not seen more than one or 
two glimpses of him on the street the 
whole winter. He is certainly so taken 
up by his own affairs ; and it is n't proper, 
uncle says, to invite him to soirees, since 
he has given in his adhesion to strong 
ideas, which one does not dare to hint 
at without provoking a very serious dis- 
pute. In one or two gentlemen parties he 
has been entirely too grandiloquent. — 
drank too much, uncle thought. But I 
know so well why. He must hit upon 
something, lie used to say. when he . 
tired and bored too much, and at the 
Durings there is a dreadful vacuum." 

Thinka had read the letter through : 
there might be much to think of, but 
she was so taken up by Aas, she was 
never done with that. 

During the monotony of winter, in 
the middle <>f February, a letter was 
received, which the captain at Rrsl 
weighed in his hand and examined two 
or three times,- white-, glossy, vellum 
paper, ( '. R. in the seal- and he tore 
it open. 


Yes, to be sure, it was from Roennow, 
his brilliant, running hand with the 
peculiar swing, which brought him to 

mind as his elegant form, with a jaunty 
tread, moved up and down. 

" S. T. 

"Captain Peter Jaeger: 

" Highly esteemed dear old comrade 
and friend : I shall not preface this with 
any long preludes about position in life, 
prospects, etc., but go straight on with 
my prayer and request. 

"As you have seen that my cards are 
lucky, — really more as they have been 
dealt than as I have played them ! — you 
will certainly understand that in the last 
two or three years I have found it 
proper to look about for a wife and a 
partner for life who would be suitable 
for my condition. But during the whole 
of my seeking there was hidden in the 
most secret corner of my heart a black- 
haired, dark-eyed girl, whom I first saw 
by the card-table one winter evening up 
in Gilje, and since, always more and 
more impressed, whom I have seen 
again and again during her development 
to the proud woman and lad} - , whose 
superior nature was incontestible. 

" Now, with my round six-and-forty 
years, I shall not hold forth with any 
long tale of my love for her, although, 
perhaps, there might be a good deal to 
say on that point also. That I am not 
old inwardly, I have at all events fully 
found out on this occasion. 

u It goes of itself that I do not address 
my prayer to you without having first 
satisfied myself by a nearer and longer 
acquaintance that your daughter also 
could cherish some feelings responsive 
to mine. 

"That the result has not been to 

my disadvantage, is apparent from her 
precious reply to me, received yester- 
day, in which 1 have her yes and con- 

" In the hope that a proper conduct 
and intention will not be misconstrued. 
I herewith address the prayer and the 
question to you and your dear wife, — 
whether you will trust to me the future 
of your precious Inger-Johanna ? 

" What a man can do to smooth and 
make easy her path of life, that I dare 
promise, on my paroU if honneur, she 
shall never lack. 

" I will also add, that when the court, 
towards the end of May or the early 
part of June, goes to Christiania. I also 
shall be on duty and go too. I shall 
then be able again to see her, on whom 
all my hope and longing is placed. 

**In anxious expectation of your hon- 
ored answer, 

" Your most respectfully, 
always faithful friend. 
" Carsten Roennow." 

Here was something better to think 
about than to talk with ma about fox- 
traps and spring-guns. 

There would not be any after-dinner 
nap to-day. 

He rushed out into the yard with 
great force, — another man must thresh 
in the barn ; the manure must be drawn 
out; they must hurry here. 

He came in and seated himself on 
the sofa and lighted a lamplighter, but 
jumped up again while he held it to his 
pipe. He remembered that a message 
must be sent to the smith to mend the 
harrows and tools for spring. 

There was no help for it, he must go 
down and tell the news to the sherilt" 




During the first days of March Inger- 
Johanna wrote : 

''This comes so close upon my former, 
because I have just received a Letter 
from Roennow about something on 
which I would gladly, dear parents, have 
you stand on my side, when you, as I 
foresee, receive aunt's explicit and 
strong representation and reasons in the 
opposite direction. 

" Roennow already writes as if it were 
something certain and settled that we 
shall have the wedding in the summer 
in June or July. Aunt wants it at her 
house, and hopes that in any event you. 
father, will come down. 

" Roennow urges so many amiable 
considerations which speak for it that I 
do not at all doubt that aunt in her 
abundant kindness will take care to 
make it doubly sure with a four-page 
letter full of reasons. 

" But against all this I have only one 
thing to say, that I, at the time I gave 
my consent to Roennow, did not at all 
foresee such haste without, as it were, a 
little time and breathing-space for my- 

" It is possible that others cannot 
understand this feeling of mine, and 
especially it Seems that aunt considers 
that it does not exactly show that degree 
of heartiness of feeling that Roennow 
could expect. 

"But to the last, which is certainly 
the only one of the whole number which 
she can urge which is worth answering, 
I will only say, that it cannot possibly 
be Roennow's intent to offend my in- 
most feelings, when he learns how I feel 
about it. 

" I only ask for suitable time, for 
instance, til! some time next winter. I 
should so much like to have this year, 

summer and autumn at least, a little in 
quiet and peace. There is so much to 
think over, among other tilings my fut- 
ure position. 1 shall have studied the 
French grammar completely through, 
and I should prefer to do it at home 
alone, and generally prepare myself. It 
is indeed not merely like jumping into 
a new silk dress. 

"Oh that, oh that, oh that I could be 
at Gilje this summer ! I sat yesterday 
thinking how delightful it was there last 
year on the high mountains ! 

"No, aunt and I would not come to 
agree permanently. Her innermost, in- 
nermost peculiarity (let it be never so 
well enveloped in amiability and gentle 
ways of speech) is, that she is tyran- 
nical. Therefore she wants now to man- 
age my wedding, and therefore, which 
can now vex and disturb me, so that 1 
haven't words for it! — she has in these 
days got my good-natured (but not espe- 
cially strong-minded, it is a pit) to say!) 
uncle to commit the act, which is far 
from being noble, of dismissing Grip 
from his position in the office. It is 
just like robbing him of the half of what 
is demanded to enable him to live and 
study here, and that only because she- 
does not tolerate his ideas. 

•• I let her know plainly what I thought 
about it, that it was both heartless and 
intolerant ; I was so moved. 

k - But why bhe pursues him to the 
seventh and last for with aunt there- 
is always something for the seventh 
and last -that I should still like to 

Regard must naturally be paid 

to [nger-Johanna's wish to postpone the 
wedding. And so there was writing and 
writing to aim] fro. 

Rut then came Roennow's new pro- 


3- T 7 

motion, and with it this practical con- 
sideration which weighed on the scales, 
that housekeeping' must be begun on 
moving-day in October. 

There was a general brushing up at 
Gilje from top to bottom, inside and out. 
The rooms up-stairs must be whitened 
and everything put in order for the 
arrival of the newly married, to remain 
this summer the whole of July after the 

And when [nger- Johanna should come 
she was to meet a surprise — the whole 
of the captain's residence, by order of 
the army department, newly painted red 
with red-lead and white window sashes. 

The captain's e very-day coat had a 
shower of spots at all the times in the 
clay as he stood out by the painter's lad- 
der and watched the work,— first the 
priming and now the second coat, then 
came the completion, the third and last. 
The spring winds blew, so that the walls 
dried almost immediately. 

He was a little dizzy off and on dur- 
ing all this, so that he must stop and 
recover his balance: but there was 
good reason for this because the parish 
clerk this year had not taken enough 
blood, he had become so much stouter ! 
— and then perhaps he pushed on too 
hard and eagerly; for he did long for 
Inger-Johanna's return. 

He talked of nothing but Inger- 
Johanna, of her prospects, beauty and 
talents, and how ma could not deny, 
that he had seen, what there was in 
her, from the time when she was very 

But ma still thought privately, while 
he was going about boisterous and 
happy, and he was not so stout and 
more healthy, when he had more 
anxieties and had to take the world 

more hardly. She had taken him into 
the secret of Aunt Alette's misgivings 
in respect to Joergen's capacities for 

11 I have not been able to avoid 
thinking, Jaeger, that Joergen might 
not find happiness in that line." 

•• In what line then ?— be a shoe- 
maker and lie on one knee and take 
the measure of us others perhaps— Oh- 
ho. no." stretching himself with super- 
abundant conviction. " if we can afford 
to keep him at his studies, he can 
easily learn. There are many more 
stupid than he who have attained the 
position of both priest and sheriff." 

One day the captain hastily sepa- 
rated a letter from Aunt Alette out 
from his official mail, and threw it on 
the table for ma to read through at her 
convenience. If there was anything in 
it, she could tell it to him. he shouted 
back as he went up the stairs to his 
office ; he had become a great deal 
stouter and more short-breathed lately, 
and took a firmer hold on the stair rail. 

" May i, 1S44. 

My Very Dear Gitta: 

" It is with a certain sad, subdued 
feeling that I write to you this time: 
nay. I could even wish to characterize 
it by a stronger expression. It comes 
to my old ears as if there was a lamen- 
tation sounding over so many bright 
hopes bowing their heads to the 
ground : and I can only find consola- 
tion in the firm faith cherished through 
a long life, that nothing happens save 
as a link in a higher wisdom. 

"Just as I have hitherto tried to 
present everything relating to Inger- 
Johanna as clearly before you as I 
could only see it myself, 50 I find it 

mo.-it proper not to conceal from you 
the struggle which she plainly is going 




through against a feeling, from whose 
power I hope there will yet be salvation 
from the fortunate circumstance that it 
has not yet had full time to come into 
being properly and ripen in her. 

"It is there and it produces pain, but 
more, is my hope, as a possibility which 
has not put out sufficient roots, than as. 
a reality, a living growth, which could 
not, without injury to her inmost being, 
coldly be subdued and stifled again. 

" But never has shrewd calculation 
celebrated a more sorry triumph than 
when the governor's wife believed that 
she could find a remedy by keeping the 
one concerned at a distance, and at last 
even by persecuting him in order to 
make it impossible for him to support 
himself here. When it is considered 
that Inger-Johanna during all the treat- 
ment that Grip has endured for his 
ideas, has plainly sympathized, almost 
zealously with them, the result would 
not be difficult to foresee. 

" And one cold frosty morning early 
this winter Inger-Johanna came here in 
great mental excitement to make an 
examination into his condition through 
Joergen. It was then also at her 
appeal that Joergen asked him to 
teach him four hours a week. 

" On this occasion I saw clearly, 
what before I had only suspected, but 
which had not escaped your sister-in- 
law's sharp eye, that student Grip, 
without Inger-Johanna's having any 
idea of it, had taken her attention as a 
continually more and more attractive 

" It is not any use to conceal it, it is 
a crisis which must be fought through, 
before she finally becomes any other 
person's, if her position is not to be a 
false one, and she does not come to 
support a life-long sorrow. 

"That the news of her betrothal has 

fallen like a discouraging disappoint- 
ment of a hope (even if a remote one) 
of this young man, I regard lis far from 

" I certainly l\o not forget the two 
serious young faces, which for a moment 
stood looking at each other, when they 
met in my room one afternoon. There 
was not much said. 

"She knew that he had been wronged. 
and she hinted something to that effect. 

"'Possibly miss,' he said harshly, 
while he took hold of the door knob. 
So many soap bubbles burst. 

''Inger-Johanna remained standing 
looking down on the floor. It was as 
if an entire change had come over her: 
I am sure it dawned upon her what he 

"The discharge from the governor's 
bureau has plainly enough been wel- 
come to many of the families which 
immediately after so singularly, quickly 
seized the opportunity to dismiss him 
as tutor. A man of such strangely dis- 
cordant ideas had long been thought 
not quite desirable to receive. And 
the example had been given. 

k - From an honest heart I offered him 
a loan, so that he might live in peace 
for two or three months and study. 
until he could again get his places to 
teach ; but either he was too sore and 
proud, or else he thought that Inger- 
Johanna had a hand in it. 

'• He has certainly taken it very much 
to heart that the total want of means of 
existence has now compelled him to 
give up the school which was his pride 
so that he is now in a certain way an 
object of ridicule, and this has capped 
the climax. 

11 He goes about unoccupied, Joergen 
reports, and asks for credits at eating 
houses and restaurants, where he sits 
out the evening and night. 


3 2 9 

" I understood well enough that it 
was not just for the sake of her old 
aunt or for the tiling-, but to hear about 
him, that [nger-Johanna sat with me 

so often and learned the old fashioned 
stitch with pearls and gold thread. 
She was in such an excited condition 
and so abstracted, and jumped up when 
Joergen came home towards evening 
and, more 's the pity, as often as not. 
had been looking for him in vain to 
read with him. 

''That pale, darkly brilliant face 
stands so before me, Gitta, with which 
she one evening broke out: -aunt- 
aunt — aunt Alette !' 

"It was like a concealed shriek. 

"Where he is living now, Joergen 
has not succeeded in finding out ; pos- 
sibly for want of means he has been 
turned out of his lodgings. 

" I narrate all this so much in detail, 
because it is to be believed and hoped. 
that the severest part of the crisis, so 
far as she is concerned, is over now. 

"Since that evening spoken of, when 
she felt that she had forgotten herself, 
she has at least not talked about him. 
nor, as I know certainly, addressed a 
word to Joergen. She has evidently 
esteemed his character very highly, 
and has now suffered a disappoint- 

" It is not well to be young and have 
a great deal of life that can surfer. I 
tell you, it is as it is with your teeth ; 
there is no peace until you have them 
all in your table drawer." 

Xo, all this was not anything for 
father, ma thought. 

Great-Ola was standing with a 

crow-bar. There was a stone which 
was to be placed in the wall. But the 
frozen crust of earth was hard up there 

on the meadow, although the sun was 

so roasting hot. that he was obliged to 
wipe his forehead with his pointed cap, 
every time he rested. 

The under officers had turned bark 
to the office during the forenoon with 
their pay in their pockets, one after the 
other : and that it was pretty bad going 
with holes in the highway, was evident 
from their splashed wagon.s, which 
were as if they had been dripped in 
the mud. 

He had just got ready to put the 
crow-bar under again, when he sud- 
denly stopped. There was something 
which attracted his attention — a cariole 
with a post boy walking by the side and 
a little, yellow horse covered with mud 
up to his belly. 

With pieces of rope for reins, and 
the creaking cariole thills, the horse 
toiled up along the Gilje hills in zig- 
zag, incessantly stopping to get breath. 
The sun was burning hot down there 
on the frozen earth with a vengeance. 

The post down from Drevstad : he 
knew both the horse and the lumbering 

Jt was not that which would have 
taken his attention so seriously : but 
some one was sitting in it — a lady with 
hat and veil. He did not understand — 
that way of carrying the head— was n't 
it — 

He took two or three slow, thought- 
ful steps, then started on the jump, and 
over the wall rushed down with a jump, 
which would have touched the roof in 
a high studded room. 

" Xo. in the Lord's name, if it is n't 
Inger-Johanna herself," he ejaculated, 
as he suddenly stood by the side of the 
horse. " What will the capt - " 

At the sight of her he suddenly had 
a misgi\ ing th o pei h •;> ; eve j thing 
could not be so well. 



"And such a team!" he said recov- 
ering himself, "is that fit for Inger- 
Johanna ? 

"Good morning, Great-Ola, is father 
at home and mother ?" 

" No. I am not so very well, but 
shall be better now." 

She became silent again. 

Great-Ola walked on leading the 
horse by the reins, when Inger- 
Johanna drove into the yard. 

There stood her father under the 
painting ladder looking up. He sud- 
denly shaded his eyes and was at once 
with her by the cariole. 

" Inger-Johanna !" 

She hugged him tightly out there, 
and the captain dreadfully perplexed, 
drew her in the hall to ma. who was 
standing there dumb. 

"What is the matter, what is the mat- 
ter, Inger-Johanna?" he burst out. 

" Go in — go into the room a little, 
Jaeger," She knew how little he could 

" Let her talk with me first and then 
we will come in to you — it is surely not 
anything irreparable." 

" Father, ma, why should not father 
understand me ?" 

" Come, come, child," the captain 
made haste to say ; he had hardly any 
voice left. 

And she sat down there in the sitting 
room, with her father by her side on 
the sofa and her mother on a chair, and 
told them how she had fought and 
striven to make herself fancy that her 
life's task lay with Roennow. 

She had created for herself a whole 
pile of illusions. 

But then, on one day, — and she also 
knew which one- -they became as if they 
became like extinguished lights for her 
— black as coal and empty, wherever 
she looked — not what she had thought, 

not what she meant- like throwing my- 
self into a desert. 

"And aunt insisted that I should 
choose the pattern of my wedding dress. 
I think 1 should have gone into it 
blindly, with my eyes shut, neverthe- 
less, — for I thought of you, father, what 
you would say, and of you, mother, — 
and of the whole world outside, what it 
would say, if I thus, without any trace 
of reason, sent my breaking off. And 
then I considered that everything was 
settled. I had thrown myself into the 
water and was only sinking, sinking — 
I had no right now to do anything else 
than drown. Hut then " — 

" Well," a short cough like a rlash of 
lightning; the captain sat looking on 
the door with his hands on his knees. 

"Then," resumed Inger-Johanna with 
a low voice, still paler, and violently 
impressed with her subject, — "Nay, 
there need not be any secret for yon. 
father, and for you. mother, since you 
otherwise would not understand me: — it 
came almost like a Hash of lightning 
upon me, that I for wholly one year, and 
perhaps for two. had had my whole soul 
bound up with another. " 

"Who is it? " 

"Grip,'' she whispered. 

The captain had sat patiently and 
listened — entirely patiently— -till the last 
word. But now he rlew up and placed 
himself before her; he struck his hands 
together on the backs, and stretched 
them out. utterly without self-control. 

•• But, kingdom of heaven," he broke 
out at last, "where are you! — what are 
you thinking of ? You can *t for a single 
moment ever think of compiling such 
a — Grip! with a man like Roennow?- 
1 tell you, Inger-Johanna. your father i>> 
absolutely, totally— you you might just 
as well rise up and strike me dead at 


The footnote on page 331 of this number of The Granite Monthly does not 
name the author of ; 'The Relation of the Schools to Citizenship." It should read. 
An address by Professor John K. Lord of Dartmouth College, delivered at insti- 
tutes at Groveton and Gorham. 


" Listen, father ! " came from Inger- 
Johanna; at the same moment she 

sprang up and stood before him. " If 
Thinka and the other have not saved 
themselves, no one shall trample on 

Ma continued sitting with sharp, coin- 
pressed face- 

11 Such pure insanity ! " The captain 
struck his fist against his forehead and 
walked up and down the floor discon- 
solately. '* But now I see it ; " he 
stopped again, nodding to himself. " You 
have been spoiled, dreadfully spoiled — 
spoiled, since you were little — And 
then we get it again, only because I 
think so much of you." 

"The whole world could contradict 
me, father. I have only my right way to 
go — to do as I have done — write to 
Roennow. give full explanation, and tell 
it to aunt. And," she leaned against 
the sofa and looked clown bitterly as 
the remembrance came over her, -•aunt 
has done what she could, I can assure 
you — thought, as you do, father, that it 
was pure insanity. She thought so 
much of me that she did not care how 
much wretchedness it was for me if the 
match only came off. So vain and 
young as I was, she thought, her only 
object was to get Grip cried down and 
pursued, so that he should stand with- 

out means, hemmed in on all sides with- 
out any way out, a man as it were an 
object of ridicule, who was obliged to 
give up his purpose— only his father 
over again. It was ^> easily done, as 
he stood for his opinion unsupported, 
and so readily it would be taken up, as 
she knew." 

She stood there so self-assured, trem- 
blingly lost in her own thoughts, with 
downcast eyes and dark brows. She 
had become thin and slim. 

"And now I have come home here 
with more sorrow than I can tell you or 
explain, — so anxious." 

There was a silence, during which 
strange emotions were working in the 

" Do you say that we are not fond of 
you — will do you any harm ? Well, then, 
perhaps, that I might not consider it 
so right hereafter, what you have done. 
1 say perhaps : but now I tell you, that, 
if you must do it, then we shall stand 
by it, just as you yourself wish with the 
affair. You understand it at all events. 
Oh. I think, you have not even sat 
down, child. Let her have something 
to eat, ma, at once." 

He started out at once. There was 
a good deal to be got out up in her 
room, so she should not see that repairs 


Conducted by Fred Gouring, State Superintendent of Public Instruct ion. 


Every one will admit that education verted. The result obtained by it will 

in itself is not a necessary blessing, depend upon the direction given to it 

Like a great many other things which and the use made of it. It is like the 

are intended for may be per- explosive that drives the bullet from the 

'An aridrc-s delivered at institutes at Groveton and G irham. 



gun, whether the right mark is hit 
depends upon the correctness of the 
aim. A man whose powers have been 
trained and developed, who has been 
taught how to apply his native and 
acquired resources, will be a far greater 
curse to his generation, if he misapplies 
his strength, than the same man would 
be if uneducated. His education be- 
comes weapons of otTense against the 
good of society. What was intended as 
a help to him and to others becomes an 
injury to both ; what was meant to ele- 
vate and ennoble drags down and 
destroys. Society has occasion to fear 
the ignorant masses, but still more 
should it fear them when they are led 
by those who turn to its overthrow the 
very means that were meant for its 
upbuilding. When, therefore, society 
establishes schools for the education of 
its children, it ought to see to it that 
their function is not limited to the im- 
parting of knowledge and the quicken- 
ing of mind. It needs to defend itself 
against a perversion of education by 
attempting to give education a direction 
helpful to society. An essential part of 
training should be the imparting of the 
knowledge of the uses to which training 
is to be put, and of the way in which it 
should be used. Let us tell our chil- 
dren that we establish schools, that we 
build up an elaborate system of educa- 
tion, and constantly seek means to make 
it more perfect, and that we require 
them to spend years in work that is 
tedious and to them often apparently 
unprofitable, not mainly that they may 
know how to read and write, to have a 
glimpse into the fields of knowledge, or 
even in after life to be able to enrn an 
easier or a better iiving for themselves, 
but that they may become better mem- 
bers of society, better citizens of the 
state, in short, better fitted to uphold 

the institutions without which social life 
relapses into barbarism. 

The State is not like the individual 
open to arguments of sentiment and 
affection. A father may make sacrifices 
for the education of his child out of the 
love he bears him, out of the wish that 
the child may have a better chance in 
life than he had, but no such motive 
can actuate the state. The state owes 
no man a living. Its one purpose in 
educating and protecting its citizens is 
self-perpetuation and improvement. It 
admits no selfish motives in this, as it 
has no existence and no gain outside 
the welfare of its citizens collectively. 
but because of its unselfishness, and for 
the common good, it demands from them 
at all times a rich devotion. All its ser- 
vices to them are that they may be bet- 
ter qualified to do its work. When, 
therefore, the state opens its schools 
and compels its children to come and 
be taught, it is because it knows that 
these children will be the men and 
women of the next generation, and that 
if they are not prepared for their future 
duties as citizens its very existence will 
cease. Whatever may be true of mon- 
archies, it is beyond all question that a 
republican government can have no 
higher duty than the preparation of its 
citizens for the intelligent discharge of 
their civic duties, and that it cannot 
admit on their part any claim which can 
take precedence of its own. The rela- 
tion of the schools to citizenship i> 
therefore fundamental. They are to 
instruct and inspire. 

At the close of last May I attended a 
school exercise appropriate to Decora- 
tion Day. It consisted of patriotic 
bongs, recitations of pieces descriptive 
of stirring events in our history, anec- 
dotes about famous men, quotations of 
patriotic sentiments, and exen ises and 



marchings in connection with the flag. 
Each pupil was provided with a little 
flag, and carrying this he took his part 
in the programme. The children entered 
heartily into the spirit of the occasion, 
and as I listened to them J was birred 
by the grand thoughts which they re- 
peated, with the memories which they 
called up, and with a new sense of 
appropriation for myself of the honors 
symbolized by our Hag. I could see 
that the children, too. were affected by 
their own utterances. They had, of 
course, no memories, but their kindling 
eyes and Mushed cheeks responded to 
the thoughts of patriotism, of self-sac- 
rifice, and of pride in national honor 
contained in the words they spoke. The 
impressions of childhood are rleeting; 
but I am sure that though every word 
that was spoken that day be forgotten 
by every child that was there, yet there 
will remain with every one a permanent 
sense of relation to his country, a feel- 
ing of obligation to patriotic duty repre- 
sented by the flag, and a consciousness 
of participation in the rights and honors 
which the fathers bought with tears and 
blood. Patriotism is the vital element 
of good citizenship, and in such an exer- 
cise as I have described the seeds of 
patriotism are surely sown. To every 
boy and girl, that day, was given a new 
impulse ; around every one was thrown 
a silken cord to bind him to his father- 
land. To every one the flag became 
less a combination of harmonious colors 
and pleasing forms and more of an 
emblem of those intangible and vital 
forces that bind together the social and 
political structure. The white and crim- 
son bars and the stars upon the azure 
field stood in their minds for more than 
the original and the existing states. 
They became associated with great lives 
and great deeds. Names like those of 

Washington. Lincoln, and Grant seemed 
to be written upon them. Principles 
which these men maintained with voice, 

or pen, or sword became more real, and 
their country as an object of love and 
service less of a shadowy unreality, and 
began to assume the character of a true 

The fitness of such exercises is espe- 
cially evident when we consider that to 
very many children the lessons of patriot- 
ism and citizenship will never be given 
except in the schools. It is not enough 
that there should be Fourth of July ora- 
tions and patriotic speeches on set occa- 
sions. They are listened to by few, 
and seem to have a perfunctory charac- 
ter. The hustings indeed offer oppor- 
tunity for exhortation to service to one's 
country ; but such exhortation is so 
often colored by partisanship as to have 
little effect. The place above all others 
where love of country ought to be incul- 
cated is the home ; but how little of it 
is done there. Fathers and mothers, 
you who trace your descent through 
generations of native-born ancestry back, 
it may be, to the Mayflower, how much 
do you do to prepare your children by 
precept and example for their duty as 
future citizens? Are they growing up 
to manhood and womanhood under your 
direction with the belief that they owe 
a duty to society and the state, or do 
they learn by example, if not by precept, 
that political duty is done by casting a 
ballot once a year, or once in four years, 
and that even this arduous task, under 
the pressure of personal interests, may 
be left to others, except as heavy taxes 
or the whip of party exigency may drive 
to special effort? Do you teach them 
that voting is only the crowning act of 
good citizenship, and that it ought to 
follow an active interest in all public 
matters ? Do you tell them that good 



government is only possible when the 
citizens are good, and that the virtue 
and fidelity of officials will never rise 
above those qualities in private life? 
Do they learn from you that they have 
no right to expect others to do the 
duties, which are common to all, when 
they shirk their share in them, and that 
if they leave to others what belongs to 
them they must expect the inevitable 
result of negligence, dishonestv, and 
ultimate disaster ? 

Such teaching is undoubtedly given 
in many families, but there are multi- 
tudes to whom no such thoughts ever 
come. Even if all native American fam- 
ilies were careful to instruct their chil- 
dren in the principles of political duty, 
there are great numbers that do not 
know that there is such a duty. Con- 
sider the millions who have come to us 
from other lands, who have never heard 
the mention of c'-ic responsibility. 
Many of them have grown up under 
a paternal government, accustomed to 
have their actions and, as far as possi- 
ble, their thoughts prescribed for them. 
taught to avoid responsibility and to 
entrust the affairs of government en- 
tirely to a ruling class. If they desire 
and secure naturalization, it is often not 
because they appreciate the true mean- 
ing of citizenship, but because their 
vote is a source of power, with it they 
may make some trade with the local boss 
to their own advantage, or they may sell 
it outright. Government conveys no 
thought to them except that of restraint 
on the one side, and of chance or 
aggrandizement on the other. We will 
not blame them, for they have never 
had the chance to learn that democracy 
and monarchy have divergent aims, and 
that under the former privilege and 
responsibility go hand in hand. But it 
is verv clear that they cannot teach their 

children that which they do not know. 
In their own case they have no help 
from inheritance, tradition, or memory, 

and they cannot give the impulse to 
citizenship that is based upon these. 
But when their children grow up they 
will not need naturalization. They will 
be native Americans, having the right 
of suffrage, competent to hold office, 
and politically the equals of all other 
citizens. The use which they will make 
of their power will depend entirely upon 
the meaning they give to their rights. 
If in their mind citizenship means only 
the right to get, the opportunity for 
office, or place, or money; if it means 
only the defense of their property and 
protection to their persons, without re- 
turns except in the form of taxes which 
government extorts : if it carries no cor- 
responding thought of service or respon- 
sibility, then it is an evil and not a good. 
The problem of immigration is not pri- 
marily an economic problem, one of 
labor and wages, but one of citizenship. 
How are the multitudes of strangers to 
be prepared for duties which, whether 
they seek them or not. are thrust upon 
them? We talk of the spirit of our 
country and the elevating influence of 
free institutions, but these are of no 
avail against ignorance. An idea can- 
not influence the mind till it is lodged 
in the mind, and the ideas that under- 
lie representative government and that 
make freedom possible, are not gained 
by chance. They do not grow out of 
the soil, nor are they a perfume in the 
air that enters with the breath. They 
must, like other ideas, be taught, and 
to the class which 1 have mentioned the 
only place where the}- can be taught is 
the public schools. [gnoram e is the 
supreme foe of democratic institutions, 
the dry rot that brings certain ruin. 
That we may appreciate this fact the 

•• : • 


more perfectly, let me recall to you the 

theory of our political life. We have a 
popular government. Its support is the 

people expressing their will in lawful 
forms. Whatever they wish must in the 
long run become law. Their views and 
wishes finally crystallize through the 
ballot into legal enactment or political 
custom. Waves of popular feeling, vio- 
lent local excitements, may rise and fall 
without making permanent impressions, 
but the persistent thought of the people 
works itself out to a definite end. Xo 
one can forecast the future without tak- 
ing this into the account, for to what- 
ever forces the popular judgment may 
be subjected for good or ill, and how- 
ever it ma}' temporarily vacillate, it will 
ultimately come to equilibrium accord- 
ing to its own mass, and the position 
which it then takes will determine the 
character of the government. The qual- 
ity of the government v. ill not rise above 
or fall below the general average of. pub- 
lic sentiment. If J may illustrate by a 
question of present interest, on which 
people are divided, our civil service will 
be put upon a basis of permanent ten- 
ure, above the reach of party brokerage, 
or it will remain as a part of the spoils 
system, as the sentiment of the people 
shall determine. If it be their wish that 
the public business should be conducted 
on the principles which bring success in 
private business, then civil service re- 
form will prevail ; but if they wish that 
positions in the public sen ice should 
be the reward of fidelity to party, then 
reform will dwindle and die. 

It has always been our belief that the 
final judgment of the people will be 
right. We may not go so far as to say 
that the voice of the people is the voice 
of God, but, in order to keep our faith 
in our political theory, we must hold 
that the sound common sense of the 

people will reach conclusions that are 
substantially correct on all important 
issues. Vet such a belief is not an 
axiom, it is at best a probability that 
may be confirmed or disproved by trial. 
There is no inherent force in human 
thinking that surely draws it to the 
pole of wisdom. That the whole is not 
greater than the sum of all its parts is not 
more true in mathematics than in ethics 
or economics, and wise public policy, 
honorable and efficient administration, 
and purity in public official life cannot 
issue from a low state of popular intelli- 
gence and morality. There are always 
men and influences that educate and 
lift public opinion, but there are also 
those of an opposite tendency. In set- 
tling the balance between the two, we 
have chosen the method of counting 
noses. In such a count, numbers only 
are * moment. One ballot is as effec- 
tive as another. In the last resort, the 
man of high intelligence, who has given 
careful attention to questions of govern- 
ment, has no more power than he who 
is ignorant. Pear every thoughtful vote 
there is a large proportion of thought- 
less or vicious ones that proceed upon 
no knowledge of public interests, and 
that often represent only the resources 
of the bribe giver or the influence of 
the demagogue. Now the effort that 
must always be put forth is to increase 
the number of honest and intelligent 
voters, of those who are able and willing 
to think. Men need to be instructed 
in the things that are essential to a 
sound judgment. They must be taught 
that which will enable them to appre- 
hend the questions presented to them. 
It is true that right judgment and right 
action are not always the results of 
knowledge, but knowledge gives more 
hope of such results than any Other 
thins of which we know. Our fathers 


believed this, and therefore they estab- 
lished schools and colleges by the side 
of their churches, and intended that 
political privilege should not outstrip 

the fitness for it. They never imagined 
the infusion into the state of such a 
mass of ignorant and alien thought as 
we have to deal with to daw In the 

early days of our country, the people- 
were comparatively homogeneous, their 
interests largely identical, and their feel- 
ings kindred. Now the reverse is true. 
There is division of interest, not merely 
from the diversity of the people who 
have come to us. but from the extent of 
the territory over which they are scat- 
tered, and the great variety of local con- 
ditions under which they live. These 
divisive tendencies can be counterac r ed 
only by a better knowledge of the needs 
and relations of the whole country, and 
a better understanding of our common 

Let me recall three events that have 
lately been going before our eyes, illus- 
trative of this tendency to division, and 
of this ignorance of the nature and 
working of our political system. 

Every one has felt the severe finan- 
cial depression that has been upon us 
for nearly a year. It is not necessary 
to inquire into its causes, it is enough 
to recall the fact that our national leg- 
islature, called together especially to 
devise means of relief, was in session 
nearly a year before it completed its 
legislation looking to that end. During 
a considerable portion of this time, while 
business was prostrate, while credit was 
shaken, while uncertainty of the future 
paralyzed every interest, and while the 
country cried out for some settlement 
that would restore credit by giving it 
an assured basis of calculation, one 
branch of the legislature was busy, not 
in attempting to pass or defeat any 

clear and definite line of party policv, 
but in unseemly discussions over p.\; r ■ n 
age, over questions of courtesy, and. 
above all, in patchings and accommoda- 
tions of a measure that are based not 
upon a fixed economic policy, but upon 
the attempt to harmonize clamorous 
local interests. The good of the coun- 
try at large was eclipsed by sectional 
claims for recognition. Let me not be 
misunderstood in the point I make. 
I have nothing to say about conflicting 
party platforms. I do not support here 
either free-trade or protection. It is 
inevitable that men should differ in 
opinions, and should form themselves 
into parties according to the stress 
which they lay upon the arguments sup- 
porting those opinions. When they have 
taken their positions, it is right that they 
should maintain them with all honest 
and honorable methods of party conflict. 
Indeed, it is their duty, with a teachable 
mind, to hold fast to their principles, 
and constituencies reasonably expect 
that their representatives, within the 
limits of conscience and honest judg- 
ment, should uphold the principles they 
were chosen to support. And it is often 
true in public as in private life that 
there must be compromises, not of prin- 
ciples but of methods. The ideal or the 
theoretical course can seldom be taken. 
A policy cannot be outlined and adhered 
to irrespective of existing conditions. 
It ought not to be a Juggernaut car to 
crush as victims the holders of opposite 
views. Hut the compromise of oppos- 
ing policies, resulting from the effect of 
argument and the recognition of condi- 
tions instead of theories, is one thing; 
tfiat which comes from trades and dick- 
ers, from log-rolling, and from the ; 
ure of special interests ^v,d pen 
relations is a very different thing. > ; 
is this latter kind of compromise which 


*™ " >e T' : " ! " ° f " 10 C0Umr) ' ' ' n in 

ened^tw " Phrases as ""''' ' the 

l "" defined pol,c,es on : ' 'i— explan li ..,.,., ,,., 

tuns now prominently und !S ion. Thei, I 

these are firmly and tly ting the . . . 

;' : 7 C ;' b >' n,en " :i both sides - «*o *nd - 
*< and b y'he.r pos,t>ons and have the which becomes , game in , 
Col,ra S eof :»<- convictions'. The clear one c rto can mate he 
representatives of the views embodied most for himself 
'" ; he McK inley tariff or the Wilson bill An. int is the readine* 
^» d a ^«y ™e have ended the uncer- the experience of mankind. Tl 
'"»')••>•- 'J-'- and the delay came consta.n.y raised that we have no, 
rom those who had no general policy to learn from others, that the r, 
f* Cep ' t0 e 7 0r ^ e and P' a "te power- world is effete, while v., a,, strikii 
ful mterests or purposes of expediency, in a nou path where there are no gtdde- 
„ "'"'■^• may be studied in posts except our own hopes. Such 
the daily press emphasize two point,, confidence is only ignorance masquer- 
rheft - stls ^ danger ansing from the ading'under the mask of patriotism 
, " tendencies lha < con,,- from True patriotism will not shut its eyes to 
clamorous Seconal interest, and the the fact that though conditions have 
tendency to resulting corruption in leg- changed and improved for us the 
r bl " J "' , Larger interests are ne S' ected essential qualities of human nature 
because lesser ones are more insistent, and therefore of government are un- 
and legislators are ready to champion changed. The principles of morals, of 
portions of the country as against the economies, of finance, of trad,, and of 
whole. To score a point against an everything that affects the business re- 
opponent because of his locality, be- lations of society, remain the same 
comes o, more moment than, to main- under a democracy n> under a Mon- 
tana a principle. The spirit cf that archy. The experience of the past in 
noble reply of Webster to Hayne, which these respe, ts is of a. great advan, 
has been 11,0 declamation of school to us a. to anv, and in tins- davs 
boyssmce it was uttered, a spirit which especially, when' rapiditv of comn 
led him to place country above all local cation is making the world on- vast 
jealousies, is passing away. With it neighborhood, there is no , ■ in 
has gone moral courage. There are tin- application of those princi 
noble me, m both parti,, -..; ■ m ay bo which history so plainly makes known 
held up as models of unassailable It is , itism, but ignorance I 
honor, who dare utter their convictions would isolate us and endeavor to r. 
without regard to votes or ] % poli- peat th eriments in public pol 
tics, or any consideration pt what and industrial and economi, i 
they regard as the truth, but I .many which have elsewhere proved di 
there are with who,,, pul , pinion Irons. There are man. : 
associates nothing but hness, mad, in a!! honestv of OCX 
political trickery, and m coward- purpos. I I re nothing but th cl 
ice! Instead of deal a;. I decisive don of ignorai 



forcibly said by Mr. Hewitt, " there is 

no enemy of the public wolf ire so great 
as the fool who steps in where angels 
fear to tread." 

The second illustration which I would 
have you note is that movement known 
as "Coxeyism." Briefly stated it was 
the organization of small bodies of 
men, claiming ro represent the unem- 
ployed, for the purpose of marching on 
Washington to demand of congress 
certain measures of relief. Their de- 
mands nowhere had definite and author- 
itative statement, but they seem to have 
included the unlimited issue of money 
and of bonds based upon the wealth of 
the country, and the supply of work to 
all who wished it in the construction of 
roads or public works. They attempted 
to give dignity to their movement by 
calling themselves an arm}- and their 
leaders generals, with such subordinate 
officers as might be desirable. Flow 
they were to present and enforce their 
demands did not at first occur to them, 
nor did they think that the inarch of an 
army on Washington with demands of 
any kind was revolutionary. Our polit- 
ical system makes provision for the 
working of the popular will, any short 
cut that goes counter to the lawful 
methods leads to revolution or rebel- 
lion. To go to Washington singly or in 
companies was not unlawful, to present 
petitions to congress was an equal 
right, but to make demands whose 
force rested upon the presence of an 
"army'* formed to make those demands 
was the beginnings of insurrection. 
Some of the leaders of the movement 
recognized its true character and did 
not hesitate to avow it. Speaking at 
Buffalo John Ross said. " we demand 
our rights, and we will insist on them 
even if we have to tight for 
them." That was incipient rebellion. 

In the beginning it was announced that 
only peaceable methods would be used, 
but the logic of the situation, if not the 
character of the men, soon led to open 
defiance of law. Trains were seized, 
property was destroyed, officers of the 
law were killed in the discharge of their 
duty, and in some places the militia had 
to be called out to quell what did not 
differ in fact from open rebellion. 

The number of men composing these 
"armies" was not in the aggregate 
large, and the country had no occa- 
sion to fear them, but there are two 
aspects of the movement that deserve 
attention. The first is the public atti- 
tude toward it. The American people 
love a joke, its sense of humor is very 
broad, and it at once seized upon the 
salient humor of this exhibition. The 
armv and its generals gave unlimited 
scope to the merry wit of the news- 
paper correspondents, and they en- 
larged their reports that they might 
poke fun at the unhappy " industrials." 
But the publicity which they conferred 
upon the movement gave it an impor- 
tance which it could not otherwise 
have attained, and the ridicule that 
was poured upon it developed what it 
was intended to destroy. Good men. 
too, in their sympathy for the real 
suffering existing in the country, and 
in part represented by the army, did 
not see the real nature of the move- 
ment, and by their words and contri- 
butions countenanced what was sub- 
versive of government. For a com- 
pany of men peaceably advancing on 
Washington to " demand " its rights is 
as truly the foe of law as is the same 
company when it steals a train, and 
shoots the defenders of the train, that 
it may make a speedier journey to 
capital. In either case the pea< 
societv is threatened, and for that 



there cannot be too great anxiety. 

Order is a possession not less precious 
than liberty, and when the two have 
come in conflict the history of the 
world shows that society has surren- 
dered liberty rather than order. The 
dictator has always appeared to defend 
society against its own evils, and to 
give it security at the expense of lib- 
erty. Law and order are the founda- 
tion on which liberty is built, and when 
they are subverted liberty falls with 

The second aspect of the movement 
is the change that it indicates in the 
ideas which are held of government. 
The motive that led Coxey's army on 
to Washington was the belief that the 
government has some occult powers of 
relief, that it is paternal. The old 
notion that government is from the 
people and by the people, with no 
authority except the lawful expression 
of their will, has passed into the notion 
that it is an independent entity, clothed 
with unlimited powers, to be appealed 
to in distress, and out of its bounty 
bound to give relief. The logical result 
of the system of favors shown to special 
interests and the support of particular 
classes has been to make people think 
that they have only to show a need to 
establish a claim for help, and that if 
our government claims to make all 
equal in the eye of the law, there 
should be no favored classes, but all 
should share alike in having that 
measure of support that will ensure 
comfort or at least release from suffer- 
ing. It is not surprising that the 
ignorant and the vicious, observing the 
unequal distribution of governmental 
favors, should demand a share for 
themselves. But paternalism is the 
deadly enemy of democracy, it trans 
fers responsibility from the individual. 

destroys his sense of duty, and cuts the 
nerve of patriotism. Coxey and his 

fellows may have imagined that they 
are good Americans, but if they had 
understood the real nature of represen- 
tative government they would not have 
tried a movement that struck at its very 

The third event deserving considera- 
tion is that •"industrial war" that dis- 
turbed so much of the western part of 
our country in the month of July, but 
that was focused in and about Chicago. 
You are familiar with the details of that 
great disturbance. A great corporation, 
the Pullman company, whose business 
was the manufacture of cars, disagreed 
with its employes on the matter of an 
increase of wages. The employes 
struck. When the company showed 
by its books that it had been conduct- 
ing business at an actual loss in order 
to keep its works open and declined to 
arbitrate, a labor organization, foreign 
to both parties, the American Railway 
Union, desirous of showing and extend- 
ing its power, interfered and demanded 
that the company retreat from its posi- 
tion. As the union had no direct 
means of enforcing its demands it 
attempted to bring an indirect pres- 
sure upon the corporation by inaugur- 
ating a sympathetic strike. In the 
hope of bringing the Pullman com- 
pany to terms by establishing a boy- 
cott it called upon all the railroads 
using Pullman cars to discontinue 
their use. The railroads having con- 
tracts with the Pullman company de- 
clined to break their contracts, and the 
Union thereupon ordered a strike of all 
the workmen belonging to it. The irra- 
tional character of the strike was shown 
bv the fact that the men were with- 

drawn equally 

from the roads that did 

not use the Pullman cars and from 



those that did. It was a Mow in the 
dark. The inevitable result of such a 
strike, violence, rioting, destruction of 

property, and bloodshed, soon followed. 
I do not need to recall the progress of 
events ; they are fresh in your minds ; 
nor do I wish to dwell upon the many 
social and economic questions that it 
made prominent. Some of them have 
been ably discussed by Judge Cooley in 
an address before the American Bar 
Association, and published in the last 
number of the Forum. It is enough 
here to allude to one or two. 

The strike of the A. R. L'. and Coxey- 
ism had the same origin. Under vary- 
ing circumstances and with varying con- 
comitants both sprang from the deter- 
mination to obtain by extra-judicial 
means what could not be obtained by 
lawful ones. Coxey's armies demanded 
in revolutionary ways measures that 
were impracticable and destructive; the 
Railway Union demanded that corpora- 
tions should repudiate their lawful obli- 
gations to other corporations and to the 
United States government, and in sup- 
porting their demands resorted to acts 
which Senator Davis of Minnesota justly 
characterized as approaching danger- 
ously near the line of civil war. Coxey 
led the way in defying the law: the sec- 
ond movement naturally outdid the first, 
and turned suggestion into act. In 
both cases local authorities were crim- 
inally negligent in maintaining law and 
order. There was not a state through 
which the Coxeyites marched that did 
not have on its statute-book stringent 
laws for the suppression of vagrants and 
vagabonds. Every one of these laws 
was violated by the vagrant armies ; but 
so far were the local ofheers from enforc- 
ing the laws that in many cases they 
actually assisted the armies, partly per- 
haps with the hope of sooner getting rid 

of them. The inertness, to use no 

harsher term, of the authorities of Chi- 
cago and the state of Illinois almost 
surrendered the city into the hands of 
the mob, from which it was delivered 
only by the prompt action of the United 
States courts and the unflinching sup- 
port given them by the general govern- 
ment. When President Debs of the 
A. R. I", was brought before the court 
for contempt of its orders, he testified 
that the failure of the strike was due to 
the prompt and sweeping injunctions 
issued by the courts and enforced by 
United States troops. Such testimony 
was a cause of both regret and satisfac- 
tion—regret that the authority of the 
courts had to be invoked, satisfaction 
that when invoked it was so efficiently 
vindicated. The country rejoices to-day 
over the defeat of the strike, for it was 
not a struggle between capital and labor, 
between grasping avarice and oppressed 
poverty, but it was the assertion of an 
authority that was regardless of public 
rights and subversive of government. 
Its fundamental demand was the abro- 
gation of contracts, and its only weapon 
was to hinder others in the exercise of 
their rights and the discharge of their 
obligations. The law of violence was 
substituted for the constituted order of 
the state, and the vote of an irrespon- 
sible organization for the law of the 
land. Vet though it is true that many 
of the law-breakers did not belong t<> 
the company of the strikers, and though 
many of them were of foreign birth ami 
some of them anarchists, we must not 
believe that they actually intended 
treason. To believe that would be 
almost to despair of the republic. But 
it is a serious matter they were not 
able to distinguish practices that are 
treasonable. 1 nder the impulse </f pa • 
sion they forgut citizenship and the 




rights of others, and were ready to shat- 
ter the state that they might carry out 
the behests of an organization. 

I have dwelt at length on these three 
phases of current events because they 
seem to me to be signs of the times 
deserving consideration. They indicate 
on the one side a lessened sense of 
responsibility in public life, and on the 
other, a state of unrest that, rising from 
causes, finds its expression in ways that 
show great ignorance of our accepted 
political theories, or fatal disbelief in 
them. The question naturally arises, 
How can these tendencies be checked ? 
The answer is, In the work of the pub- 
lic schools. Men cannot be expected 
to act with intelligence unless they have 
been taught, and there is no place where 
they can be taught except in the schools. 
In former time very much instruction 
was given in the home ; now there is 
very little, and in many homes none at 
all. Vet there are multitudes of chil- 
dren growing to manhood who will take 
active part in the life of the country, 
and who need to be informed of their 
coming duties and stimulated to per- 
form them. There is no place where 
they can go for such information and 
stimulus except to the school. They 
may have their interest quickened, and 
may acquire a certain familiarity with 
political machinery from the recurrence 
of elections with their attendant excite- 
ment ; but such influence is uncertain. 
and not always helpful. They need 
instruction that while it opens their 
minds also directs them ; that couples 
the idea of duty with that of opportu- 
nity, and service with that of knowledge. 

The function of the school in training 
for citizenship has of late years been 
more fully recognized, and subjects have 
been introduced into the courses of 
study that look to that end. The study 

of civil government, of the Constitution 
of the United States, as well as the 

greater stress laid upon history in gen- 
eral and ours in particular, have a direct 

bearing upon citizenship. It is not to 
be expected that many subjects of this 
kind can be put into courses that arc- 
now all too crowded for the time allot- 
ted them. It is an unfortunate fact 
that the majority of children finish their 
school life by their sixteenth year, hav- 
ing but ten or eleven years in which to 
acquire their educational equipment in 
both discipline and knowledge. Time 
and experience will doubtless show that 
great improvement can be made in the 
courses and work of the schools, but it 
can hardly be expected that very much 
addition can be made of special sub- 
jects. And it is not so necessary that 
such additions should be made as it is 
that the school should have the definite 
aim of preparing the pupils for their life 
as citizens. Happily the very qualities 
that a good school tends to develop also 
tend to make good citizens. The hab- 
its of order, obedience, respect for 
authority, punctuality, promptness, and 
exactness in the performance of duty, 
interest in one's work and recognition 
of the claims and rights of others, make 
a model scholar and a model citizen. 
Such things make the life of the school, 
and the teacher who fails to produce 
them fails of success. 

But over and above the inculcation 
of such habits, over and above the giv- 
ing of ordinary instruction, the teacher 
has great opportunity to set before his 
pupils the relations of their work to 
their tuture life. Occasions are con- 
stantly arising when it i< possible to 
establish connection between the pres- 
ent and coming service. Patriotism is 
better developed by example and illus- 
tration than by precept, and the life and 



work of the school give abundant 

chance for such illustration. As the 
scholar advances to the higher grades 
of the school great pains should be 
taken to arouse his interest in current 
events, to make him understand that 
what will by and by be history is now- 
enacting before his eyes. To many 
young people the events of the present 
have an air of greater unreality than 
those of the distant past. To those 
their diligent attention is directed; to 
these they give no thought. A good 
knowledge of the past is often the key 
to present difficulties ; but the present 
must be understood in order to make 
the knowledge operative. From the 
nature of the case, early training and 
the subjects of study that are largely 
disciplinary must be abstract ; but it is 
of immense advantage to a pupil if he 
can associate in his thought the often- 
times dry tasks of the school-room with 
some definite object toward which he is 
striving. It is a great stimulus to him, 
as he nears the close of school life, if 
he can feel that his life is purposeful 
and broadening into that of his country. 
This enlargement of his horizon is a 
process that cannot be definitely laid 
down in a course of study. It is not a 
matter of books mainly, it is one of 
atmosphere, of intluence. and of the 
tone of the school. It will depend 
greatly upon the teacher, who should 
not be a politician or a partisan, but 
one who sees the relations of his work 
to the state, and through the hum-drum 
of daily recitations discerns the growth 
of men and women. The strongest 
force in education is the personality of 
the teacher. Text-books, methods, and 
facilities are as nothing compared with 
the mind that is aglow, and that is able 
to give the kindling spark of enthusiasm 
to others. If it lives in active sym- 

pathy with the larger life of the times, 
it will bring those about it into the same 

We must not forget that in the devel- 
opment of education in this country the 
preparation for citizenship is the only 
great primary function left to the 
schools. It was not always so. In 
early times religion had an equal 
place. The bible was the common 
text-book, supplemented by the cate- 
chism and enforced by constant and 
definite religious instruction. But this 
has changed. The bible is no longer 
a text-book and religious instruction 
has ceased. The schools have under- 
gone a complete secularization, and the 
disappearance of religion has left citi- 
zenship, that is, the right discharge of 
civil and social duties, as the one thing 
for which the state educates its chil- 
dren. There is one portion of our fel- 
low citizens that does not wholly accept 
this change. The Roman Catholic 
church disapproves of what it calls 
" godless" schools, and its position is 
one that the Puritans of two hundred 
years ago, and their descendants of a 
hundred years ago, would have fully 
endorsed. Vet though their views 
would have coincided on this point 
they held different ideas on the relation 
between church and state, and the logi- 
cal result of the Puritans' view is the 
result of to-day. Strong as was their 
belief in religion and in its application 
to daily life, they distinguished sharply 
between the spiritual and the temporal. 
Thev did not always dissociate the t\\" 
in practice because they had not learned 
that the two could not work together 
without encroaching one upon the 
other. They tried the experiment of 
a working union, and the experiment 
failed. Sometimes the state oppressed 
the church, but oftener the church ob- 



structed the state. As time went on it 
became evident that such a union was 
incompatible with the principle of per- 
fect liberty of individual action. Any 
power that interfered with the citizen's 
relation to his government was incon- 
sistent with the theory of free institu- 
tions. That theory called for absolute 
freedom of the citizen in all his public 
and civil relations. His duty to his 
country must not be subject to any 
conflict of motive, or constrained by 
what might appear as a division of alle- 
giance. When, therefore, experience 
showed that a danger to popular gov- 
ernment existed in the union of reli- 
gious and secular education the two 
were immediately separated. It is pos- 
sible that in the fear of any unfavorable 
influence we may have been too sensi- 
tive about whatever has a religious 
bearing, but the fear arises from the 
strength of the belief that the schools 
cannot serve two masters. The logic 
of our theory and our experience 
teaches that all that relates to citizen- 
ship should be kept apart from religion. 
We do not less believe in religion, it 
still remains the essential ground of 
character, but it is not to be enforced 
by the state. We give it to the church 
and the home, and we demand that 
they shall not intrude their teaching of 
it upon the province of the state. It 
may be called the American idea of the 
school that its one purpose should be to 
prepare for citizenship. We give up 
some things that we may hold others 
more firmly. We do not the less be- 
lieve in the value of religious training 
because it does not harmonize with the 
preparation for civil life. 

We can say, truly, that each is essen- 
tial, that each has its place, but that 
the two must nut be united. I do not 
forget the fact that men weigh argu- 

ments differently, and that some regard 
the relations of men to the church as of 
more importance than their relations to 
the state. They, therefore, give pre- 
cedence to religious training, even if 
thereby they subordinate the state to 
the church. But those who believe 
that such subordination is harmful to 
both, and that each can pursue its work 
harmoniously only when it is done inde- 
pendently, can never accept the princi- 
ple of sectarian schools. Free schools 
and free government stand in the rela- 
tion of cause and effect. The church 
has a sufficient field for its work with- 
out entering that of the state. 

There is one danger to which our 
schools are exposed in some sections 
of our country that deserves consider- 
ation, not because we have occasion to 
fear it here, but because there are some 
portions where it is a vital issue. It is 
the desire to use in them some other 
language than the English language. 
There are towns and whole districts in 
the northwest where the English lan- 
cruasre is an unknown tongue. In many 
others it is but slightly spoken. The 
inhabitants of these districts, though 
they may have newspapers in their own 
language, are yet shut oft by the strong- 
est kind of barrier, from association 
with the rest of the country. Commun- 
ity of interest and of feeling is impos- 
sible where there is not an easy inter- 
change of ideas. Difference of language 
insures diversity of opinion. It is of 
the utmost importance that the Eng- 
lish language should be retained as the 
one language of the schools, and every 
attempt to substitute another for it 
under any plea should be resisted to 
the bitter end. No person can be- 
a patriotic citizen of a country wl 
language he cannot speak, and no pop- 
ular srovernment can remain stable 



whose component p.irts have no com- 
mon bond of language. We have 
entered the outer circles of the mael- 
strom of political dissolution when dif- 
ferent sections of the country are suf- 
ficient to themselves in language, or 
are separate in national interest. Our 
government can continue only so long 
as the different members which com- 
pose it believe in the principles on 
which it rests, and are familiar with 
their operation and are ready unitedly 
to uphold them. 

One who forecasts the future of our 
country has occasion both to fear and 
to hope. He cannot shut his eyes to 
dangers, he ought not to forget encour- 
agements. By either thought lie should 
be roused to patriotic duty. He may 

not be chosen to active participation in 

public life, but he owes the effect of his 
interest and thought to all those t'. . 
that tend to the general good. Fore- 
most among such things are the public 

schools. On their work here and 
throughout the country will largely 
depend the character of the next gen- 
eration. That generation will control 
our institution^, and in turn hand them 
on to their successors. The institution 
that prepares them for their work, that 
trains and broadens and leads them up 
to citizenship, calls for the most jealous 
care and the most constant watchful- 
ness. Let us thank God that we have 
a noble system of schools, and pray 
that they may ever remain true to their 
high mission. 


By F. L 

. Puesley. 

The building known as Henniker 
Academy, shown in the foreground of the 
accompanying illustration, was erected 
during the summer and fall of 1^56. 
under the direction of a building com- 
mittee consisting of Abel Connor, Hor- 
ace Childs, and Col. I). C. Gould. Mr. 
Childs is now eighty-seven years of age, 
and is the only surviving member of the 
committee or of the original board of 

The following act of incorporation 
was obtained from the legislature of 
June, 1836, through a committee con- 
sisting of Hon. Joshua Darling. Rev. 
Jacob Scales, and Samuel Smith, Ksq., 
in cooperation with the representative 
of the town, Col. Imri Woods: 

ACT OF I\< oki'OKA Tln\. 

Section i. He it emitted by the Senate 
and House 'of Representatives in general 

court convened. That Jacob Scales, Joshua 
Darling, Nathan Sanborn, Samuel Smith, 
Page Eaton, Abel Connor, Horace Childs, 
Daniel C. Gould, and their associates, suc- 
cessors, and assigns be and they hereby are 
incorporated and made a body politic and 
corporate by the name oi Henniker Acad- 
emy, and by that name may sue and he 
sued, prosecute and defend unto final judg- 
ment and execution, and shall have and 
enjoy all the powers and privileges and be 
subject to all the liabilities incident to cor- 
porations of a similar nature. 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted* Tint 
said corporation may establish an institution 
in the town of Henniker for the instru 
of youth: may erect, own. and maintain 
suitable buildings therefor, and may hold 
personal and real estate to any amount nut 
exceeding ten thousand dollars. 

Se< . 3. tnd he it ftti ted, That 

all such gifts, donations, bequests, an 
acies as may from time to Lime be given or 



bequeathed to said corporation may 
received, held, and possessed by said cor- 

Sec. 4. And be it fur titer enacted. That 
Jacob Scales, Joshua Darling, Nathan San- 
born, or any two of them, may call the first 
meeting of said corporation, to be holden at 
some suitable time and place in the town of 
Henniker, by notifying the members thereof 
at least ten days prior to said meeting by 
posting written notifications at two or more 
public places in said town, where the matter 
of holding future meetings may be regulated 
and business relating to said corporation 

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted* That 
said corporation, at any meeting duly noti- 
fied and holden, may make rules, regula- 
tions, and by-laws not repugnant to tin- con- 
stitution and laws of this state for the man- 
agement of the interests and resources of 
said corporation, and may appoint such and 
so many officers as they may think pi 
and prescribe their powers and duties. 

Sec. 6. Ami be it further enacted* That 
nothing in the foregoing act shall be con- 
strued to prevent this or any future legisla- 

. . ..' 

Henniker Academy 

be tore from altering, amending, or repealim 
the same as the public good may require. 

Approved June, 1S36. 

In accordance with section 6 of the 
foregoing act. by-laws were enacted for 





the government of the board of trustees, 

for the conduct of students, and fur the 
general management of the school. 


The object of this institution is to afford 
instruction to young persons of both sexes 
in all branches taught in academies in New 
England. It is to be arranged in one or 
more departments, as circumstances require 
and admit. The instruction shall be under 
the direction of a principal and such assist- 
ants from time to time as the trustees shall 
think necessary. 

Of Trustees. 

i . The number of trustees shall not exceed 
twelve, of whom a majority shall belong to 
Henniker. All vacancies shall be supplied 
by their own choice. 

2. The annual • meeting of the board of 
trustees shall be holden at the close of the 
fall term. 

3. A president, secretary, and treasurer 
shall be chosen at each annual meeting; 
also a committee of three shall be chosen 
annually to transact the prudential business 
of the institution and to give advice to the 
principal in matters of peculiar interest or 
difficulty, and to give their approbation of 
the books to be used in the academy. 

4. Any five members shall constitute a 

5. Meetings of the board may be called 
by the president or at the request of any 
three trustees. 

" Of Terms and Duties of Students. 

1. There shall be four terms of eleven 
weeks each, in a year, beginning on the sec- 
ond Tuesday after the commencement at 
Dartmouth College and followed by a vaca- 
tion of two weeks. 

2. There shall be a public examination 
each term or semi-annually, as the trustees 
may elect. 

3. No person shall be employed as prin- 
cipal who is not a credible professor of 

4. The public exercises of each day shall 

commence with the word of God and prayer, 
and all members of the institution shall be 
present at these exercises unless excused by 
the principal, and it shall be the duty of all 
students to attend public worship on the 
Sabbath unless excused by the principal. 

5. Students shall not be allowed to visit 
each other's lodgings nor to walk nor ride 
for amusement on the Lord's day. 

6. All playing of care's or dice or any other 
games of chance for gain or amusement and 
all profane language are strictly prohibited. 

7. N'o student shall spend his time b\ 
ioitering at any store, shop, tavern, or place 
of similar resort. 

8. Xo student shall be absent. from any 
exercise prescribed without permission of 
the teacher or rendering a satisfactory excuse, 
and all instances of tardiness shall be care- 
fully noticed 

9. Silence and strict attention to study 
and instruction are required during the hours 
of attendance. 

The first term of school was opened 
in the spring of 1S37, Mr. Rreed Batch- 
elder being principal. The persons act- 
ing as principal from that time to 1S67, 
when the school was closed, are as fol- 
lows : J. Webster Pillsbury, fall of 1837 ; 
Charles I). Fitch, for one year, fall of 
1838 to 1839; Franklin George, fall of 
1S39 to winter term of 1840; Samuel 
Cadger, winter of i83Q-'4o; Rev. Isaac 
Stevens, spring of 1840 : Rev. Mr. Roe, 
winter of 1840-V ; Mr. Wing, spring 
term of 1S41 ; Mr. Isaac D. Stewart. 
afterwards Rev. Isaac D. Stewart, fall 
of 1S41 : Richard Line, winter of 1S41- 
'42 : Daniel Foster, spring of [842 ; 

William Cowper Foster, fall of 1842; 

John S. Woodman, fall and winter of 
1S43: Augustus Berry, fall terms from 
1846 to 1850; Mr. Winchester, fall of 
1851; Henry K.Sawyer, fall of 1852: 
A. M. Johnson, spring term of 1853 : 
Ned Howe, spring and f.l! terms "f 
1S54 : M. S. Thompson, fall terms of 



*" - 


^m /t^ 



- ^ 


1855 and 1856 : Hiram Rico, spring profitable and pleasant to all. But as 

term of 1S56; Mr. Page, fall term of the population of the town diminished. 
1857 ; Thomas L. Sanborn, three terms and a good many of the founders of the 
per year from the fall of 1858 to the institution died or moved from town, the 

interest was allowed to abate, and for 
many years only one term was taught 
during the year. Mr. Sanborn, after 
graduating, set himself at work to again 
build up the school, and succeeded to a 
degree that was very pleasing not only 
to himself but to the people of the town. 
The breaking out of the War of the 
Rebellion again broke up the school. 
But few terms have been taught since, 
and those have not been very fully 

''A large number of students have 
pursued their studies here, either fitting 
themselves for college or pursuing their 
studies so far that a short time at some 
other academy found them prepared for 
higher institutions. Hon. James YV. 

John C. Cogswell. 

spring of 1S62 ; James L. Vose, 1863; 
Henry Colby, fall term of 1865: Mr. 
Johnson, i866-'67. 

This list is taken from the k - History '^ 

of Henniker," by Leander \Y. Cogswell, 
as are also the following two para- 
graphs : 

" The school for several years was 
quite prosperous, and a large number of 
students attended from this and adjoin- 
ing towns. Lectures were given upon 
the various branches taught, much to 
the edification of the students and the 
people, who were always invited to 
these entertainments. A lyceum was 
established and kept up for many years, 
in the debates of which many of the 
leading citizens took a prominent part 
with the students. The instructors were Patterson, Hon. James \Y. Childs, Rev. 
able and faithful, and a good deal of Augustus Berry, Rev. Nathan F. Carter, 
interest was exhibited upon the part of Rev. Henry EL Sawyer, Miss Edna Dean 
the people towards making the terms I'roctor. Rev. Addison P. Foster, Rob- 

j N 

l, W. Cogs. 



ert M. Wallace. Esq., Frank D. Medica, 

Esq., William \\. Fisher. Esq., together 
with a large number of others whose 
names are not given, but who are filling 
high and honorable' positions in the 
great drama of life, have attended this 

From 1867 to [8S4 the school was 
closed. The people, however, were dis- 



J^S* •+>■ 





- ' ^ t 

Geo. H. Dodge. 

satisfied, and sought to provide some 
arrangement by which the use of the 
building could be obtained for a high 
school. How their purpose was accom- 
plished is shown by the records of the 
trustees, from which we quote : "At a 
meeting of the trustees held at Academy 
Hall in Henniker, on Saturday, February 
23, 18S4, at two o'clock in the afternoon, 
there were present, Horace Childs, Jere- 
miah Foster. L. VV. Peabody, John II. 
Albin, H. A. Emerson, and \V. (). Fol- 
som. Meeting was called to order by 
president. John II. Albin presented a 
plan for entering into an arrangement 
with the town for a school in the acad- 
emy, which was as follows : 

"Tiie town of Henniker, in the county 

of Merrimack and state of New I lamp 
shire, parly of the first part, by its 
cial committee and the trustees of Hen- 
niker Academy, a corporation established 

by law and located in said Henniker. 
party of the second part, hereby enter 
into the following business arrange- 
ment with each other, agreeably to the 
provisions of an act of the legislature 
entitled 'An act to enable the town of 
Henniker. or any school-district therein, 
to contract with the trustees of any 
academy in said town for school pur- 
poses. Approved July 13, 1SS3.'" 

The most important provisions of this 
contract were, substantially, that the 
town should appropriate annually ^500 
for the support of the school, and that 
tuition should be charged at such rates 
as the committee elected by the town 
and board of trustees should fix. Also, 
that the town should have the right to 
repair the upper story of the building 
suitably for school purposes, and have a 
right to use the first story, whenever 
necessary, for a hall. This contract was 
for a term of five years, with the provi- 
sion that it could be continued for 
another such term should the party of 
the first part so elect. The contract 
was duly executed, and at the expira- 
tion of the live years the trustees voted 
to put the matter of the further letting 
of the building for school purposes in 
the hands of their executive committee. 
Thus the building has been continued 
in the use of the town for a high school 
until the present time. 

After the execution of the contract 
the school was opened in the fall of 
1884 with Ira VV. Holt, a graduate of 
Dartmouth ('(/liege, as principal, and 
has since, without interruption, contin- 
ued successfully with three terms per 
year. Professor Holt was regarded as 



an excellent teacher. He remained 
principal until the close of the spring 
term of 18S6. He then went to Massa- 
chusetts, and is now principal of the 
high school at Arlington in that state. 
During tlie two years of his principal- 
ship here the school numbered on an 
average about forty pupils. His suc- 
cessor was Dorman B. Pike, also a grad- 
uate of Dartmouth, who had charge of 
the school from the fat! of 1SS6 to the 
end of the spring term of i8S<). He 
was a successful teacher, but has since 



Frerr.orst L Pugile/. 

been engaged as a travelling agent for 
literary works. 

Mr. Pike was followed by Mr. Aubrey 
B. Call, who graduated from Pates Col- 
lege, Lewiston, Me., in the class of 1SS9. 
Professor Call remained in charge of 
the school for two years, and was much 
liked by his pupils. He removed to 

Vermont, and has .since been principal 
of I. eland and Gray Seminary. 

The fall term of iSui was begun by 
Clarence Gardiner, who fitted for col- 
lege at Colby Academy, Xew London, 
this state, and graduated from Brown 
University. Owing to ill-health, how- 
ever, he resigned after five weeks, and 
about a year later died at his home in 
New London. 

Mr. Fremont L. Pugsley, of Roches- 
ter, X. PL. a graduate of Pates College, 
class of 1 So 1, was then elected prin- 
cipal. Professor Pugsley fitted for col- 
lege at Xew Hampton Literary Institu- 
tion, New Hampton, X. PL, and was. for 
one term, just before entering college, 
principal of the high school at Woods- 
ville, X. H. He came to Henniker at 
the opening of the winter term of the 
high school in Xovember, 1891. and is 
still the principal. He has proved a 
very faithful and efficient teacher, a 
strict disciplinarian, and the school has 
increased in membership and has been 
very successful. 

Professor Pugsley has prepared three 
courses of study for the school, and they 
are now pursued regularly by nearly 
every student. The courses are for four 
years, and are English, English and 
Latin, and College Preparatory. They 
have received the approval of prominent 
educators in this and other states, 
among whom are President 'Pucker of 
Dartmouth College and the faculty of 
Bates College, and students now prepar- 
ing for college in this school may enter 
either of the above, colleges upon pre- 
senting a certificate given by the prin- 



Daniel II. Rogers, of Brookline, Mass.. was born in Alton, and died, October^ 
aged 79 years. In early life he removed to Boston, and engaged in the dry goods 

business on Hanover street. Some thirty years ago he entered the state treasur- 
er's department as a clerk, serving in that capacity for twenty-five years, and a large 
part of the time as chief clerk of the department. 


Francis Knight was born in West Milan, June 19, 1S13, and died in Boston, 
Saturday, October 6. He established a teaming business in 1837, and at the time 
of his death was the oldest person so engaged in Boston. It was a matter of 
pride with him that he had had on his books the account of one firm for over fifty 
years. He is survived by a widow and three sons, the second of whom is head of 
the well-known firm of Mills, Knight & Company, printers, of Boston. 


William H. Hodgdon died in Kensington, October 7. aged 74 years and 7 
months. His grandfather served in the Revolutionary War ; his father, Caleb 
Hodgdon, in the War of 1812 : one brother, in the Mexican War, and three broth- 
ers beside himself in the War of the Rebellion, the deceased being a member of 
Company I), 14th Xew Hampshire Volunteers, and at the time of his death the 
oldest member of Moses X. Collins Post, No. 26, G. A. R., of Exeter. 


Merrill Greeley died in Plymouth, October 7, aged 62 years. He was for many 
years proprietor of the Greeley Hotel, Waterville, a popular White Mountain sum- 
mer resort. The latter part of his life had been spent in Plymouth, where he was 
president of the Electric Light company, and prominent in Masonic and Odd 
Fellow circles. 


Robert L. Huckins was born in Madbury, and died in Charlestown, M.b\. 
October 28, aged 53 years. He was appointed an officer in the Massachusetts 
state prison in 1S73, and at the time of his death was deputy warden, a position 
which he had held since August 1, 18S9. He was an excellent executive ofrvcer. 

James P>urnap was born in Nelson, and died at his home in Mario w, October 28, 
aged 78 years. He received a common-school education, and was apprenticed to 
his uncle, Asa Spaulding. a tanner. For many years he carried on an extensive 
business in Marlow as a tanner, and had large manufacturing and banking inter- 
ests in Keene. He was a member of the house of representatives in 1861 and 
18C2, of the state senate in 1S76 and 1877, and of the governor's council in 1S79. 
He is survived by a daughter, Miss S. Abbie Hurnap. 

Edward Wallace, son of Rev. Linzey and Abigail (Gamwell l Wallace, was born in 
Berwick. Maine, January 5, 1S23. and died in Rochester, October 29. He was ed- 
ucated in Phillips Exeter Academy, and in 1S5S, with his twin brother, began the 
business of E. G. & E. Wallace, shoe manufacturers, at Rochester, which has 
become one of the most important industries of that section. Mr. Wallace was a 
member of the house of representatives in 1870, and of the senate in [871. H<-' 
was twice married. 


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The Granite Monthly. 

Vol. xvii. 

DECEMBER, 1894. 

No. 6 


By George II. Moses 
NGLISH royalty left 

Grj ' -t fgtli ^ but little Personal 
fa ^ - ~^a^ impress this side 
1'K/ the water, despite the 

years they claimed 
fe^-JbsSEJ^ suzerainty over the 
western continent. 
And with the irony of events perhaps 
the strongest of them made the least 
impression. For example, William of 
Orange, the Protestant champion, is 
held in remembrance among us only 
in connection with his Stuart wife, 
and to William and Mary were forts 
built and colleges projected. The king 
alone was held in honor only in glitter- 
ing generalities — as in the case of King- 

This was the fifth municipality to re- 
ceive royal charter in New Hampshire. 
Only Portsmouth, Dover, Exeter, and 
Hampton preceded it. The order in 
which the first two of those towns 
should be named I leave for the discrim- 
inating reader to determine. 

The township was granted August 6, 
1694, and was bounded in strict accord 
with that early and lordly disregard for 
space and acreage which characterized 
the first real estate agents of New Eng- 
land, and out of its ample proportions 

have come no less than three other 
townships — East Kingston (1738), San- 
down (1756). and Danville (incorporated 
as Hawke in 1760). To neither of these 
children did the mother surrender its 
crowning glorv. and around Kingston 
Plain still clusters one of the loveliest vil- 
lages of New England. 

Where now stands the ample parade 
ground which gives the village its collo- 
quial title, was once a mighty forest of 
magnificent pines. Upon these the first 
settlers fell with the eager axe, and soon 
the smoke from the burning logs marked 
where next the pioneer's cornfield would 
establish the out-posts of civilization. 

Hostile Indians destroyed the charm 
of life in the wilderness and many a 
family sought refuge in the older settle- 
ments, where the stockade was more spa- 
cious and the attendance of the guard 
more constant. Not all were dismayed, 
and to the few who braved all the hard- 
ships such a situation engendered many 
were added, for the rich meadows of 
Great Pond were strong attractions to 
the venturesome folk of those days. 

The fears of the timorous one- were 
not without foundation. f->r tin* new set- 
tlement was exposed to all the rigors of 
frontier, and the skirmishing savage was 




• ■ 



4 a 

\\ : 


Residence of Rev. VV. A. Patten. 

by no means friendly to the young set- 
tlement, of which it was enough for the 
partisan red man to know that it was 
under the British Hag, for which he 
had only the fiercest and most bitter 





Re/. W. A. Pjt-en. 

imprecations. The hostility of the In- 
dians toward the infant town was hard 
to die out, and was evident even after 
the town had arrived to a considerable 
size and had achieved the dignity of 

attending church in a regular "meeting- 

house." Perhaps it was the well known 
piety of the settlers that laid them open 
to attack. At any rate the Indians de- 
termined upon a massacre of the pio- 
neers, and set upon a Sunday as the 
most fitting day for the deed. They 
accordingly secreted themselves beneath 
the church, intending to fall upon the 
people at their devotions, when the 

Col. O a P. Patt«' 


Homestead o' Josiah Bartlert 

whole town would be together 
and the men would be un- 
armed. But the wily foe reck- 
oned in vain : for on that par- 
ticular Sunday when they had 
been marked for the slaughter 
nearly every man in Kingston 
appeared at the church door 
with his gun. Xo one of them 
could ever give a reason for 
his precaution that day. and 
it was not until long after the 
almost eternal wars of the 
French and English were end- 
ed that the hardy men of 
Kingston knew what their 
town had been spared and 

learned from one of the hidden enemy mounds. At any rate the Indian anger 
that the discomfited red men, balked of against Kingston was fifty years in dying 
their prey, had stolen away from be- out, and during that time several of the 
neath the meeting-house to the forest, inhabitants were ambushed and killed, 
under cover of the parson's fervor. At length a price was set upon the scalp- 

The anger of the Indians was doubt- lock of every Indian, and after many 
less more easily aroused against King- weary years peace settled upon the land. 
ston than almost any other place, because In 1725, however, the condition of the 

the shores of Great Pond were the ren- town was not enchanting, as the "select- 
dezvous of the savages, and must have men of Kingstown" certified to the gov- 
been the scene of many a pow-wow. as ernor and council, from whom they be- 
the deposits of Indian relics in the viein- sought an abatement of the province tax. 
ity were very rich, and some of the finest "We reque>t that your honors," say 
collections in Xew England are adorned the town fathers, -would consider uur 
with treasure trove from the Kingston sad surcomstances, — living in a frontier 

______ w _,_„ town, — so small. & 






^-i- of S:%pn*' I .- 

exposed to ye Indian 
enemy, & our rates 
so heavy that we can- 
not tell how tO pay 

it. Therefore we hum- 
bly pray your honors 
to consider us & to 
medigate sumthing 
of ou r Province 
Rates. We have 
Lately lost sundry 
men of considerable 
estates,- -some by 


A ski: yen or kixgstos 

the enemy, & some by sixness. We :\re years Inter, in 1735, swept over the town 

so exposed to danger of the enemy dayly, and carried off scores, among them the 

— whenever we goe to work we are as it wife and two children of the beloved 

were upon duty." and scholarly first minister of the town. 

L ■ 

r 't 


■■■.'■' ! rvB 


Sanborn Seminary. 

Of the nature of this ' ; sixness" which 
had carried away several of the men 
of the town there is no knowledge. 
One may hazard a guess, however, 
that it was that dread scourge, diph- 
theria, which, in epidemic form, ten 

Prof. C H. Clark. 

the Rev. Ward Clark, whose own health 
failed soon after, and he returned to Exe- 
ter, his native town, and died after a long 
illness. His dwelling house and home 
place, as he himself described it, he left 
as a bequest to his "beloved people at 
Kingston" for perpetual use as a parson- 
age : but the gift was turned aside from 
the use of the Congregational order in 
the town by the ingenious ruling of the 
court, to which some of the people of 
the town appealed for a judgment on the 
parson's will at least a century after he 
had died. The property has now been 
sold and the proceeds make up a fund, 
the income of which is divided am 
the churches of the town for the support 
of preaching. 

But we were speaking of the epid< 1 
Kingston was unduly prosperous in 1735. 
For ten years it had hid a settled min- 
ister. It had built a new meeting-house, 
"55 foots long and forty-i 
and high enough for two ters of gallery. 
There were eighty-one families in town. 




and on a directory which the minister 
had made there appeared fifty surnames. 

It was while the town was in this hey- 
day of its pride that the scourge fell 

upon the people. It began in June, and 
in little more than a year it had car- 
ried away 113, ninety-six of them being 
under ten years old. In quaint language 

•t LOO 

the town clerk makes record of the ca- 
lamity. '*This mortality," says he, "was 

by a kanker quinsy, which mostly seized 
upon young people, and has proved ex- 
ceeding mortal in several other towns. 
It is supposed there never was the like 
before in this country.'' 

The disease baffled all medical skill, 
until one day a young practitioner set 
out upon a new theory of treating it and 
was so successful that the new departure 
was warranted. In a medical work which age to break away from the limitations 
a native of Kingston ran across in Ger- of existing professional treatment was 
many has been found the outline of the full of courage forty years later in 


Prof. W. T. 






: 1 I' 


h • ' I-'.:.. 

& 1_ ' 

JB -• -<~~Av«v*L« 

Prysical Lato'a'ory, Sen-, nary. 

successful treatment and the statement another cause. His name was Josiah 

that the first recorded case of malignant Bartlett, and it is written, in a far loftier 

diphtheria was found in this town. place than a German medical n 

The young doctor who had the cour- ten with his own hand in letters ot 



only after they had settled it among 
themselves that the now living members 
of the family had had a grandfather 
more or less remote who had borne the 

In the public square at Amesbury, 

imperishable fame on the Declaration of 

Independence as one of the two signers 
for New Hampshire, and by tradition the 
first person to sign the valiant document. 
After the declared independence had 
been achieved he was a governor of the 
state, and a chief of her courts. He 
was buried here, and in the quaint old 
burying ground he lies. Above him a 
simple slab relates : 






• MAY 19th 1795 






JULY 14 h 1789 


Fragrant is the recollection of friends 

The mo/t delightful Flowers Shall be fcattered upon 

their valuable Remains 
When toe recall the facred fpot to mind the congenial 

tear flialif par kie in the eye of Sympathy 
and their Virtues fliall 6 embalmed in the warm 

bosom of AfTi ction. 

The humble tomb which thus invites 
the '-congenial tear" is beaten by the 
storms of nearly a century, its affection- 
ate lines are now barely to be deciphered, 
brambles grow thick around it, a tattered 
flag indicates that once a year, at least, 
a flower is laid above the patriotic dead; throve together, and the prosperity of 
but the town's best claim to greatness is 
little recognized at home. "The crooked 
oak,'' dead and gray and gnarled and 
ugly, is a point of interest, to which the 
visitor may find read} direction — but the 
grave of Josiah Bartlett is not so well 
known, and from men at work in the 
burying-ground when I was there I was 

his birthplace, stands a more stately and 
conspicuous memorial to the patriot, 
and, fashioned in bronze, the calm, be- 
nignant face looks out over the hurrying 
crowd, none of whom regard him with 
congenial tears, but all of whom, no 
doubt, know him and his work. 

After the abatement of the scourge 
Kingston prospered lustily. Under the 
conditions then existing church and state 

the one marks the growth of the other. 
It is fortunate for the present writer that 
such is the fact, for almost the only 
accessible records of the early days of 
Kingston are found in the books of the 
church, which tell of th< formation of a 
n<_w parish in the cast part of the town 
iii 1739: of the erection of a new town 
able to learn the location of the tomb (Sandown) out of Kingston, and the loss 




of ten church members to the first church 
therein; of another new town (Hawke, 
now Danville) in the west part, and a 
shrinkage in the church roll at home, of 
the dismissal of thirty-three, members who 
joined a church in Brentwood, and of 
the departure of a colony from King- 
ston to settle in Salisbury iX, H.) by 

ston. and voted "to assist to build a 
meeting-house in Salisbury like that in 
East Kingston, and a pulpit like the 
one in Hawke, and that Ebenezer Web- 
ster. Joseph Bean, and Capt. John Calef 
must see that the work is done in a 
workmanlike manner." 

Despite these losses the town ilour- 


&** ■■'■ "-•' •-'• ■ i 

■■'. ■ - 

- ■ ■ - 

■ - 

virtue of a patent from the honorable, ished, and after the manner of our fore- 
the Masonian 

Among these 
latter depart- 
ures were t h e 
father and mo- 
ther of Daniel 
Webster, and it 
is yet a melan- 
choly pride in 
Kingston to 
reckon how neat- 
Daniel Webster 
was to being a 
native of the 
town. Another 
famous fa m i 1 v 
which went to 
the Masonian 
township w a s 
the Bartletts, 
from whom are 
descended Rev. 
Samuel Colcord 
Bartlett, i>. r>., 
ll. d., lately 
president of 



• , 


-._ - 


8artlett Statue, An-esoury, Mass. 

Dartmouth college, and his gifted broth- 
ers, one of whom rose to a seat on the 
supreme court of New Hampshire. 

The blessing of the mother went with 
all these departing children, and a share 
of her substance as well, for the people 
of Kingston took a great interest in all 
the colonies which went out from the 
town. They shared their parsonage 
property with the parish at East King- 

bears in nearly 

e v e r y N e w 
1 1 a m p s h i r e 

town tried many 
ways of getting 
rich other than 
that which na- 
ture plainly in- 
tended to be fol- 
lowed. One of 
the short cuts 
to wealth which 
Kings ton i a n s 
attempted was 
the smelting of 
iron from the 
bog ore which 
was taken from 
the bottom of 
G r e a t Pond. 
But the amount 
of ore obtained 
was so small 
and it was ob- 
tained with so 
much difficulty 
that the enter- 
and was aban- 

prise did not pay we 

The first commodity, of course, as in 
every frontier town, was lumber, and 
after roads had been built large quanti- 
ties of timber, some of it stripped from 
Kingston's own ample forests, 
of it taken from other soil, were carted 

awav to 

Exeter and Portsmouth. T 

common, a large open plain in the 

C l. I ■ 




Cor.gier.i- Of 


tre of the village, was used for the stor- 
age of the surplus stock and out of the 
profits of the trade seven stores were 
supported in town. 

Not all of this commerce is gone now, 
though it has sadly dwindled. Along 
the scant water-power which the town 
contains are scattered a few small mills, 

shire. The amount of their out-put is 
probably considerable in the course of a 
year, but the aggregate is pitiful in 
and volume as compared to the ; 

, i ----- 

i - . . ., ' -■: 

Union Cnurcn. 

giants which made the town once pros- 
perous and attractive. 

In time Kingston learned the truth, 
and iron furnaces, tanneries, and all 
other signs of a diversified industry 
passed, and the cultivation of the soil 
took first place in giving sustenance to 
the people. In later years, however, 
farming has been hard pushed for su- 
premacy by carriage making, in which 
industry Kingston is the second town in 

which devote their energies to reduce 
the already small amount of sapling pine 
which promises, if unmolested, to re-for- 
est the plains of Southern New 11 amp- 





1 !!il i 

- . - - 

Maso'.ic Ha! 




the state, Concord alone excelling her. 
William Patten was the pioneer carriage- 
maker in Kingston, and the first chaise 
ever made in New Hampshire (except 

T O. Reyno'ds, W. D. 

one at Portsmouth; was made by him 

The Patten name is a famous one in 
Kingston, and from the parent stuck 

went forth councillors to the New Hamp- 
shire state house, bankers to Boston's 
exchanges, business men to Canada's 




j^. j*-~ — 

Major £. S. Sanborn. 

metropolis, and clergymen to various 
pulpits. A historian of the town, too, 
bore this name and was in this line, 


,. y ) 




Charles B-.rr Oa~es. 

3 6 ° 


but he is gone now 
and his work is lost. 
The Pattens led re- 
forms in Kingston fifty 
years ago, and reform- 
ers then were not held 
in high esteem. Col- 
cord Patten headed 
the first temperance 
crusade in Kingston 
and for his stand in 
the matter was sub- 
mitted to annoyances 
great and small. The 
tails of his horses were 
shaven, his windows 
broken, his 
house was 
finally burn- 
ed over his 
head, and 
the grave- 
s t on es of 
his kindred 
were over- 
thrown in 
the village 
and cast out 
of the en- 
closure. In 


Char.ei E. Mo, 



C H. CI 

t o w n , was 
owed b y 
and Exeter, 
and what- 
ever patri- 
otism the 
place was 
able to dis- 
p 1 a y w a s 
made but 
little ac- 
count of. It 
was from his 

ary times, Kingston, like almost every here, of course, that Josiah Bartlelt went 

forth to stand among 
councils of the brave in 
their hour of might, but 
with him the list of pat- 
riots begins and ends, 
though there were doubt- 
less many others wh s 
put in the struggle 
a-> necessary if n »t s< i con- 
SpiCUOUS as his. 

In the years following 
the establishment of the 
republic Kingston plumed 


' ',' ' 


< • 

, ".' "'" IV '• 


Kingwood F 


herself as the rendezvous of one of the all the pomp and trappings of May 
regiments of state militia. For this training and fall muster. Perhaj i 

function the town was well fitted. The err in saying it was not first the si 
common, which in the earlier days had of war, for in earlier times when the 

meeting-house ornamented the plain 
two factions in the church fell tu 
wrangling and on one Sunday, at least, 
two preachers held forth from the sacred 
dc>k at once, each addressing a rival 
faction. Certainly this was not dove- 
like peace. 

The common is still intact. King- 
ston Plain is vet a reality, and the main 



-:■,' " 



served as a common pasture for the 
settlers' cows, and which in after time 

had been the site of the first church, 

and which a little later vet was trans- «?•-. 

y ' - 

•- . ■' 



MlM Brooks. 

■ M * t 

-• road, dividing to encircle the greensward, 

Y' sweeps by on either side and passes 

^ -.'.?, through what is one of the lo\ 

• ■;;<■■■*' ') r ^ villages in \e\\ England. It is a 

wealthy place, they tell me. And I am 
quite ready to believe it as I see the 
comfortable houses of the fine old 
colonial type, large and roomy, S I 
well back from the street for the mosl 
part, with their stately old elms by the 
formed into a lumber exchange, was roadside, their neat flower gardei 
now for the first time turned over to front, their white pickel fei 
warlike uses and was made gay with refreshing green blinds. 

Miss Emily .7. Tapley. 



Gen. S. H. Gale. 

Fronting the common and half hidden 
by lilac bushes, shaded by four magnifi- 
cent black walnut trees which were 
certainly in at the birth of this century 
and may reasonably hope to see it die, 
stands a spacious mansion with an air 
of evident self-esteem. It is the home 
stead of Josiah Bartlett and the black 
walnuts were brought by him from 
Philadelphia on the occasion of his 
attending his first session of the Conti- 
nental Congress. The slips of the black 
walnuts were brought by him and his 
colored servant all the way on horse- 

Across both common and street and 
set well back from "the highway is the 
town-house, the lower floor being occu- 
pied by the town schools. These are 
maintained on the old academy founda- 
tion, are sustained upon the original 
charter, and arc controlled by a board 
of trustees, just as the institution was 
two score years arro when Edward F. 

Nbyes, afterward governor of Ohio and 

United States minister to France, 
fitting for college here and Col. Thomas 
IV. Knox was teaching here in blissful 
ignorance of the rambles in store for 
him with his "Boy Travellers." 

Kingston academy was one of the 
old-time stock company institutions of 
learning, and in its day was the kind 
mother of many a sturdy lad who has 
since made his mark in the world. Its 
alumni roll awakens memories of more 
than one famous family of the days 
when talent was hereditary. Jonathan 
Fifield Sleeper taught here and here 
his son, John S.. afterward editor of the 
Boston journal, was born. Here Pro- 
fessor John P. Marshall of Tufts college 
was born and educated, and also Pro- 
fessor Warren T. Webster of Adelphi 
academy, Brooklyn, and his brother, 
William Franklin, who held the chair 
of chemistry at Brown university. Pro- 
fessor Henry French of Brown is another 
native of Kingston who studied in the 
old academv. 

L G. H ,• Esq. 



The decadence of the old academy 
has no mourners, for in its stead has 
come a noble gift to the people of King- 
ston. A little down the street and on 

dead relative really intended the munifi- 
cence which his will and testament 


For six years the school has been in 

the opposite side from .the academy, operation and in that time it has sent 

its graduates into insti- 
tutions of the highest 
collegiate rank where 
they are acquitting 
themselves honorably. 
Professor Charles H. 



4. fcb. 


»■# b a -■ 1 1 : •' I 



V is . - 

,-»>->■- .f- r - 



stands Sanborn semi- 
nary in solitary dignity 
in the centre of a spa- 
cious lot which stretch- 
es from street to street. 
Within the corridor of 
the stately pile stands 

a marble bust with an inscription be- cipal, and has been ever since the 
neath which tells of Major Edward school was opened. Mr. Clark is a 
Stevens Sanborn, whose bust it is and graduate of Kowdoin college and 
whose generosity erected the building studied in- Paris and Berlin. Under 
and endowed the seminary. The build- his wise guidance the seminary has set 
ing was erected in 1SS3, but it was six out in a broader educational path than 
years after that before the first class most schools of like grade care to 
was received within its walls. It had tread. Himself an ardent scientist, he 
taken that long for the courts to con- has kept the school up to the demands 
vince clamorous contestants that their of the modern educational systems and 

it is probable that 
in no school in the 
state can there be 
found more thor- 
oughly equipped 
laboratories or 
more enthusiastic, 
painstaking, and 
genuine scientific 
research. The clas- 
s • - are not - - 
ed. however, and in 
every 1 - I S n 

: // '- 

•T ~ 

...... ... 



Kimball's Carfare Factor 


seminai ■ 






found to meet the educational require- 
ments of the studiously disposed. Here 
in this peaceful village is the atmos- 
phere of scholarship. The drooping 

but one place in the state. Take out 
its few saw-mills and count in the 
brick-yards at East Kingston and the 
sum total is not imposing. But there 

> -V 

> v*i*L» 

elms, the quiet streets, the surrounding is one industry in Kingston that, while- 
forest, the silvery lake, the romantic not of great magnitude, deserves to he 

groves, all conduce to study— -of books, singled out as unique. It is the manu- 
or nature which is here stretched wide facture of sterilized milk for babes and 
open before one. invalids. The process is a secret one 

Flanking the seminary and skirting and is carried on at Kingwood Farm 
the shore of a beautiful sheet of water under the direction of Mrs. Frances 
and lining a street which forks away Fisher Wood of New York city. At 
from the parade at its farthest reach, Kingwood Farm sterilized milk was 
stand two churches and the Masonic first produced in this country in corn- 
hall. The two 
churches are the 
and the Metho- 
dist Fpiscopal. 
Another, the 
Uni ve r s a 1 i s t , 
stands farther 
down the road 
and at East 
Kingston is still 
another ; while 
every one of the 
half dozen ham- 
let s in town 
boasts another. 
Architectura 1 1 v 

rap! a - 

1 ilifiTriiTit^ 




Town Hail and Academy. 

mercial quanti- 
ties, and the ex- 
periment was 

made by Mrs. 
Wood after hav- 
ing first observ- 
ed the effect of 
the preparation 
upon her own 
child. King- 
wood milk is 
taken from a 
herd of register- 
ed Jerseys and 
is of great rich- 
ness and purity. 
It is treated in 

they are of their type typical. Spirit- a building erected and fitted up for the 

ually they are of their type typical, also; purpose, and the herd is quartered in a 

and the rural church of New England a stable which has all the latest wrin- 

has been recently enough portrayed in kles in the way of sanitation and equip- 

print to bear omission here. 

The Masonic building is a credit to 
the place and would do honor to a 
much larger constituency. It wa.s 
erected through the exertions of a few 
devoted brothers and is probably 
unique among buildings of its class. It 
was dedicated without a debt. 


The men of Kingston are of the 
reputable sort that one would expect 
here, and are thrifty withal. I have 
said that the place is wealthy ; it is also 
energetic. Its industries are not great. 
but they are not allowed to be slug- 
gish ; and in the course of events it has 

Commercial Kingston is not much to naturally come about that a good many 
boast of. Its carriage business has comfortable fortunes have been rolled 
already been mentioned as second to up about Kingston Plain. In politic-, 



o v, .i 

too, when a Kingston man has set out 
upon honor bent, he has more often 
than not achieved it. Of the present 

generation the Hon. Amos C. Chase 

Burr Oakes is another Kingston boy 
who has made a notable place for 
himself in the world, his connection 
with financial operations in the West 
represents both the Kingston man in being both varied and extended. 
business and the Kingston man in This town is two hundred years old, 
politics. As a carriage manufacturer but it probably has not aged much in 
he earned a reputation for his wares the last fifty years. It looks out calmly 

One o' the 

and amassed a competence, and as into the years of its third century. Its 

a politician he passed successively two hundredth birthday passed without 

through both branches of the legisla- notice, in the lordly disregard of anni- 

ture and sat in the governor's council, versaries which centuries produce. 

A native of East Kingston, who is just When next May rolls round its fore- 

now coming forward in the political most" citizen will have been dead an 

arena, is General Stephen H. Gale of hundred years. That anniversary may 

Exeter, who has just been elected to likewise fail of notice ; it will be all the 

the state senate and is just quitting ser- same in another century. But the life 

vice on Governor Smith's staff. A 
bright young Kingston man who has 
many things in store for him is the 
present solicitor of Rockingham county. 
Louis G. Hoyt, Esq. 

It is the Kingston man abroad, how- 
ever, who has added to the renown of 
the town and gained fortune for him- 
self. One such a son of the old town 
is Charles E. Morrill of Chicago, ^feig^frg f 
who as \\ estern 
entine Varni 
less reached 


of a town does not depend upon anni- 
versaries or departed statesmen ; it is 
rather in the character of its citizen- 
ship, the advantages it offers its youth, 
its moral purposes. 

Judged by this standard why may 
not Kingston live to disregard its mil- 
lennial ? 

msiness world than any other son '^.- ■ . • 

)f the town. II ib summer home is ^i^V ■'*'.'■... ' j 

it East Kingston and more than one ' \vf%£}& "'""' . —-'.." 

onerous deed betokens his affection •'■' ^-Vr, /;>;- f ' ' 2Z?~*~* ~ 

for the place of his birth. Charles 

TomD o' Jos a' Eartlett. 

(a mother-song.) 
By Edward . 1. Jenks. * 

Down in the Gardens of Nid-nod-Noddy, 

Whither my pretty baby 's going, 
Nicest things and sweetest things for every baby body 

Are growing — srowimj ^rowinjr. 

Little white pearls, like peas in a poddy, 

Out through the rosy gates are peeping, 
Down in the Gardens of Nid-nod-Noddy, 

Where my baby 's creeping. 

Still are the Gardens of Noddy, and shady — 

None can be warmer or lighter : 
Mama is the sunlight and starlight — the lady 

That makes the gardens sweeter and brighter 
For every little baby boy and every little maidy 

That listens to the sons: she is humming 
(Down in the gardens where the birdies keep shady), 

" Nid-nod-Noddy J s coming ! " 

Daffodils and poppies, hollyhocks and clover, 

Down in the Gardens of Noddy, 
Nod their pretty sleepy heads, over and over, 

To every little sleepy-headed body 
That wanders through those dreamy aisles to find a cosy cover 

Where the Nodheads in their hammocks are swinging — 
Where are buttercups and daisies, golden-rod and clover, 

Sleepily— sleepily singing. 

Bees are stealing honey, and all about us flying, 

Looking for my pretty darling, .maybe, 
But if in Mama's drowsy lap they find him snugly lying, 

They'll dare not kiss my blue-eyed little baby. 
In the Noddy gardens all the sights and sounds are dying — 

Mama's loving eyes have ceased their beaming; 
All the world has drifted off, like summer clouds mixing — 

Baby's dreaming— dreaming. 



Bv William S. Harris. 

Just over the Massachusetts border, 
on the watershed between the Merri- 
mack and Connects ut valleys, rises the 
rounded, symmetrical form of Watatic 
Mountain, which can be seen from many 
elevated positions throughout the south- 
ern half of New Hampshire. Watatic 
is the culminating point of the hill town 
of Ashburnham, Mass., and reaches an 
altitude of about 1,850 feet above the 
sea. From this summit, in the northeast- 
ern corner of the town, the line of the wa- 
tershed runs south and west, over Little 
Watatic Mountain, 1,500 feet above the 
sea, and Meeting-house Hill, but 200 
feet lower, dividing the town midway, 
the eastern and southern sections drain- 
ing into the Nashua river, and the re- 
maining portions into Miller's river. 

Between Little Watatic and Meeting- 
house Hill, where the line of the water- 
shed crosses a low, broad swell of land. 
1,100 feet above sea-level, is situated 
the old Harris homestead which forms 
the subject of this sketch. The ancient 
house, built by Deacon Jacob Harris 
about 1769, and forming the family 
homestead for more than a half century, 
remains in 1894 with but little change, 
and is now the oldest house in the town. 
The outlook is beautiful in every direc- 
tion. In front, a mile away to the south, 
is Meeting-house Hill, where in former 
days the people of the town went up to 
worship, and where now many genera- 
tions repose in the ancient cemetery 
upon its summit. Toward the north is 
Little Watatic in plain view, with the 

towering peak of Monadnock upon one 
side and Great Watatic upon the other 
peering over the nearer hills. 

The tract of land which in 1765 was 
incorporated as the town of Ashburn- 
ham was granted in 1735 to sixty pro- 
prietors, most of them soldiers who had 
served under Capt. John Withington of 
Dorchester in the expedition into Canada 
in 1690. On this account the grant was 
called Dorchester Canada. A few settle- 
ments were made at once, and in 1739 
was erected the first meeting-house, 
which was the first framed building in 
the place. Following the custom of the 
time, the house of worship was placed 
on a lofty hill for greater security against 
the Indians. At a meeting of the pro- 
prietors in 1736, the location chosen by 
a committee for the meeting-house was 
accepted, and the record says: '"The 
Meeting House Lot Contains 10 acres 
lying square and it Lieth on a Hill 180 
Rods South of a Greate Pond and has 
a very fair Prospeck." 

A very fair prospect, indeed ! The 
11 Greate Pond," long called Meeting- 
house Pond, but now dignified with the 
name of Lake Xaukeag — a mile and a 
quarter in length, dotted with its seven 
islands, several of them now bearing 
pretty summer cottages, lies directly at 
the foot of the hill, while beyond the 
lake, rising grandly over the nearer 
slopes and foothills, ;> the noble form of 
Mount Monadnock. 

Troubles with the Indians, and the 
insecurity of the frontier, hindered the 



growth of the new settlement of Dor- Oct. 26, 1769, and about that time 

Chester Canada, and its meeting-house cleared up his farm from the primitive 

was long unfinished and unoccupied, woodland and built his house, a house 

the first settled minister. Rev. Jonathan which was destined to be his home until 

Winchester, from Brookline, being or- near the close of a long and honorable 

dained pastor in 1760. When the life, and the birthplace of his seven 

French and Indian War came to an end children. The house as it now app< 

with the Peace of Paris in 1765. the is long and low, of one story, of steeply 

infant settlement, like others similarly sloping roof, facing south, with four 

situated, rapidly grew by immigration windows on the front, three of them on 

from the older towns toward the sea- the east side of the front door. The 

board, and in 1765 the colony attained old chimney, of such enormous propor- 

to the dignity of a town with the name tions as the custom of those early 

of Ashburnham. In the decade from demanded, was some years ago taken 

Ha'rls House. 

1760 to 1770, large numbers of immi- 
grants settled there, Harvard being one 
of the towns most largely drawn upon. 
Among the many who at this time went 
from Harvard to Ashburnham was Jacob 
Harris, who came in 1767, being then a 
young man of twenty-six. He was born 
in Ipswich, the ancestral town, in Feb- 
ruary, 1 741, and his father, Richard 
Harris, removed thence to Harvard two 
years later, his object being to get away 
from the sea so that his sons might not 
become sailors. A few years after Jacob 
came to Ashburnham and before the 
Revolution, his younger brother Nathan- 
iel followed his example and settled in 
the same town. 

Jacob Harris married Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Rev. Jonathan Winchester, 

down and a small modern one substi 
tuted, thus adding much room to the 
interior of the house and detracting 
much from its antique appearance out- 
wardly. The windows are of the old 
style, with nine small "seven-by-nine" 
panes- in the lower sash and six in the 

Deacon Harris was one of the sub- 
stantial men of the town and church, 
was highly respected and often called to 
positions of trust. He was second ser- 
geant in the town militia com; 
formed in 1774. and in 177^ he was 1 

member of the "Committee • •;' C 
pondence." He had already, while a 
young man at Harvard, had some expe- 
rience in military affairs. When only 
eighteen he was in the company <»f Capt. 



Aaron Willard of Lancaster, under Gen. 
JefTry Amherst in the campaign of 1759 
against the French and Indians. In 
1762, he was one of the soldiers sta- 
tioned at Crown Point under Cap:. 
Thomas Farrington of Groton to garri- 
son that fort. He was selectman of 
Ashburnham in 17S1, moderator of the 
town meeting. 1796, assessor for fifteen 
years between 1779 an(a 1 79^- and mem- 
ber of the school committee two years, 
i8i2-'i3. Jacob Harris and Elizabeth 
Winchester, whom he married the same 
year, joined the church in 1769. In 
1788 he was chosen deacon, which 
office he held until his death thirty-eight 
years later. 

The first wife of Deacon Harris, 
Elizabeth Winchester, died June 21, 

stone erected by the people of Ashburn- 
ham and bearing an elaborate eulogy of 
the revered pastor. 

W hat varied scenes of joy and sor- 
row, of life and death, has this old house 
witnessed ! What memories and fancies 
cluster around m\ old homestead made 
sacred by the lives M\d labors of suc- 
cessive generations of our ancestors ! 
This house was the birthplace of the 
seven children of Deacon Harris, six of 
whom grew up to maturity and useful- 
ness. The oldest. Betsy, born Sept. 25. 
1772, lived to nearly the age of 93, and 
the old house doubtless witnessed her 
marriage, on Eeb. 13, 1798, to Jonathan 
Meriam of Gardner. On this occasion 
she wore the ancient white silk wedding 
dress which had been originally worn by 
1782, aged 31 years and one day. Her her grandmother, Sarah Craft, when, on 

children were Betsy, Samuel, Jacob (who 
died young';, and Sally. His second 
wife, whom he married Aug. 21, 17S3. 
was Mrs. Anna (Meriam) Warren, widow 
of Samuel Warren. She died Sept. 13. 
1790, aged 36 years, and leaving three 
children, Martha, Jacob, and Eunice. 

May 5. 1748, she had been married in 
Brookline to Rev. Jonathan Winchester, 
and worn again by her mother, Eliza- 
beth Winchester, when she married 
Deacon Jacob Harris in 1769. Por- 
tions of this remarkable wedding dress 
are carefully preserved, and, along with, a plate which belonged to Rev. Jona- 

1792, was Mrs. Ruth (Tool, Pratt, than and Madam Winchester, figured at 

widow of Edward Pratt. She died Nov. a wedding of one of their remote de- 

11, 1S17, aged 6G years. Her daughter scendants in 1S91. 

by her first husband, Ruth Pratt, b^rn 

in New Ipswich, X. H.. Aug. 29, 1779. 

married, April 17, 1 7 9 S , Samuel, son of 

Deacon Jacob Harris, who became a 

minister and was pastor of the church 

in Windham for twenty-one vears. 

Samuel Harris, born Aug. 18, 1774, 
married, as already stated, Ruth Pratt, 
his step-mother's daughter. He studied 
for the ministry with Rev. Dr. Samuel 
Worcester of Fitchburg, and Rev. Dr. 
Setfa Payson of Rindge, X. H.,— 

Xear the centre of the old cemetery father of Rev. Dr. Edward Payson 

on Meeting-house Hill reposes the dust was licensed to preach in 1803 and or- 

of the three wives of Deacon Harris d lined to the pastorate of the Prt 

and his two children, Jacob and Sally, terian church in Windham by the Pres- 

who died in Ashburnham. Not far bytery of Londonderry, Oct. 9, 1S05. 

away are the graves of the Rev. Jona- He continued pastor in Windham, re- 

than Winchester and his wife " Madam spected and 1 in labors 

Sarah Winchester/' that of the former, and successful in I 

who died in 1767, being marked by a failure of his voice necessitated bis dis- 



mission, which took place Doc. 6, 1826. next November, after the death of his 

After a few years of rest lie was again third wife, deeded to him the farm, 

able to preach and supplied in Dublin, taining about fifty acres. About this 

X. II., two years, iS^o-'^i. Hudson, time an addition was built on to the 

N. II., two years, and in other places, house, comprising the two rooms on the 

but retained his residence in Windham west end, next to the road. 

until his death, which occurred Sept. 5, 
1S4S. About 1S20 he represented the 
Presbytery of Londonderry in the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the Presbyterian 
church, making the journey to Philadel- 
phia, the place of meeting, on horse-back. 

Here they lived until the spring of 
1S26. when the farm, which Deacon 
Harris had cleared up from woodland 
and which had been his home for rifty- 
five years, was sold, and the family, con- 
sisting; now of the venerable deacon 

Rev. Samuel and Ruth Harris had aged S5, Jacob, Jr., his wife Sophy, and 

his sister Eunice, removed to Windham. 

twelve children, of whom the two oldest 
sons, Edward Pratt and Samuel, were 
born in the old homestead in Ashburn- 
ham. The former, born Nov. 17, 1S02, 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 
1S26, studied law, and was a successful 

a town already familiar to them from 
being the home of the Rev. Samuel 
Harris. Here the remainder of their 
lives was spent, and here repose their 
remains. The father died on the 26th 

practitioner at White River Junction, Yt., of the next September. Jacob, Jr., was 

and later for many years in Rochester, a highly respected citizen of his adopted 

Mich., and was the father of Judge town, and was a ruling elder in the 

Edward W. Harris of Port Huron, Mich. Presbyterian church from 1S33 to his 

Samuel, born Dec. 7, 1804, was a printer death in 1S60. Eunice died in 1S77. 

in Boston for many years, and a useful aged 87, the last member of the family 

and highly respected man. born in the old homestead. 

Sally and Eunice, daughters of Deacon The cause of higher education, as 

Jacob Harris, did not marry. Martha well as religion, has found many friends 

married Joshua Moore of Westminster, among the descendants of Deacon Jacob 

and one of their children is the Hon. Harris. He himself taught school: of 

John M. Moore of Gardner, for twenty- 
three years a member of the school 
committee of that town ; in 1855 the 
youngest member of the Massachusetts 

his six children who lived to maturity, 
all taught except Sally, who was feeble 
in health. Of the ten children of Rev. 
Samuel Harris who grew up. every one 

House of Representatives, again elected taught more or l^ss except Samuel, who 

in 1870, and in 1881 and 1SS2 member was early apprenticed to the printer's 

of the State Senate. Jacob Harris. Jr., trade. In one line of descent from 

married, April 8, 18 17, Sophy Smith, a Deacon Jacob to the daughters of lb n. 

daughter of Joshua Smith, a prominent Edward W. Harris, there have been five 

citizen of Ashburnham. He settled on generations of school teachers bearing 

the homestead with his father, who. the the same family name. 


By ll ". D. Spencer, 

Where the aged, stately forests, 

In the days of long ago, 
Peopled all the sloping hillsides 

And the quiet vales below, 
Was the home of Passaconway, 

Chief of all the Pennacooks, 
Who had wisdom that was greater 

Than all wisdom found in books. 

Never was there such magician 

In the country north or south. 
And his fame had gone before him. 

Speeding on from mouth to mouth, 
So that chiefs of distant nations 

Came to pay the homage due 
To a monarch who had secrets 

That no other mortals knew. 

Etchemins and Abenaquis 

Kneeled before him in their awe, 
Feeling that his wrath was fatal, 

Knowing that his word was law : 
Power was his to burn the waters 

That before his wigwam shone; 
To create a living serpent 

P'rom the dead one's skin alone. 

He could change himself at pleasure 

To the nature of a flame, 
And could make the trees about him 

Dance, whene'er lie spoke their name 
He could raise a fair green leaflet 

From the ashes of one dead ; 
But of all his many wonders 

Not one half could well be said. 

Vet there is one little legend. 

That was told among the re.^t. 
Which, though now almost forgotten, 

Seems to be bv far the best : 


Passaconway had a daughter, 

Whom he loved next to his sons, 

For she was in truth the fairest 
Of her nation's fairest ones. 

Far away in Xewichwanic 

Dwelt a noble chieftain's son, 
Who had often come to woo her 

And her heart at last had won ; 
But her father loved to see her 

Flitting near his wigwam door 
And his heart was all unwilling 

To behold her there no more. 

So time passed, the winter coming 

Burdened all the trees with snow 
And anon the budding springtime 

Thrilled with life the earth below ; 
All the world seemed truly happy 

To these people of the wilds 
But the face of Passaconway 

Troubled at his loving child's. 

One bright day when she had wandered 

Par beyond the village ground. 
Seeking for an early flower, 

Noting everv woodland sound, 
From the green leaves just above her 

Leaped a panther hungry-eyed, 
Crushing with its powerful body 

All her senses, so she died. 

As they broke to Passaconway 

News they felt their chief must know, 
From his eyes, so unaccustomed, 

Drops like rain were seen to How, 
But he would not give permission 

That they should avenge the sin, 
Though his son, young Wonolancet, 

Would among the first have been. 

Soon he calmed their wilder passions, 
Telling them that there was one 

From among the Abenaquis 
He had loved to call his son ; 


And that this one, as avenger 
Of the maiden Loved by all, 

Should pursue the wily panther 
And his hand should cause its fall. 

Thus the old magician waited 

While a half a moon went by. 
When, one day, from Newichwanic 

Drew the lover chieftain nigh ; 
Then the aged Passaconway 

Went to meet him all alone. 
Fearing lest the ears of others 

Might suspect his lowest tone. 

As he spoke the young chief's fingers 

Pressed more tightly to his side. 
Where a shining hilted dagger 

In its leathern noose was tied; 
But his eyes were shining brighter 

Than his hilt of English steel, 
And his rage was great within him, 

Such as wounded creatures feel. 

So when he had learned the markings 

That the wily panther bore, 
Deep into the depths of woodland 

All unknown to him before. 
Rushed the brave at paces headlong. 

Where at last he found the foe, 
And in fighting with the monster 

Fell beneath its fatal blow. 

Vet his hand had dealt a death-blow 

In the creature's tawny side, 
Whence her life blood quick outpouring 

All his face with crimson dyed : 
Here they lay locked fast together. 

Where no Indian ever came 
To behold the signs of struggle, 

Or to call the hero's name. 

Then tlie lonely Passaconway, 

When he knew that both were dead, 
Set beside his wigwam doorway 

A wild rose-bush, it was said; 



This he tended through the springtime 

Till the season in its wake 
Caused two beautiful white roses 

From two tiny buds to break. 

And when these at last had faded 

And were falling to decay, 
He, preserving every petal, 

Laid it secretly away ; 
But 'twas said, these were the spirits 

Of the lovers, man and wife, 
Who had blossomed in the rose-bush 

To a sweeter, purer life. 


By A/i/o Benedict. 

On my list of places in New England 
to be explored. Ml Mansfield has long 
stood at the very top. Only a few days 
ago (the last of September, '94,) I had 
the extreme satisfaction of treading on 
the very foot of the grand old mountain, 
but for reasons which I shall presently 
explain, I was prevented from making 
any further exploration in the direction 
of the summit; and later when I hid 
retired far back upon the plain the old 
" Man," without smiling, remarked with 
mild rebuke: " The multitude is satis- 
fied with distant recognition of me ; 
fond admirers draw near for a season; 
but the true lover does not falter till 
on my very chin he plants his foot ! " 

I had indeed made an attempt to 
plant both my feet on Mansfield's chin ; 
but on the occasion of my visit to the 
mountain, such an act would have been 
not only futile, it would have resulted 
in the loss of my life. True lover though 
I am, I could n't give up my life for a 
stone heart, however simple a thing it 
might be to do so for one of flesh and 

The excursion had long been planned. 
The date was fixed, and I was to decide 
our going by being at a given place at a 
given time. I was in New York state 
near the famous An Sable Chasm, and 
was to be at Burlington, Vt., on a certain 
evening, provided I could see in the 
sky premonitions of a fair day following. 

There were no newspaper opinions 
about the weather I could get hold of, 
and probably f should not have heeded 
them if there had been any: for in any 
case where a knowledge of the weather 
is absolutely a matter of moment no one 
ever goes to the weather bureau, but to 
the weather itself. So I climbed to the 
top of a high fence, from which eleva- 
tion I could see over vast stretches of 
country and into limitless sky. Every- 
thing was beautiful and serene. I only 
questioned whether it were not too beau- 
tiful and serene t'> be desirable. Some- 
how the most beautiful things, like fine 
strains of music, have an almost fatal 
tendency to end suddenly. We had had a 
series of matchless days- -that is. each 
one surpassing its predecessor, and now 



it did not seem as if Mature, by any 

power within her. could produce any- 
thing more perfect than the present 
moment. Perfect days seemed an estab- 
lished precedent, and I could find no 
sign abroad that there was anything 
coming to disturb this rare equilibrium 
of the elements. 

I went to Lake Chain plain and sat on 
an old scow that had been shoved up on 
the sand several feet from the water, and 
waited for the steamboat. There was 
not a ripple on the broad lake, and the 
line where the sky and water met in the 
north could hardly be distinguished. 
Such exquisite tints, such tender, soft 
lights, such vast and beautiful repose ! 
This seemed to be Nature's supreme 
moment, and again I feared she might 
immediately do something desperate, 
perhaps purposely to shake up com- 
placent and unappreciating humanity. 
I saw the steamboat far away like a 
white swan, turning the point. But even 
before she appeared [ heard the low 
thunder of her paddle-wheels when she 
could not have been nearer than twelve 
miles. Rarely does one hear like that ! 
Through the opalescent^ sky two big 
white gulls were sailing with that mar- 
velous case so fascinating to the eye, 
and so characteristic of birds that live 
mostly on the wing. Conspicuous in 
the north was the great Bluff Point 
Hotel casting a long, faint shadow across 
the glassy water, and in the east there 
was Mt. Mansfield, the object of my 
journey, standing like a sentinel, and 
wearing the color of a turquois. 

When I arrived at Burlington my friend 
praised our prospects, and we made ar- 
rangements to leave the house at sunrise. 
We. breakfasted by gas-light. The car- 
riage was ready at the time appointed, 
and having stored under the seat lunch- 
eon, grain, blankets, extra-heavy coats, 

field-glass, and telescope, we drove away 
in an atmosphere so dense that our hat- 
brims dripped water into our faces. Our 
clothes soon became very wet. but the 
water did n't dampen our spirits. '"This 
is really a good sign," I said to my friend. 
" Some of the finest days of the season 
begin in this way. A wet blanket, then 
a blotting paper, and then a poem. 
I think we shall have the poem at din- 
ner on top of the mountain.'' The 
wheels of our carriage left white lines 
behind them, and by that we knew that 
we were the first travellers abroad. 
Many an early housewife thought we 
were driving the milk-wagon, and in the 
air the fumes of many a breakfast 
wafted strong into our nostrils. Here 
was the floating essence, very rich and 
nutritious, of broiled sirloin ; at another 
place the elixir of Old Government Java 
was wasting on the air: then a pan of 
doughnuts tempted our palates, and a 
broiling ham with fried eggs tried to 
mix with the fog. Then there was hash 
made of various materials, and brown- 
bread, and hot rolls, and the smoke of 
toasted biscuits, and the fat ghosts of 
crisp slices of pork — the most delicate 
parts of all these things were Moating 
about us ; indeed we could have gathered 
enough for a full meal as we went alonjr. 
But as every desire for food had been 
abundantly satisfied before starting we 
were constrained to keep our mouths 
shut for fear of over-eating. 

As we drove by the new barracks we 
looked about to see some of the newly 
arrived guards. But it was too early for 
them, and the only one on guard was the 
spider in his beaded web on the wire- 
fence. The mist now began t<; separate 
and move away in white clouds. The 
sun's pale disc appeared. There was 
evidently to be a change in the weather. 
There was a breeze ! A breeze, how- 



ever, we were sorry to admit, from the 
wrong direction. It was cast. It cleared 
up the meadows, gave the sun full play 
upon the gorgeous hills and pumpkin 
fields. It chopped the clouds into flying 
chunks, made the crows fly out of their 
course, brought down showers of leaves, 
besides making our carriage draw at 
times very hard. But that was not the 
worst of it. It created the biggest. 
densest cloud I ever saw. and planted 
it over the back of the very mountain 
we were headed for. " You want to 
keep right along past the school-house 
and turn off to your left right into the 
field there. Do n't mind if ye do n't see 
no road, but keep a goin'. It's good 
five miles to the top." said the man at 
the cheese factory, delivering his speech 
with extraordinary gestures. 

YYe kept accordingly right along. Civ- 
ilization was now at our backs. We 
travelled to the last house close up to 
the mountain, where we intended to leave 
our horse and start on afoot. It was a 
rude building, with the windows boarded 
up. We were much surprised to find 
the place inhabited, there was an air of 
such painful desolation about it. On 
the hill near by there was a sturdy old 
man beating a brush-fire. We shouted 
to him something about the road, and he 
replied, "Yes, you're on the right road: 
but ye better keep off the mountain to- 

" I guess he 's right about it," said my 
friend. The old man came down and 
explained further. 

" No man could go up there to-day. 
sir. You hear that roar, don't ye? 
There 's a terrible hurricane there to-day, 
sir, the worst we've had for years. 
You 'd lose your trail sure to-day, sir, in 
that big cloud, and ye could n't get any- 
wheres near the top, sir. Ye d be blown 
off like a feather. Ye could n't crawl 

on your hands and knees before that 
hurricane. That 's a fact, sir. Why, 
my son went up there with three other 
fellers hist week and there wasn't no 
wind here to speak of, and when they 
got up the\ had to lay down on the rocks 
to keep frum bein' blown over the preci- 
pice. My son never got back till mid- 
night, and the other fellers did n't get 
back till morning, sir. And they were 
pretty well used up, I can tell ye. One 
of 'em did n't have hardly a rag o' 
clothes on him. sir. hardly a rag! And 
he was all bruised up and bleed in'. 
They knew there was some wind, but 
they did n't expect nothin' like what they 
found. If it blew so then, what d' ye 
think it would be to-day?" 

We did not need to be told that there 
was a gale on the mountain. That form- 
idable cloud, the edge of which was 
descending rapidly towards us and mys- 
teriously disappearing at a certain point, 
was as forcibly expressive as the old 
gentleman himself about the condition 
of the weather. We had no intention 
of going into the cloud, but we had 
indulged in a hope that it might blow- 
off and leave the summit bare before 
noon ; then we could make the ascent. 

"No, sir. You won't see the summit 
to-day, sir. I never saw a cloud like that 
blow off in one day with the wind as it 
is now, sir, and I 've lived here thirty 

All we could see of the mountain 
under the white cloud was as dark as 
night. The trees and rocks wore a 
ghastly, livid look, as if smitten with 

"Shall we go a little way up?" asked 
my friend. 

" If you wish. But as For myself, I 
am perfectly satisfied t<> look or at this 
safe distance. I think it would be 
decidedly hazardous to set foot in that 


direction. The old man's thirty years' arrived home several hours earlier than 

experience ought to make his predictions we were expected. 

pretty reliable. He says the cloud is The next morning we were not sur- 

there for all day and possibly longer, prised to find in the newspaper an 

and may we not as vvellgive it up? It \s account of a terrific storm working great 

a grand sight, what we .see, and I think damage all along the coast, and extend- 

we are well paid for our efforts." ing over large portions of New England 

We took a long look, and then turned and the Middle states. The old man 

around. We dined in Jericho, and was right. It was a hurricane. 



By Walter M. Rogers. 

[A poem read at the golden wedding of John P. Rogers, > m of John and Nancy Rogers, of Plymouth, -N. II 

formerly a citizen of Plymouth, but now residing in Boston, Mass.] 

My brother dear, whose mortal span 

Outruns the allotted age of man, 

We gather at your board to-night 

While Time's gray mile-stones mark its flight. 

. Through vistas of the vanished years, 
, Sunshine and shadow, hopes and fears, 

Alternate in the passing show 
Of half a century's onward flow. 

We greet vou here with loving hearts 
And loyalty which time imparts ; 
While memory's reproducing power 
Recalls again your nuptial hour. 

Fifty years ! how long it seems ! 
Shadowy as the land of dreams. 
The scythe of Time has cropped the flowers 
Whose fragrance filled those earlier hours. 

Yet memory treasures to the last 
"The raked up ashes of the past," 
As round the broken vase and vine 
The lingering rose scents still entwine. 

The plow-share passes not in vain 
Through soil which later yields its grain. 
Nor vainly human hearts must share 
The furrowing plow of earthly care. 

In closer bonds our hearts are tied, 
As Time's swift currents onward glide ; 
Our souls in deeper love shall blend, 
Till life's last mile-stone marks its end. 



By Jonas Lie. 
[Translated from the Norwegian by Hon. S AMU EL C. EASTMAN.] 


The captain's house, freshly painted 
red, stood there on the hillside through 
the summer, and looked out over the 
country ; it had become like a beautiful 

But Great-Ola did not see how it was. 
Since the painting the captain was not 
like himself in some way or other. It 
did not have the right good luck with it. 
He came out there one time after an- 
other, and forgot what he came after, 
so that he must turn back again. Xot 
a bad word to be heard from his mouth 
any longer, far from that, he did not 
box one's ears. 

The captain did not feel safe from 
dizziness this year. He went about 
continually making stops, and the one 
who must always go with him on his 
different trips over the grounds, stop 
when he stopped and go when he went, 
was Inger-Johanna. It was as if he 
seemed to find strength for himself in 
her erect carriage, and besides wanted 
to make sure that she was not going 
about grieving. 

" Do you believe that she will ride or 
drive?" he asked ma out in the dining- 
room. " She stands there, planting 
here and there and taking up and put- 
ting clown in the garden ; she is nut 
accustomed to that now, Ma, you sec. 
I think, she is going there so seriously. 
But can you imagine what will become 
of her ? Huh,'' he sighed. 

" Nay, can you imagine it ? " He took 
a ladle of whey out of the tub — "drink 
good whey, that thins the blood and pro- 
longs life, Rist says.— so that she can 
be captain's daughter the longer here at 
Gilje — I have thought of it. Ma. I am 
not going down to the sheriff's birthday 
on Thursday. Thinka is soon coming 
up, and — 

"Oh, it is good to drink when one is 

On that same above named Thursday, 
the captain went about more than com- 
monly silent and taciturn. Xot a syl- 
lable at the dinner table from the time 
he sat down, till he rose again and peev- 
ishly, heavily trudged up the stairs in 
order to take his after-dinner nap as it 
now should be, sitting and only for a 

He did not know whether he had 
closed his eyes or not: it did n't matter 

He rushed out of the ornce door — 

Suppose, they are now talking among 
themselves, Scharfenberg and the others. 
Just as amusing as to run the gauntlet 
through the whole country to travel 
down there. 

He stood absorbed before the great 
clothes-press out in the hi!!, when [nga- 
Johanna came up there. 

"Will you see something?" said he 

i: Vour long boots when you were 




■ .-• 




She did not like to go into the house- 
keeping, but developed a great activity 

in outside affairs. For the present the 
garden must be enlarged, the beds must 
be measured and spaded and the hedge 
planted, for Thinka 's coming upon 
a visit. 

With a straw hat on she was in the 
garden from early morning. It was such 
peace in being able to work in the fresh 
air, and in escaping from sitting over the 
sewing, and thinking. 

The captain went about shrink- 
ing from the drill. 

Ma had several times decided to send 
for Rist ; but now she and Inger-Johanna 
in consultation determined to make a 
serious thing of it. 

Such a calming down always followed. 
when he came. 

Of course he should go to the drill- 
ground, — a little lively marching in rank 
and file took or! the fat so effectually 
and put the blood swimming round in 
order as it should go. " Still you have 
never yet talked about your head swim- 
ming when you were in camp. Jaeger. 
It is just the right treatment, if you want 
to be allowed a gloss of punch again on 
this side of Christmas." 

While Gulcke was on the circuits, 
Thinka came up on a visit. 

The sisters were at home again to- 
gether, talking as in old time : but neither 
of them wondered any longer what there 
might be in the outside world. 

They knew that so well, both of them. 

He felt so comfortable, the captain 
said, when he saw Thinka sitting there 
with her knitting-work and a novel, either 
out on the stairs or in the sitting-room. 

" She is herself satisfied with her lot 
now, isn't she?" lie said to Ma. 

He came back to it so often ; it was 
as if he had a secret disquietude on tiiat 
point. By getting an insight into the 

matter through Inger-Johanna he had to 

a degree got his eyes opened, at least t<> 

the extent of a suspicion, to the possi- 
bility that a woman could nevertheless 
be unhappy in a good match. 

Then on the other hand his constant 
consolation was that such as Inger- 
Johanna must be exceptional examples of 
humanity — with her commanding nature 
and intolerance of living under any one's 

But the ordinary run of girls were not 
endowed with such lofty feelings and 
thoughts — and Thinka was as it were 
made for taking care of and looking 
after some one. 

All the same the question still lay and 
writhed like a worm in his stomach. 

" Inger-Johanna '. " said Thinka 

out on the stairs, "notice father, how 
unnerved he looks now, he is walking 
down there by the garden fence — and is 
all the time forgetting his pipe ; it is not 
half smoked up before it goes out." 

" So you think he is so changed," said 
Inger-Johanna musing and resuming 
conversation, up in their room in the 
evening. ' : Poor father ; it is so abso- 
lutely impossible for him to get over it ; 
I was destined to be a parade horse. 
But do you believe he would now demand 
it again of any of us ? " 

" You are strong, Inger-Johanna, and 
I suppose you are right. But he has 
become so good," Thinka said, sighing; 
"and it is that what makes me uneasy." 

As the time drew nearer he went 
about, dreading more and more to go 
to the camp, so that Ma finally began to 
believe that perhaps it was not advisable 
for him to go, since he had himself so 
little courage or desire for it. During 
the day he used to go about quite alone, 
so that he might come to shun people 
all altogether 

And the first real gleam of light she 



had seen for a long time on his counte- 
nance was when she notwithstanding 
proposed him to write to the army- 
surgeon for a certificate of sickness. 

It went on smoothly enough after it 
was first set in motion. And vet he 
seemed to repent it, so to speak, when 
his leave of absence actually lay upon 
his desk. 

He went about annoyed and thought 
about them all down there. Now Captain 
Vonderthan would naturally dishonor 
him before the people on the parade 
drill-ground; and this one and that one 
were speculating, he supposed, even now. 
whether he would not possibly go upon 
half pay. But he should be sure to disap- 
point them by lasting as long as possible 
if he should drink whey the year round. 

The time, which was so absorbing and 
disturbing to his mind, when the drill 
was taking place, was over at last, and lie 
had already by Ma's remonstrances by 
degrees reconciled himself to a possible 
trip to the principal parish, when a scrap 
of a letter from Joergen was brought in 
the mail, which put them all in great 

He could not endure any longer to sit 
there as the poorest in his class, and had 
shipped on board a vessel, which was 
going to sail that evening for England. 
From there he hoped to find some means 
of getting over to America, where lie 
would try to become a blacksmith or a 
wheelwright or something else. He 
should not fail to write home to his dear 
parents what his fate was. 

"There, Ma," said the captain with 
deep trembling voice, when at last he 
had got a little over his stupefaction, 
"that Grip has been expensive for us. 
It is nothing but his teaching." 

The autumn v. as already far advanced. 
The snow had come and gone twice, and 

had now been swept off by the wind from 
the slippery, hard frozen road. 

The slopes and mountains were white, 
with red and yellow tones of the frost- 
touched leaves of the foliage still in 
many places, and the lake down below 
was shining coldly blue, ready to freeze 

There was a humming over the coun- 
try road on the black frost, so that there 
was an echo in the quiet October day : 
one crow was standing and another start- 
ed up from the hedge post at the sound. 

It was the wheels of a cariole, and in 
it was sitting, with a long whip hanging 
down behind his back, in cloak and 
large overshoes, the Captain of Gilje. 

He had been ten miles down and had 
his yearly settlement with Bardun 

It is true the bailiff had not been wil- 
ling to let him go out of the house, 
without compelling him to taste a little 
brandy in a small tumbler, with a little 
ale in addition, and a little something to 
eat. But he had been prudent. It was 
almost the only trip he had made away 
from home for a long time, except his 
visit to the sheriff. 

Old Svarten ran over the long flat 
stretches in the heavy, strong trot to 
which he was accustomed; the road 
showed that he was sharp shod with full 
caulks. He knew that he was not to 
stop till he had done the three miles to 
the foot of the steep ascent up the Gilje 

It was probably because he was newly 
shod and the lumps of mud ^o large and 
frozen hard ; but now he stumbled. 

It was the first time 1 it had happened. 
Perhaps he fell it himself, for lie kepton 
at a brisker trot — but then slackened up 
by degrees. He felt that the reins were 
loose and slacker; their folds fell lunger 
and longer down over his shoulders. 


The whip-lash hung down as before remained standing in the middle of the 

over the captain's back, only still more road. 
slantingly. The whip-lash hung down as before. 

He had begun to feel such cold shiv- The captain sat there immovable with 

erings, just as if he had suddenly got his head a little tipped back 

cold all over — and now he had become They were still on the level, and Svar- 

so sleepy — had such a longing for a ten stood patiently looking toward the 

nap. Gilje hill, which lay a bit further on, un- 

He saw the reins, the ears and hang- til he turned his head round again two or 

ing mane over the neck of Svarten nod- three times and looked into the cariole. 
ding up and down before him. and the Now he began to paw on the ground 

ground beneath him tlying away with one forefoot, harder and harder — so 

It was just as if a crow Hew up and that the lumps flew about, 
made it dark right over his face ; but he Then he neighed. 

could not get his arm up to catch it —so A good hour later in the twilight there- 
let it be. was a conversation in an undertone out 

And there stood the grain-poles, like in the yard, and the sound of a cariole 

crooked old witches, crouched clown — wheel which moved slowly, 
they wanted to avenge themselves — with Great-Ola was called down to the gate 

straw forelocks they resisted him more by the man down yonder at the S 

and more like goblins and would forbid gaard : he met the cariole with the cap- 

him to get his arms up to take the reins tain down in the road. 
and drive'to Gilje. They were swarm- "What is it?" Ma's voice was heard 

ing between heaven and earth, as it to say through the darkness from the 

were, swimming, dancing — were bright porch. 

and dark. Then there was something 

like a shout or a crash from somewhere. At the entrance of the church-yard, a 

There was Inger-Johanna come week later, the old black horse and the 

Svarten had got the reins quite down young black horse stood before an 

over his fore legs : a little more and he empty sleigh, 
would be stepping on them. A salute before and after the lowering 

From the gentle trot, into which he into the ground informed the country 

had at last fallen, he began to walk. that here lay Captain Peter Wennechen 

Then he turned his head round — and Jaeger. 


About twenty years had passed, and But in the little warm room behind 

the traffic down in the country store the shop there was jollity. He had 

and inn showed an entirely different come up again, he, the delightful 

style both in building and goods. There Grip ; and now he was sitting there with 

had also begun to be a route for trav- the shopkeeper, tie- bailiff's mm and 

ellers and tourists in the summer up execution server, 

through the valley. Only let him get a little somethinj 

The snow drifted, so that it lay high drink, 

up on the steps this Sunday afternoon. '* Vour health, you old execution 



horse!'' came in Grip's voice — " when 

I think of all those whom you have 
taken the skin off of without ever get- 
ting any part in the roast, I can get up 
a kind of sympathy. for you; we are 
both of us cheated souls.'" 

"Although 1 have not acquired the 
learning and sciences," — began the 
grey-headed man who had been spoken 
to, somewhat irritated — "but I insist 
on "-- 

"Everything lawful, yes — oh — oh — 
never mind that, Reierstad, — consider 
that science is the sea of infinity, and a 
few drops more or less do not count 
either for or against. Just peep out a 
little into the starry night and you will 
have a suspicion that the whole of the 
planet, my friend, on which you parade 
in such a very small crevice, is only one 
pea in the soup — soup, I say — it is all 
the same. Isn't that so, Mr. — Mr. 
Simensen ? 

He always appealed to the shop boy, 
who with his small pigs eyes smiled 
very superciliously and was evidently 

— "And in regard to the last informa- 
tion, one ought to have a little some- 
thing to re-inforce the oil in the lamp 
with, Sir." 

It was the execution-server, who had 
stood treat first — a pint and a half 
bottle of spirits. 

The execution-server had a kind of 
ancient deferential respect for Grip. He 
knew that he had belonged to the higher 
sphere, and that he still, whenever he 
liked it, might show himself both in the 
houses of the sheritT and of old Rist, 
places which he never left without im- 
provements in his outfit. 

"I will confide a secret to you, Reier- 
stad. If you are a little of a genius. 
then you must drink- -at least it was 
true in my time. It was a great havoc 

of that kind, you see, on account of 
empty space. Did you not notice some- 
thing of that ?" 

"Hi. hi, hi," neighed Simensen. 

" Yes, you understand what I mean. 
Simensen? — a good glass of punch 
extract in this frost — of yours in the 
shop would taste so good now, would n't 
it ? I am not at present flush of money: 
but, if you will have the goodness to put 
it down." 

Simensen caught hold of the idea of 
course. "All right then." 

"As you grease the wheels, the car- 
riage goes you know very well, my dear 
Simensen — and well there comes the 

" Will you know why we drink ?" 

" Oh, it can't be so very dirhcult to 
fathom that." 

"No, no ; but yet it may perhaps be 
placed in a higher light, what a man 
like you will not fail to appreciate — 
you know there is a great objection to 
new illumination fluids besides — you 
see here !" He seated himself comfort- 
ably — "you live in a thin coat and cold, 
poor conditions, — are ashamed of your- 
self at heart — feel that you are sinking 
as a man day by day. If there is a dis- 
cussion, you don't dare to assert your- 
self ; if you are placed at a table, you 
don't dare to speak. — And then — 
only two drams — two glasses of poor 
brandy for spectacles to see through ! — 
and ein, zwei. drei, marsch ! The whole 
world is another '. — you become your- 
self, feel that you are in that health and 
vigor which you were once intended 
for : your person becomes independent. 
proud, and bold, the words fall from 
your lips, your are bright, pi ; 
admire. The two glasses.- -only two 
glasses — I do not refuse however the 
three, four, five, and six. your health 
make the difference — vou know what 



the difference, is Simenscn ! — between 
his healthy and his sick man. while the 
man, whom the world struck down — 
well yes— 

" But the two glasses carry him always 
farther— farther — inexorably farther, 
you see, — until he ends in the work 
house. That was a big syllogism." 

"Yes, it certainly was," said Simensen 
nodding to the execution-server; — "it 
took halt" a battle with it." 

Grip sat there mumbling. 

The strong drink had plainly got 
more and more hold on him ; he had 
been out in the cold the whole day. 
His boots were wet and in bad condi- 

But he continued to drink ; almost 
alone he had disposed of the punch 

" Come, come, don't sit there so mel- 
ancholy — or there won't be any more to 
get," Simensen warned him. 

" No, no — no, no — more syllogisms 
you mean — something Rejerstad also 
can understand." 

He nodded his head in quiet, dull 
self communion. 

" Came across an emaciated, pale 
child, who was crying so utterly help- 
lessly down here. There is much 
which screams helplessly — you know 
Reierstad \ — if one has first got an ear 
for the music, and has not a river of 
tears — there, you drink, drink. Give 
me the bottle." 

11 It were best to get him to bed over 
in the servants' rocm, now," suggested 

"Perhaps the pig is drunk," muttered 

Monday morning he was off again, 
before the daylight, without having 
tasted anything ; he was shy so early, 
before he had got his first dram to 
stiffen him up. 

Grip had his own tactics. He was 
known over very nearly the whole of 
the country south of the Dovrefjeld. 

As lie had had fits of drinking and g< ing 
on a spree so he had had corresponding 
periods, when he had lived soberly in 
the capital, studying and giving instruc- 
tion. Again and again he awoke the 
most well-grounded hopes in his few 
old comrades and friends who remained 
there. A man with such a talent at 
teaching and such a remarkable 2'ift for 
grasping the roots of words and the 
laws of language, not only in Greek and 
Latin, but right up into the Sanscrit, — 
might possibly even yet attain to some- 
thing. Based on his total abstinence 
for three and four months and his own 
strong self control, they would already 
begin to speak of bringing about his 
installation at some school of a higher 
grade, when at once entirely unexpect- 
edly it was again reported that he had 
disappeared from the city. 

Then he would pep up again after 
the lapse of some weeks — entirely des- 
titute, in one of the country districts, 
shaking and thin and worn out from 
drink, from exposure, from lying in out- 
houses and in hay lofts seldom un- 
dressed and in a proper bed. 

Along in the afternoon he appeared 
on the sheriff's farm. « 

Giilcke was the only one of the func- 
tionaries of his time, who still kept his 
office, after Rist had left. Pie was still 
there nursed by a careful wife, who had 
ever surrounded him with a well being 
of pillows, visible and invisible. 

Grip knew what he was doing ; he 
wanted to find the mistress, while the 
sheriff was in his office. 

She was sitting in an easy chair sn 
behind the double windows in th 
ting room witli ber knittii - k and 

the u Wandering Jew" before her, while 



her clever sister Thea, an unmarried 

maiden woman now in the thirties, was 
looking after the dinner out in the 

Thinka took the care of the house 
upon herself after Froeken Gulcke's 
death, and was her old husband's sup- 
port and crutch unweariedly the whole 
twenty-four hours together. 

And these greasy, worn books of fic- 
tion with numbers on their backs from 
the city were the little green spot left 
for her to pass her own life on. 

Like so many other women of those 
times to whom reality had not left any 
other escape than to take any such man 
who could support her, in these novels 
she was reading — in the midst of a very 
hard, wearing everyday life — she passed 
a highly-strained life of fancy. Passions 
were anticipated there which she herself 
might have had. There were loves and 
hates, there were to be seen two noble 
hearts, — in spite of everything, — happily 
united; or picturesque heroes were con- 
soled, who in despair were gazing into 
the billows. 

There — in the clouds — was continued 
the life with the unquenchable thirst of 
the heart and of the spirit, for which 
reality had not given any firm foothold. — 
and there the matronly figure, which had 
become somewhat large, co/ily round 
and plump, and which was once the 
small slender Thinka, transferred her 
still unforgotten Aas from one heroic 
form to another — from Emilie Carlen to 
James, from Walter Scott to 1ml wer, from 
Alexander Dumas to Eugene Sue. 

There in the domestic, bustling sister's 
place lay the sewing, with a ray of sun- 
shine on the chair. 

The dark inlaid sewing-table was 
Thea's inheritance from Ma. And the 
silver thimble, with the shell old and 
worn thin inside and out, broken and 

cracked at the top and on the edges, she 
used and saved, because her mother had 

used it all her time. It stood, left behind 
like a monument to Ma — to all the cour- 
ageous stab-^ she had given and received, 
in her nobly slaving, sacrificial— shall 
we call it life ? 

It was more at a pressure than by 
regularly knocking that the door to the 
sitting-room was opened, and Grip cau- 
tiously entered. 

" You Grip ? No, no, not by the door, 
sit down up there by the window. Then 
my sister will get you a little something 
to eat, — oh, you can manage to taste a 
little bread and butter and salt meat, 
can't you ? 

" Well, so you are up this way. Grip ? " 

" Seeking a chance to teach, may I 
say, Frue." was the evasive reply. - I 
am told you have heard from Joergen 
over in America," he hastily added to get 
away from the delicate subject. 

"Yes, only think: Joergen is a well- 
to-do, rich manager of a machine shop 
over in Savannah. He has now written 
two letters and want> to have his eldest 
sister come over; — but Inger-Johanna is 
not seeking for happiness any more " — 
she added with a peculiar emphasis. 

There was a silence. 

Grip, with a very trembling hand, 
placed the plate of bread and butter 
which the girl had brought, on the sew- 
ing-table. He had drunk the dram on 
the side of the plate. There were some 
twitches on his lips. 

"It gives me pleasure, exceeding 
great pleasure," he uttered in a voice 
which he controlled with difficulty. 
•'You see, Frue, that Joergen has come 
to something. I count that as one of 
the few r.ire straws which have grown 
up out of my poor life." 

Sleigh-bells sounded out in the road ; 
a sleigh elided into the yard. 


"The judge's," Tliinka said. for. for whom she had got places in the 

Grip comprehended that he would not country round about, while in the COU 

be wanted just now, and arose. of years she had striven to get several 

Thinka hastened out into a side-room younger geniuses from there put into the 

and came in again with a dollar bill— way of getting on down in the cities. 

" Take it, Grip ; —a little assistance till She was impel ions, and gave occasion 

you get some pupils." for people's talk, in her unusually inde- 

His hand hesitated a little before he pendent conduct: but to her face she 

took it. met pure respect. She was still at her 

''One — must — must — " fortieth year delicate and slender, with 

He seized his cap and went out. undiminished even if more quiet lire in 

Down by the gate he stopped a little, her eyes, and hair black as a raven. 
and looked back. She sought for talents in the children 

The window had been thrown open like four-leaved clover on the hills, as 

there. she was said to have expressed it ; and 

"Air out well after Grip, " he muttered when Grip, down at Thinka's. talked of 

bitterly, while he took the direction of Joergen's happy escape from his sur- 

the valley, with his comforter high up roundings being one of the few green 

around his neck and his cap, which down leaves in his life, he then suppressed the 

in the capital had replaced his old, curled most secret thought he cherished, that 

up felt-hat, down over his ears; in the her little school was an offshoot propa- 

cold east wind he protected his hands in gated by his ideas. 

the pockets of his old thin coat, which In the twilight the next after- 

was flapping about his thin form. noon a form stole up to the fence around 

It was not an uncommon route, whither her schoolroom — the longing to catch, if 

he went over the mountains in his widely possible, a glimpse of her drove him 

extended rambles in the summer, or. as nearer and nearer. 

now, in the short, dark mid-winter, when Now he was standing close to the 

he was obliged to confine himself to the window, 
highway. An obscure form now and then moved 

This country district had an attraction before it. 
for him, as it were: he listened and An uncertain gleam was playing about 

watched everywhere he came for even in there from the mouth of the stove, 

the least bit of what he could catch up The candles were not yet lighted, and 

about Inger-Johanna, while he carefully he heard the voice of a boy reciting 

avoided her vicinity. something which he had learned by 

"The young lady of Gilje," as she heart, which he did not know well: it 

was called, lived in a little house up there, sounded like verse — it must be the boys 

which she had bought with one of the four fron the captain's farm. 
thousand dollars, which old Aunt Alette The entry door was open, ami a little 

had given to her by will. later he was standing in it listening 

She kept a school for the children of breathlessly. 
the region only, and read with those of He heard her voice- her voice. 

the captain, the newly-settled doctor, and "Recite it. [ngeborg boys are so 

the bailiff's. stupid in any such thing/' 

And now she had many boys to care It was a poem of t he Norwegian his- 




tory. Ingeborg's 
clearlv : — 



• 4 And it was Queen Gycla, 
The flower of King Harald's spring, 
I wonder if so proud a maiden 
Walks under the wooded mountain side. 

" Of noble birth she was, and haughty; 
She would not share. 
The Hordalund and Rogaland girls 
She sent away from the king. 

" She wanted the whole kingdom 
To the extremest point of land, 
A whole king for a queen, 
For the woman the whole man."'. 

He stood as if rooted to the floor, 
until he heard Inger-Johanna say : 

"I will now light the lamps, and give 
you your lessons for to-morrow.'' 

Immediately he was away before the 

He saw her head in the light of the 
lamp just lighted — that purity in the 
shape of her eyebrows and in the lines 
of her face— that unspeakably beautiful, 
serious countenance, only even more 
characteristically stamped — that old 
erect bearing with the tall, firm neck. 

It was a picture which had stood 
within him all these years — of her who 
should have been his if he had attained 
to what he ought to have attained in 
life — if it had offered him what it 
should have — and if he himself had 
been what he ought to have been. 

He stood there stupefied as if in 
a dizzy intoxication — and then went 
away with long strides, when he heard 
the children coming out into the entry. 

His feet bore him without his know- 
ing it. 

Now he was far down on the Gilje 
hills, and the moonlight began to shine 
over the ridges. He still hurried on ; 
his blood was excited ; he saw, — almost 
talked with her. 

A sleigh came trotting slowly behind 
him with the bells muffled by the frost. 

It was old Rist, who was sitting nod- 
ding in his fur coat, exhausted by what 
he had enjoyed at Gilje. 

" If you are going over the lake, 
Grip, jump on behind." he said by way 
of salutation, after looking at him a 

" I tell you. if you could only leave 
off drinking,'' he began to admonish — 

Before the lamp thus— it ran in Grip's 
thoughts — she passed the shade slowly 
down over the chimney, and a gleam 
glided over her delicate mouth and chin — 
the dark, closely-fitting dress-— and the 
forehead, whale she bowed her magnifi- 
cent head— she looked up — straight 
towards the window — 

"And if you will only try to resist it 
at the same time the fit comes on — which 
is the same as the very Satan himself." 

Grip was not inclined to hear any 
more, and it was cold to hang on over 
the lake. 

He jumped off and let old Rist con- 
tinue his talk, in the idea that he was 
standing behind him. 

It was a cold biting wind out on the 
ice — 

For a while he saw his own shadow, 
with his hands in his coat pockets mov- 
ing away, while the moon sailed through 
the clouds — the lamp shone so warmly 
on her face — 

Three days afterwards, towards even- 
ing, Inger-Johanna stood at the window 
looking out. Her breast heaved with 
strong emotion. 

Grip had died of iur.g-fever down at 
the Loevvi^aard. 

She had been down and taken care of 
him till now she had come home - talked 
with him, heard him live in his powerful 




fancies, and received his last Intelligent white as in the snow-fields of the lofty 

look before ii was quenched — mountain - 

The moon was so cold and clear in the "The power of the Spirit is great," 

heavens. The whole landscape with the she said, sighing in sorrowful, yet trem- 

mountains and all the great pare forms bling meditation — "he gave me some- 
shone magically white in the forest- thing to live for." 

THE ) \I>. 



By Ensign Lloyd //. Chandler, U. S. X. 

Every one knows that the two Amer- 
ican continents are connected by a neck 
of land which is known at its narrowest 
part as the isthmus of Panama, but few 
realize the true trend of this land with 
regard to the points of the compass. In 
considering the various railroad and 
canal operat'ons which have made this 
part of the world famous, it is necessary 

Bello, a spot a short distance to the north- 
ward and eastward of the present site of 
Colon. From this town Vasco Xunez 
de Balboa crossed the isthmus and dis- 
covered the Pacific ocean on September 
26, 15 13. In 1514-15 one Guzman vis- 
ited a little Indian village on the south 
coast called by its inhabitants " Pan- 
ama/' meaning '-much fish," fruin the 

to always bear in mind the fact that the abundance of fish in the beautiful bay 
isthmus here runs in a northeasterly upon which it was situated. Guzman 
and southwesterly direction and that returned to Porto Bello with such glow- 
Panama lies a little over forty miles ing accounts of what he had seen that 
southeast of Colon 
or Aspinvvall, the 
length of the Pan- 
ama railroad which 
connects the two be- 
ing forty-seven and 
a half miles. The 
isthmus is thirty : 
miles across at its 
narrowest and one I 
hundred and twenty j 
at its widest parts. 
The first perma- 
nent settlement on 
the i s t h m u s was 
made in 15 10 by a 
Spaniard named 
Nicucsa at Porto 


Vie* or :tl Pjri-r.j t. 





3 88 


in 15 18 the governor of the province, 
Pedrarias Davila, transferred his seat 
of government to Panama. The new 
settlement flourished, and in 1521 it was 
granted a city charter by Charles V. of 

The trans-isthmian route was at first 
from Porto Bello to Panama by land, 
but it was scon found that over half the 
distance could be covered by water in 
canoes by following up the Rio Chagres, 
the mouth of which lies about ten miles 

about among the massive walls, resting 
occasionally upon some uld cannon bail 
or rusting manacles, tokens of the cruel- 
ty of the once all conquering Spaniard. 
This far distant province of the king 
of Spain did not escape the ravages of 
the English seamen who roamed the 
Spanish main in search of booty, for 
Porto Bello was sacked by Sir Francis 
Drake in 15S6 and again by the famous 
freebooter Morgan in 1665. In 1670 
this same Morgan performed one of the 

•- •■- ■ 

. %& 

\ A 



i;»K \ 

< L 


. r---v-*- 

L -T- ; 

I ''■ 



Panama Railroad Quarters, Colon. 

to the westward of Colon, and it was by 
this route that the stream of early set- 
tlers passed on their way to the gold 
fields of California. The town of Cha- 

most daring feats known to history. 
After reducing Porto Bello for a second 
time he stormed and carried the Castle 
of San Lorenzo, and then with a small 

gres sprang up at the mouth of the river body of his piratical crew he fought his 

and stands to-day, a miserable collection way across to the Pacific and captured. 

of tumble-down huts. A fort mount- looted, and burned Panama in the fare 

ing ten guns was built by the Spaniards of a vastly superior force of Spani 

to command the mouth of the river, San and Indians. 

Lorenzo castle, the ruins of which are That city was promptly rebuilt upon 

now overgrown with vines, trees. Rowers, a spot about six miles southwest of the 

in fact all the wealth of tropical vegeta- old site upon the opposite side of the 

tion. thus Forming a favorite resort for bay, and all that now remains of old 

the beautifullv colored birds which hit Panama is thi 

ibline tower of the 



cathedral of St. Anastasius and a few 
heaps of stone. Much of the new town 
was rebuilt from the material of the uld, 
notably the church of La Mercedes, tin- 
stone for which was brought from the 
ruins of the church of the same name in 
the old city. 

There are a number of noted build- 
ings of great age in Panama, among 
them being the church of La Mercedes 
just mentioned, the church of San Felipe 

gazing so intently to the westward from 
the roof of his palace in the old country, 
replied that he was looking for the walls 
of Panama ; that from their cost they 
should be high enough to be plainly 

In 1S50 a number of Xew York mer- 
chants commenced the construction of 
a railroad to Panama from Pinion or 
Navy bay, a point on the north coast 
between Porto Bello and Chagres. A 

': (ill 


1 1 

Colon Harbor. 


built in 1688, and the cathedral of Pan- 
ama built in 1 y6o. 

It was from Panama that Francisco 
Pizarro and his associates sailed on 
their venturous voyages which ended in 
the conquest of the land of the Incas. 

To guard against any re-occurrence 
of Morgan's disastrous visit the new 
city of Panama was surrounded by 
heavy walls and well defended by guns 
mounted thereon, at a cost now esti- 
mated as about eleven million dollars. 
It is related that one of the kings of 
Spain, upon being asked why he was 

settlement sprang up on Manzanilla is- 
land at the northern terminus which 
was named "Aspinwall " after the leader 
of the enterprise. This same town was 
called "Colon " by the French in honor 
of Christopher Columbus, and the lawn 
in front of the De Lesseps house IS now 
adorned by a st ttue of the grrat dis- 
coverer, a present to the town by the 
Empress Eugenie in 1S70. The rail- 
road was completed in [855 at a cost 
of seven million five hundred thousand 
dollars, and has been in active service 
ever since as the only practical means 

{•0 S / \ 











r - ■ 





->*- . 





»■ - ! . 




of freight or passen- 
ger traffic from 

ocean to ocean. 

The isthmus of 
Panama belongs to 

the United States of 
Colombia, which re- 
public has granted 
concessions to the 
French company for 
the purposes of ca- 
nal construction. 
The products and 
trade of the isthmus 
itself amount to but 
little, its whole im- 
port a n c e arising 
from its central po- 
sition as regards the 
carrying trade and commerce of the 

An interesting account of the pearl 
fisheries which formerly existed in Pan- 
ama bay is to be found in the " Encyclo- 
pedia ; or Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, 
and Miscellaneous Literature. Printed 
by Thomas Dobson, at the Stone House, 


Railroad Of*' ce at Colon. 

The Columbus S*atoe and De Less'rDs Ho'jsc Cd! 

No. 41, South Second Street, Philadel- 
phia. MDCCXCVIII." In speaking of 

the country around Panama, Thomas 

Dobson says : 

u . . . It is in general barren 

and unholfome, and contributes nothing 

to trade but pearls. 

"The pearl fifhery is carried on in 
the iflands of the 
gulph. The great- 
eft part of the in- 
habitants employ 
fuch of their ne- 
groes in it as are- 
good fwimmers. 
Thefe Haves 
plunge and re- 
plunge i:i the fea 

in f e a r c h of 
pearls, till this 
exercife has ex- 

h a u f t e d t h e i 1 
ftrengxh 01 their 

" Every n< gro is 

..• el to d< liver 

a certain number 





i i 


h tflP 





I 'v 


---, ■ " 


; \ 

":>.. , . . . . . '. 

Cathedra! at Paranra. 

of oyfters. Thofe in which there are 
do pearls, or in which the pearl is not 
entirely formed, are not reckoned. What 
he is able to rind beyond the ftipulated 
obligation, is confidered as his indif- 
putable property : he may fell it to 
whom he pleafes ; but commonly he 


; . I* 



11 fl 

Ga-' e!J Hojst, Panar a Rt Irjad, Colon. 

cedes it to his mafter at a moderate- 

•• Sea monfters, which abound more 
about the iflands where pearls are found 
than on the neighboring coafts. render 
this fifhing dangerous. Some of thefe 
devour the clivers in an inftant. The 
manta fifh, which derives its 
name from its figure, fur- 
rounds them, rolls them un- 
der its body, and fuffocates 
them. In order to defend 
< / i themfelves against fuch ene- 
mies, every diver is armed 
with a poinard : the moment 
he p- rceives any of thefe 
voracious fifh, he attai ks 
them with precaution, w< 
their., and drives them awaj . 
Nbtwithftanding this, there 
are always fume fifhermen 
deftroyed, and a great num- 







ber crippled. The pearls of Pan 
ama are common!}- of a very fine 
water. Some of them are even 
remarkable for their fize and fig- 
ure ; thefe were formerly* fold in j 
Europe. Since art has imitated 
them, and the paffion for dia- \ 
monds has entirely fuperfeded or \ 
prodigoufly diminifhed the ufe of 
them, they have found a new 
mart more advantageous than the 
firft. They are carried to Peru, 
where they are in great eft infla- 

"This branch of trade, how- 
ever, infinitely lefs contributed 

to give reputation to Panama, than the coaft of the ifthmus which feparates the 
advantage which it hath long enjoyed two feas." 

of being the mart of all the productions The " pearl fifheries " were fished 
of the country of the Incas that are out, however, in spite of legal efforts 
deftined for the old world. Thefe to preserve them, but Panama still con- 
riches, which are brought hither by a tinues in possession of the " advantage 
fmall fleet, were carried, fume on mules, which it hath long enjoyed of being 
others by the river Chagres, to 1'orto the mart of all the productions of the 
Bello, that is fituated on the northern countrv of the Incas that are deftined 

Office of the Panama Company. 


I ■ , ".- 


CjO Hosp td ro 

Colon Section. 


iff JO&i o 7 " ; -'^ 

C..STK,, S E C TI0 ,, SHCV.KO QuaoA D , M . .„„ ^^ ^ ^^ 





Pah am \ Secti 


- Dredged Flood Water Channel. 

- Rout.- ,,( Canal. 
Panama Railroad. 



for the old world," as well as of the divide between the Atlantic and Pacific 

enormous trade of many countries that watersheds. Down the southern si 

is annually handled by the Panama the Rio Grande flowed to the Pa< 

railroad. while the Chagres and its tributary, the 

The project of an inter-oceanic canal Rio Obispo, drained the northern slope. 

at Panama was first considered in 1520 The canal was to be cut from Colon up 

when two Flemish engineers made a the valley of the Chagres to the mouth 

survey of the isthmus by order of of the Obispo, thence up that river and 

Philip 11. The matter was dropped, across the divide to the Rio Grande, 

however, for political reasons. following the course of the last named 



Tr.e P:a:a, Panama. 

In 1826, Domingo Lopez, a native of 
Colombia, proposed a canal route from 
Porto Pello to Panama, but the first 
efficient survey was begun in 1S27 by 
two engineers, Lloyd and Falmark, by 
direction of General Bolivar. This 
survey was completed in 1829, and 
the report was favorable to a railroad 
if not to a canal. 

Many routes have been surveyed but 
the one finally adopted by De Lesseps 
and the French is shown in the accom- 
panying plates and may be briefly 
described as follows : 

The highest point of the proposed 
route was at Culebra, and Emperador, 
those points being at the summit of the 

to the sea near Panama. The canal 
was to cross and recross the streams 
whose beds it followed, many times in 
its whole length, and many of their 
curves were to be straightened by cuts. 
The tropical rains and the configuration 
of the surrounding country are such, 
however, that the upper Chagres at 
Gamboa, its junction with the Obispo, 
has been known to rise as much as 
sixty feet in a night. The valley of a 
river of such peculiar characteristics 
of course could not be invaded by a 
canal without some special pro\ i 
for the proper handling of the flood 

The original scheme was for a canal 



whose general level should be that of the hills surrounding the upper < 

the Carribbean sea at Colon, there valley, the waste water from v 

being practically no rise and fall of the to be turned, b) 

tide at that place, while the tidal van- a cut, into the channel running to the 

ation of twelve fee.t in the Pacific was Atlantic on the eastward Side 

to be handled by a tide-water lock at cana! embankments. WhiU 

Corozal, near Panama. The great of the Chagres in feet are . ■ 
ditch was to be protected on each side 
by very heavy embankments, on the 
outside of each of which a water-wav 



was to be constructed by dredging 
where necessary, 
which were to 
carry off the wa- 
ter of the rivers. 
Thus the Chag- 
res was to be 
split into two 
parts, one Mow- 
ing to the sea on 
each side of the 
canal, its eastern 
tributaries flow- 
ing into one 
stream, and its 
western ones in- 
to the other. 
These embank- 
ments and artifi- 
cial water cours- 
es were to be con- 
tinued through 
the valleys of 
the Obispo and 
the Rio Grande 







"jap: a: C^j Para a 

and very sudden in tile rai;;\ 

still the territory drained by th it stream 

is not large, and the . 

water brought down is not so gi 

might be 
in--.!, u 
at Garni 
enough to 
trol it seen, 
tirely feasible. 

An unexpected 
difficulty i. 
yet to be 
come, and that 
is a sliding bank 

the southern end 
of the 

cut. A i this 
point then 
pears I • be an 

inclined ! 
hard clay - 

distant • 

rnrfa I 

tlu- e urth, and as 

in a similar manner, this is always ima'st and tl 

The greatest engineering feat of this lubricated, the soft marl above it 

plan was to be the construction of a down the hillside into any cut that may 

dam forty metres high, four hundred be made there, 
metres in thickness, and over a mile The embankments of the I' 

long, across the valley of the upper road and »>f th- 

Chagres at Gamboa, just above the point would be considei 

turning point of the canal into the canal and would und 

Obispo valley. This was to stop the it, and it would then 

flow of water which would otherwise to carry the rivei and railroad aro 

fall directly upon the eastern embank- one of the adjoinil g I 

ment, and was to form a lake between get them away from th' 




Beyond the two just described there 
seem to be no great difficulties in the 

way of the completion of the canal, for 
the heaviest cut of 370 feet in depth at 
Culebra and the lesser one of 190 feet 
at Emperador are thrcugh soft earth 
and simply demand time and labor. 
Such being the case the first question 
naturally asked is as to why the canal 
has not been a success, and the answer 
may be divided into several parts. 

1. Bad man- 
age me 

plans shows at \ -. 
once that the \\-?,. j 
construction of 
the G a m boa 
dam and pro- 
tecting embank- 
ments for the 
handling of the 
flood water, is 
the most impor- 
tant of all tasks. 
and yet but lit- 
tle progress lias 
been made in 
that direction. 
As a result, ev- 
ery flood has 
done its part 

towards restoring any excavations to 
their natural condition. In some places 
where excavations have been made, the 
earth has been carelessly dumped in 
such a way as to render moving it again 
a necessity. 

2. Reckless extravagance and abso- 
lute dishonesty. Money has been spent 
like water. The canal route is one vast 
store-house of tools, from expensive 
dredgers and locomotives down to the 
smallest articles, apparently far in 

struction. These enormous purer] 
were probably made for the sake of the 
commissions received by the laying 
agents. The observer's impression is 
that only enough work was done <m the 
canal to afford a pretext for the employ- 
ment of vast sums of money, large 
tions of which could be diverted to pri- 
vate use with ease. As an example of 
this extravagance it is stated that the 
comparatively insignificant hospitals at 
Ban am a, cost 
over a million 

5. The gen- 
eral instability 
of the French 
character, which 
seems to have 
put its stamp 
upon the whole 
work and ren- 
dered it tririing 
and of but lit- 


3 to Tov 

der ordinary cir- 

which was great- 
ly increased by 

3t O. 

the enormous 
amount of decaying vegetable matter 
turned up by the dredgers in the swamps. 
Small-pox, yellow-fever, Chagres fever. 
and other deadly diseases caused a 
frightful death rate. A foreign physi- 
cian resident in Panama says : - -" I 
you have the wet season, lasl 
about the 15th « i April to the 1 5 : n of 
December, when people die of yellow- 
fever in four 01 five days. Next you 
have the drv. or healthy season, when 
people die of pernicious fever in from 

excess of any possible needs of con- twenty-four to thirty-six hours.' 

; 9 S 



. . 


The mortality among the workmen 
can be better imagined than described. 
The official cemeteries at Monkey Hill 
and elsewhere contain but a small per- 
centage of those poor victims who came 
to the isthmus never to leave it. 

The depth of the Culebra cut has led 
to the advancement of a plan which 
calls for the use of locks at Bohio Sol- 
dado, and at Taraiso by means of which 
an inland lake would be maintained at 
a level of about thirty-five or forty 
metres above the Atlantic. This was 
intended to include the upper Chagres 
valley, and thus do away with the 
Gamboa dam and tunnel, and the waste 

water was to be run out thruugh the 
locks, or allowed to escape over the 
lock gates. This would of course pre- 
vent the u>e of the canal during the few 
days in each year that the Chagres is in 
flood. The Paraiso lucks would in this 
case replace the one at Corozal. 

What the present proposition is, or 
what will finally come of all tl 
schemes, it is hard to say, for the 
changeable French nature is still allow- 
ing itself full swing in the matter. It is 
to be hoped, however, that in the near 
future we shall see waterways opened 
from both Colon and Greytown to the 
"great and peaceful sea." 


By /Catherine Dale. 

You ask me, Katherine, dear, why I you wish, dearie, I v. ill tell you the sad 

always play or sing something from " II story of my life. 

Trovatore" every night before I goto bed. I am a gray-haired woman now, and 

It is my prayer, my religion, just as Gotts- only long to be released from I 

chalk played " The Last Hope," and if and disappointments of this life, and 



meet him who has waited for me so long. 
But I used to be as gay and light-hearted 
as you, dearie, without a care in the world, 
and when I see how happy you are with 
your lover, it brings my Own life back to 
me like a dream. 

You know how my life has always been 
bound up in music. I began when quite 
young to study in Boston, and after a few 
years my father took me to Florence, 
where I could be under the direction of 
the great Italian master, Torelli. 

Before I left for Italy I was engaged 
to a wealthy stock-broker, Mr. Cun- 
ningham, who was a great friend of my 
father's. He was much older than I, 
but my father favored his addresses, and 
I did not object as I had never seen any 
man whom I liked better, and was con- 
tent to let it rest that way, if I could only 
have my beloved music. 

Mr. Cunningham did not care partic- 
ularly for music, and I knew intuitively 
that he was always bored whenever he 
went to the opera with my father and 
me, as he did quite often. 

He came down to the steamer to see 
us off, and I remember now how perfectly 
indifferent I was at leaving him for sev- 
eral months, not knowing, of course, 
whether I should ever see him again or 
not. He intended crossing the water a 
few week before we returned and coming 
home with us. 

How jubilant and happy I was all the 
voyage over! I intended to studv hard 

JO - 

with the maestro and become a great 
singer, for I had been told that my voice 
with careful cultivation would be remark- 
able. My former teacher had said it 
was full of promise, and had urged me 
to go abroad and study, and to make 
music my life-work ; which 1 was only 
too glad to do, for 1 gloried in my beau- 
tiful voice, and was never so happy as 
when sinking for some music-lover, let- 

ting my rich tunes ilood the room with 
their melody. 

You sec, dearie, I was very proud of 
my voice, and I have no hesitation in 
telling you everything, for I am past all 
vanity now. God know> I was wretched 
enough afterward ! It all comes back 
to me now like a dream. I remember 
waiting a few minutes for the carriage 
that was to take